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Spring 2017 – Matthew Unangst I attend class at 10:10

How Climate Change Politics have changed over Time

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How Climate Change Politics have changed over Time              by Joel Roeber

In August 2015, Rwandan scientists warned the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that “[world] leaders must act now to prevent climate change impacts which could be “catastrophic” for human health”[1]. In order to enact upon this statement, they proposed a plan that would involve strengthening Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions taken by countries around the world to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This plan aims to kick start action against Climate change by the 2020s[1] to get a head start on minimizing the impact humanity has on Earth’s climate before it is too late for anything to be done. The importance of Climate change as a major issue facing Mankind has spiked up significantly in recent years due to an increase in scientific data supporting its legitimacy and an increase in political and social awareness that has been directed towards it. But the new political platform it has created has undergone massive change in the years following its establishment into political ideology almost four decades ago. At its inception in the early 1980’s, the political viewpoint towards Climate change was that it could’ve been a potential consequence of nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union rather than a consequence of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, whereas the political viewpoint towards it now is that Man has had a large impact on Earth’s Climate, as supported by scientific evidence.

The point in time that Climate change was seen as an underlying possibility occurred around 1983 in the United States[2], a time during which “science and technology were recognized as extremely important to society”[2]. The threat of nuclear war began to boil over as the Reagan administration found itself locked in a nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union. In what was known as the “War scare” of 1983, the Soviets used propaganda to create fear of United States intentions within their own populations[3]. From this, mass hysteria was created surrounding the threat of a nuclear winter, that could result from such an engagement. A little bit after this period is when scientific efforts expended towards researching climate change began to really take off, as organizations such as the National Research Council Staff (NRCS) began publishing their findings that were gathered from their experiments. In NRCS’ case, they stated within their report entitled Effects on the Atmosphere of a Major Nuclear Exchange that nuclear particulate matter possessed the ability to “cause severe drops in surface air temperatures” as well as have “other major climatic effects in areas that are far removed from target zones”[4]. This resulted in a shift towards viewing Climate change not just as the outcome of Nuclear Warfare but also Mankind’s own inefficient waste and pollution management systems came to be in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s. A meeting was

The developing trend of rising annual temperatures worldwide was well Figure 1: TIME Magazine cover, 1983    documented, and much evidence was collected to support the theory that greenhouse gases were the primary contributors to change in climate, which subsequently would have negative impacts on ecosystems all across the world[5]. During the 90’s a meeting was held between diplomats of the United Kingdom, Germany, and the United States to discuss a potential solution to the problem of Global Warming and Climate Change[6]. However, there was also the presence of political opposition that denounced the legitimacy of Climate change as well. Author Erik M. Conway stated in his work Atmospheric Science at NASA that NASA’s Earth Observing system (EOS) had its budget cut from $17 billion to $7 billion during the 90’s due to this opposition[7], and this perspective towards Climate change continued on throughout the decade into the new Milennia. Political cartoon by Herb Block


Political interest in Climate change started back up in the 2000’s, however, it had experienced great turmoil in trying to gain any ground amongst the populations of both industrialized and unindustrialized countries. According to Frederik von Paepcke, one of the primary difficulties that governments have had in trying to establish Climate laws is related to the fact that “most Political Leaders” are elected for “a few years only”, while it would take “decades” to determine whether certain Climate change policies were successful or not[8]. This was also further complicated by economic recessions during the late 2000’s that made budgeting for a sector of United States and European economies to be devoted to Climate research impossible. However, at the same time, countries in Asia such as China were continuing to make rapid industrialization efforts that were kick started in the late 1990’s, but without any regulation on their pollution output or a system of environmental standards being put in place. All of a sudden, a new threat to Climate change was seen by Western countries developing in China, and very quickly negotiations were established in order to Figure 2: Political cartoon, 1983   make sure that China and other Asian countries weren’t worsening the efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions[9].

Interestingly enough though, moving on into the 2010’s, China’s industrial capabilities have rendered it able to produce highly sophisticated solutions to Climate change. Dubbed the “green economy”, China’s government aims to establish an economic system that cooperates with environmentally-friendly technology going into the near future[10]. Should they succeed, Western governments will most likely adapt their economies similarly and follow suit. The measures that China has taken to accommodate their economy to reduce emissions shows that Climate change is not an unsolvable problem. This brightens the outlook for politicians towards the future regarding how Climate change can be dealt with.

Book Cover Image






                                                                                                                                                      Figure 3: Book Cover, 2011

Overall, as evidenced above, it can be understood how the relationship between Politics and Climate change has gotten drastically more serious in a mere span of over 30 years. The change needed and still needs to occur, however, in order for humanity to be able to progress forwards in numerous fields of technology, infrastructure, etc. and ensure that succeeding generations will possess the ability to live on as well. Going into the near future, the relationship shared between Earth’s Climate and various forms of politics will remain always changing and ever-complex, but it is arguably the most important issue facing mankind currently, and for most likely what will be a significant time to come.



[1]  “Experts call for action to prevent climate change impacts.” Proquest Newsstand. August 17, 2015. Accessed May 01, 2017.

[2] Badash, Lawrence. A Nuclear Winter’s Tale. MIT Press, 2009.

[3] Marder, Murray. “Agent: War Scare Gripped KGB: [HOME Edition].” Agent: War Scare Gripped KGB: [HOME Edition], August 08, 1986. Accessed May 3, 2017.

[4] Council Staff, National Research. “Effects on the Atmosphere of a Major Nuclear Exchange.” Proquest Newsstand. January 01, 1985. Accessed May 3, 2017.

[5] Fleming, James Rodger. Historical perspectives on climate change. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

[6] Cass, Loren R. “The Politics of Climate Change, The Origin and Development of Climate Policy in the United Kingdom, Germany, and the United States .” Proquest Newsstand. 2001. Accessed May 3, 2017.

[7] Conway, Erik M. Atmospheric science at NASA: a history. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

[8] Paepcke, Frederik Von. “Statehood in Times of Climate Change.” Proquest Newsstand. November 25, 2014. Accessed May 3, 2017.

[9] Asian Development Bank . “The Economics of Climate Change in Southeast Asia.” Proquest Newsstand. January 04, 2009. Accessed May 1, 2017.

[10] Liu, Manhong Mannie Ness, and David Huang. “The Green Economy and Its Implementation in China.” Proquest Newsstand. December 12, 2011. Accessed May 3, 2017.



Figure 1. TIME magazine cover, 1983,

Figure 2. Ronald Reagan political cartoon, 1983,

Figure 3. Book on China’s new “green” economic system, 2011,


(Final Project)Political Campaigning Within the New Age

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Political Campaigning Within the New Age

The World has been forever changing since the beginning of time, in the world of political campaigns the methods used for campaigns have significantly changed within each century. In the earliest period of political campaigns advertisement agencies were contracted by campaigners for the service. The service allowed for mass presence of candidates, the end result being more support for the candidate. As time went on advertisement evolved from hard copy posters to the implementation of digital devices, the world of advertisement had finally shifted over to the digital age.

Figure 1 is an example of the impact social media can play on political campaigns. Current President Donald Trump voices his opinion on the presidential election.

The era of mass media converted the old practices of posters to the use of advertisement on social media. Twitter was one social media platform that was used during recent campaigns within the United Kingdom. Twitter allowed not only candidates to post their status and promote campaign, but allowed supporters to spread news and voice their thoughts and opinions about the election and those running it. The social media era forming the new form of advertisement. Unlike in past history political campaigns were fought with advertisement and won by the people. During this current day and age, the way campaigns are advertised has changed dramatically, we are in the digital age where information is at the reach of a button. From posters and billboards to mobile devices in the palm of your hand. The U.K. has held elections for decades, running polls displaying advertisement, and so on. Today Social media plays a great role within advertising campaigns. Throughout time Social Media did not exist, and other forms of Campaigning were established. A research study was done in the UK showing that Twitter is one of the social media platforms that are used within political campaigns. Campaigners are looking for new ways to advertise and promote campaign. The article uses statistical evidence from the 2015 U.K. general election. A majority of social media campaign accounts are ran by supporters of the campaign. Empowerment through the interactions of twitter accounts help gain popularity for the campaign, while creating influence for more support per campaigner/ government official. Twitter being a text based social media is able to quote campaigners which replicates the experience of a speech while also empowering the speech. Twitter has to ability to spread information virally because you have the option of retweeting, liking and replying to tweets.  Social media has dramatically affected the engagement of campaigners and supporters. Twitter allows users to add locations which allows campaigners to track where public debates and campaigns are located. Twitter allows the empowerment for the users who are out there supporting. The growth of social media is forcing change to terms of engagement between supporters and campaigners. This study raises the question of how and when campaigning started to evolve in the U.K.

 Figure 2Describes the use of campaign advertisement in the form of a poster.
The key to a successful campaign is the power to persuade the audience because political campaigns are supported by growth. Growth which comes from proper advertisement. Many platforms have revolutionized the way political advertisement is running due to the change in times. (1)The use of(2)Political Campaigning, has been a forgotten topic what goes behind the scenes of political (3)campaigns are political advertisement. For example, two people competing for an election will use different forms of advertisement along with different (4)platforms to advertise off of. Platforms which include hard copy and the implementation of technology. An important example is the use of posters, that pushed for officials running in office. (5)The political campaigns are a game of conquering which is accomplished through proper advertisement. (6)The more advertisement a runner produces the more influence can be created upon a community. 
Figure 3 Displays how candidates battle it out, influencing the people through media. The image is from a U.K election several years ago.


(7)Political advertisement has been used for decades worldwide, the U.K is no exception. The citizens of the U.K are influenced through advertisement. “Advertisement will win seats at the election if it is put into action now” The execution of advertisement makes or breaks a campaign. ” Businesses focused on political advertisement helped the evolution of political campaigning within parties. “The house of Crawford offers a political advertising service which is a model of the best British practice” This point in history greatly influenced future campaigning of political parties within the U.K.

In the beginning of time political era advertisement was the hidden secret to a campaigns success.(2) Always in the background the use of advertisement is what influenced communities spreading word about those running in elections. Advertisement companies always made an impact in the political world, throughout time marketing campaigns would acquire a certain amount of money that would be specifically used for the production of posters and billboards.(3) During this day and age there is more of an emphasis on the marketing through the internet via social media which leads to the use of Twitter. Political advertising forever growing creating more ways for candidates to influence the public in their decisions.
(1)Michael J. Jensen,Social Media and Political Campaigning Changing Terms of Engagement?. 2016

(2)”Politics.” Times [London, England] 21 Oct. 1922: 7. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 6 Feb. 2017.

(3)Lawrence, Jon. Electing Our Masters: The Hustings in British politics from Hogarth to       Blair. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009

(4)Mason, Nicholas. Literary Advertising and the Shaping of British Romanticism.      Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.

(5)SCHMIDT, WILLIAM. British Candidates Still Rely on the Hustings. New York, NY:     The New York Times, 1992.

(6)”Baracking the voters.” The Economist. December 22, 2012. Accessed February 23, 2017. want-   emulate-american-master-baracking-voters.

(7)Smith, CHARLOTTE. Party battle takes to posters. London, England: The Daily     Telegraph , 2000.   

(8)Puttnam, David. Initial shots fired in election battle. Twickenham: Haymarket Publishing,    1992.             HEADLINE(Initial+shots+fired+in+election+battle.)


Figure 1.”After Winning Election, Trump Whines About Protesters On Twitter”

After Winning Election, Trump Whines About Protesters On Twitter

Figure 2. “Campaign Signs”

Figure3.”Stock Photo – A Conservative Party General Election May 2010 poster (criticizing Gordon Brown) on display in west London, UK”


The Effects of Conflict on Gender Roles

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In times of conflict, there are often shifts of attitude amongst the people of a nation. For example, during Apartheid South African women moved from the home in order to support their families because many of the men were forced to work away from home. Similarly, amongst Syrian refugees living in refugee communities women who would never have had a job back home, are now working as janitors, hair dressers, or teachers. Unfortunately, there are still large long standing gaps between the genders. It is still common for girls to be less educated, professionals to be paid less than their male coworkers, and for women to work in less ideal situations. Often, in times of conflict attitudes towards gender and gender equality shift due to a lack of male involvement. This has been true during Apartheid in South Africa and post war England.

The violence of Apartheid families tore apart families, by restricting the ways and places men could work, where people of color were allowed to live and attend schools, and how they were allowed to interact with society. Due to this, there was a temporary shift in gender roles. During Apartheid women were more likely to work outside the home, more likely to seek higher education, and more likely to have fewer children. In a post-Apartheid South Africa these changes almost immediately slowed to a stop. “The gender discrimination in South Africa is deeply rooted in the ethnic traditions of the multi-cultural communities, as well as by the compliance of women themselves (7).” During Apartheid many men led in defying the government, while their wives and daughters remained in their homes because their fathers or brothers believed they should be safe. As a result, many women felt a sense of duty to those men. Due to this sense of duty they were more likely to choose to serve by working in the home. This led to “a lack of a voice in political actions, women also are still untrained and remain excluded from the job market (9).” These limits have resulted in the reinforcement of traditional gender roles, and in more recent years a government based push for gender equality because “oppression towards women is still highly rampant; in fact it seems to be growing, not only in South Africa but in the rest of the world as well (9).”Although South Africa still has a poor gender equality standing it has become a goal to equalize pay between men and women, and find a way to equalize the rate of employment between men and women. “Despite the segregation and oppression that still occurs, the post-Apartheid system in South Africa is dedicated to equality, which is one of the basic principles of the new constitution (9).”

South African women have begun to speak out against the near impossibility of finding equal and safe employment. In a book called Women Speak: Reflections On Our Struggles 1982-1997, the authors discuss the way women “called for a family code on domestic work, wage employment policies that are fair to women’s representation at all levels of the economy and society (8)” Women began to ask for better quality of life and employment. Many South African women had worked as domestic servants through Apartheid, and at the end when they were told inequality would begin to cease they called for new conditions. As a result, the government was forced to consider them and a “committee’s report says domestic workers should be included in the Labor Relations Act and in the Basic Conditions of Employment Act. If this becomes law, domestic workers can take bosses to court for unfair treatment (6).” This law made it safer and more comfortable to work, and limited the power of often white employers in a post-Apartheid nation; thus limiting the continuation of racism. Due to this shift, “between 60% and 70% of the union memberships are women. There has been an increase in women’s employment in this sector (12)” In addition to this increase, women have begun to call for the erasure of the financial gender gap. It has been suggested that if the availability of education is more equal, the gender gap will be reduced due to more competency. In South Africa many women do not choose attend an institution for tertiary education often because they are too old or too young, are unable to pay the fees, they have a commitment to their family that is more important than their education, they are pregnant, married, or not accepted for enrollment. The largest gap is in family commitment, where only 1.1% of men ages 14-18 say they have a family commitment, while 16.5% of women in the same age group have family commitment. The gap is nearly as large amongst 19-24 year olds (7). If traditional gender roles remain prevalent in a nation where nearly 56% of women are homemakers (9), little will change for the rights of women to acquire and keep equal paying jobs.

During World War II, England experienced the first wave of women in the workplace. These women were working to serve their country in the same way their husbands were, while also finding a way to provide for their family. Due to this shift, women began to leave the home to work. Due to this, “the past 40 years there has been rising employment for women and falling employment for women and falling employment for men, but men have consistently higher employment rates 22 and above (1).” As this shift happened, legislation began to pass to protect women in the workplace. In 1970 the equal pay act passed with the goal of erasing the wage gap in the UK. Five years later both the sex discrimination act, a law aimed to prevent discrimination in hiring, and the employment protection act, a law protecting women’s jobs when they became pregnant passed. These laws protected women, and resulted in a rise in female job holders. Right now, “women make up 47% of the work force (1).” Many women still choose to work in their homes, even though “in the mid-1980’s close to half the public agreed a man’s job is to earn money, a woman’s job is to look after the home and family just 13% subscribe to this view now (3).”

In England, “female graduates more likely to work in a slightly skilled occupation group than men (2).” This results in a further growth of the wage gap. “over the last decade, 20% more is how much a male graduate could expect to earn on average, then a female graduate. The gap was wider for non-degree holders at 23% (1).” Although they have the same degree, and based on GCSE test score statistics women are more likely to be successful and comprehensive employees, men are still more likely to be hired and given higher pay. In the UK “28,700 [pounds] was the median gross annual earning for male full-time employees for the tax year ending 5 April, while for women the figure was 23,100 [pounds].” That is a 5,6000 [pound] gap. Women traditionally have more expenses than men due to societal expectations, and pay more for necessary health products due to luxury taxes. In addition, in the UK child care prices have risen while the minimum wage has remained the same (2). This change has resulted in more “men with children [being] more likely to work than those without – opposite for women (2).” Although gender roles have shifted since World War II, the gender wage gap has made it harder for women to work full time.

In conclusion, due to shifting gender roles during conflict women are forced to rise up and take on roles they would not traditionally be a part of. In some instances this shift then goes back to normal, or traditional roles go back to normal due to a sense of duty. This was true in South Africa, but as things change within the nation women are beginning to work again and rise up for other rights. Similarly, due to the wage gap women in the UK are more likely to work in the home and make up less than half of the work force. In addition, when society tells women they are expected to do a certain thing it is often common for them to do the opposite of that. Unfortunately, it is hard for women due to the wage gap and luxury taxes to afford to have children if they are not also supported by a man. As a result, the wage gap creates a harmful societal expectation for women to have a husband.

1. “Women and Work: The Facts.” Gender. N.p., 07 June 2016. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.

2. “Article:Women in the Labour Market: 2013.” Office for National Statistics. N.p., 2013. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.

3. “Gender Oppression In South Africa.” Essai. N.p., 1 Jan. 2007. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.

4. Women, Department, ed. “American Involvement in the South African Economy.” Africa Today 13.1, A Special Report on American Involvement in the South African Economy (1966): 2-40. Gov. Aug. 2017. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.

5. Meer, Shamim. Women Speak Reflections On Our Struggle. Capetown: Kwela,1998. Google Books. Web. 29 Apr. 2017.

6. “Labor Force Participation Rate, Female (% of Female Population Ages 15+) (modeled ILO Estimate).” Labor Force Participation Rate, Female (% of Female Population Ages 15+) (modeled ILO Estimate) | Data. The World Bank, n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2017.

7. Fine-Davis, Margret. “Attitudes to Gender Roles.” Changing Gender Roles and Attitudes to Family Formation in Ireland (2016): 36-60. British Social Attitudes. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.

8. “A Dangerous Place to Be a Poor Black Woman.” Proquest. SyndiGate Media Inc, 11 Sept. 2015. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.

9. “FACTSHEET: South Africa’s 2014/15 Assault and Sexual Crime Statistics.” Africa Check. Institute for Security Studies, n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2017.

[Final Project] Relationship between North Korea and nuclear weapon.

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Relationship between North Korea and nuclear weapon.

             North Korea filed fifth missile on October 16th 2016, but this missile was not succeed. Also the US strategic commander said that missile did not provoked US at all. That type of missile can reach to Guam and Western Pacific. On August, North Korea fired missile into Japanese ocean. That kind of activities are provocation for declaring war. Their missile was not successful despite North Korea celebrate because they announced to citizen that they succeed their missile experiment. The US strategic command said North Korea is being isolate from other countries and rebel to UN. Also, he said those prohibited acts making more attention to resolve their problem. However, North Korea did not respond after missile experiment.

Humans have evolved for a long time. As mankind settled down in one place, the group grew up and developed as a result of the struggle. For more than thousands of years, humans have fought a lot, thereby showing strength, money, and power. In this era, physical warfare is not necessary because it can easily compromise negotiations and intimidation with nuclear weapons. Many countries want to develop nuclear weapons, but they are stepping aside for world peace, except one country. North Korea was not interested about nuclear weapons before 1950s; however, North Korea began to want to build a nuclear weapon after experienced of wars, especially Korean War, and listened to many of the world’s information from a friendly relationship with China and the Soviet Union. North Korea is making nuclear weapons with people’s money and exploitation of labor and they want the attention and power from other countries.

In former days, a country that fought well and is good at war was powerful country, but nowadays’ technology does not need physical force. These days, nuclear weapons are the strongest weapons and the most influential ones. With a single button can wipe the nation out of the country. Therefore, there is a huge brain fight between many countries. This huge nuclear weapon was first tested in 1945, the Second World War was going on. Dr. Einstein defected to the United States in 1933 to escape the German Nazi and he thought United States should make nuclear weapons earlier than Germany [3]. Because Germany was developing nuclear weapons, and Germany was the strongest. Many scientists and Jewish scientists in the United States launched the ” Manhattan Project” [3]. That project was succeed. It was the first time in Hiroshima that a nuclear weapon was used in the war. Because of this use of nuclear weapon, many countries wanted to have nuclear weapons, and the Soviet Union wanted more because of the cold war [3]. Thus, the Soviet Union developed nuclear weapons quickly and succeeded in developing stronger nuclear weapons than the United States, followed by Britain, France, and China were succeed to develop nuclear weapon [3].

In these days, North Korea is making and developing their missiles and nuclear bombs. North Korea’s desire to launch nuclear bomb was not these day’s dream and this is one of the political result as a product of the cold war. Many people are interested in North Korea’s nuclear experiments and their news. North Korea’s desire of nuclear bomb was started after cold war; however, North Korea did trade with other countries to make money. Many countries, such as British, Hong Kong, Filipino, Norwegian, communist countries, were came to Konam ad Chinnampo port at North Korea to trade manufactured good, raw materials, and food. North Korea made huge money by exporting goods and they exchanged good for ammonium sulphate and graphite. The irony is that, “… like many business men in Shanghai, including Americans, are clearly eager to carry on trade with the Communist. … In both American traders have manifested concern that the British would get the jump on them. Meanwhile British business men appear to be concerned lest “cold war” politics interfere with trade in Northeast Asia” [2]. North Korea, with the money collected in trade could serve as a stepping stone for future missile and nuclear bomb making.

Fig 1. Where North Korea nuclear factories located

After Japan lost in World War II, according to Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, nuclear bomb was used before the Russian arrived in Pacific, the United States ended up without a larger and longer war [11]. The Korean War was fought on June 25, 1950 by the North Korean army. The peninsula divided by two parts of Korea peninsula, the United States and Soviet Union were controlled over two parts of Korea [6]. Since, United States controlled South Korea and Soviet Union controlled North Korea, North Korea fell into communism and being isolated to developing their weapons. Also, North Korea does not involve any international exchange except few countries. Until now, North Korea is dislike the United States and South Korea the most and sometimes North Korea attack demilitarized zone (DMZ) [10]. So many South Korean soldiers got injured. Since North Korea have nuclear weapons now, they can attack any countries at anytime. Their nuclear weapons can reach to the United States.

Fig 2. North Korea’s weapon can reach to any

U.S. and other countries have begun developing nuclear weapons. Many countries wanted to strengthen their nuclear weapons program, but they decided to take a steps to make peace for the sake of peace and build an International Atomic Energy Agency in 1956. Since then, North Korea has begun engaging in a friendly relationship between the Soviet Union and North Korea has developed nuclear weapons program with Soviet union’s nuclear technology and scientists. There is no exact reason why North Korea has nuclear weapons, but everyone has a weapon to protect themselves or something when it comes to protecting themselves. Therefore, North Korea needs a powerful weapon for its own isolated country. According to Howard, world is identify North Korea as the “axis of evil” because they built nuclear weapons to threat the United States, which means, North Korea is trying to against to the world’s strongest country in this time, North Korea wants more power and money to gain more power [8]. Also because of North Korea’s action, Americans become enemy of North Korea and feel more favorable to South Korea. According to Jibum Kim, Carl Gershenson, Jaeki Jeong and Tom W. Smith, from 2000 to 2007 almost double of people feel more negatively to North Korea [7].

Fig 3. The research result between 2007-2007

North Korea may have seen nuclear weapons from other countries. They will know how powerful and influential the nuclear weapons are. North Korea is the only isolated country. Kim Jong-il and his family are killing the people for themselves. They are building nuclear weapons for the purpose of Kim Jong-il and his family. Nuclear weapons are for their economic and political strength. Even though North Korea’s economy is falling apart, North Korea is making nuclear weapons with expensive ingredients. The money would have brought a much better result if the money had contributed to the recovery of the country. Especially, Kim Jong-un uses nuclear weapons as a weapon to enhance his leadership or get help from the international societies. Nuclear weapon became political weapons instead of war weapons.

North Korea is put a lot of effort on nuclear weapon project, same time they are push themselves in international problems. Same time other countries are calling North Korea as “axis of evil”, North Korea keep themselves isolating and drag themselves to the corner of the wall. After the World War and Cold War, physical movement for war is not wise judgment anymore. Many countries building their nuclear weapons for their protection, but countries does not use nuclear weapons as threat like North Korea. North Korea should stop threat other countries and make problem with nuclear weapons.


[1] O’Donoghue, Rachel, “North Korea launches FIFTH missile test as US tensions mount”, Express              Newspapers PLC, Oct 16, 2016, URL d=14902 (Jan 25,          2017).

[2] Lankov, Andrei. The Real North Korea : Life and Politics in the Failed Stalinist Utopia. Cary: Oxford              University Press, 2013. (accessed            February 18, 2017)

[3] EunGyo Jang, “History of Nuclear Test”, GyeonHyang News Paper, 15 January, 2016, URL:    

[4] Mack, Andrew. “North Korea and the Bomb.” Foreign Policy, no. 83 (1991): 87-104.   doi:10.2307/1148719.

[5] HENRY R LIEBERMAN, “Hong Kong Builds Brisk Trade with Red-Controlled North Korea,” New York Times, Feb 24, 1949, accessed 2017-02-02, 2.

[6] “The problem of North Korea’s nuclear development”, Naver, URL:

[7] Jibum Kim, Carl Gershenson, Jaeki Jeong and Tom W. Smith, “The polls—trends how Americans          think about North Korea: 2000–2007.”, (The Public Opinion Quarterly, 2008), 804-821.

[8] Howard Peter, Why not invade North Korea? Threats, language games, and US foreign policy,              (International Studies Quarterly, 2004), 805-828.

[9] Gareth Porter, “Time to Talk with North Korea”, Foreign Policy (1979): 52-73. DOI:    10.2307/1148518.

[10] Donald S. Zagoria and Young Kun Kim, “North Korea and the Major Powers”, University of              California Press (1975): 1017-1035. DOI: 10.2307/2643582.

[11] Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Racing the enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the surrender of Japan (Cambridge, MA:              Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2006).



Figure 1. research result between 2007-2007, The polls—trends how Americans     think about North Korea: 2000–2007.

Figure 2. North Korea’s weapon can reach to any countries in the world,

Figure 3. where North Korea nuclear factories located,


This project adapted from an actual History 105 digital history project completed by Chairi Hong in Spring 2017.


[Final Project] Terror in Paris: Legacy of French imperialism

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In now days, terrors are frequently happened. Terrorism is an extremely bad and wrong expression. Terrorism was done when terrorists wanted to get what they wanted, and now terrorism became as the biggest problem in whole world. The reason that terrorism became a world’s problem is usually terrors are very violent and due to that reason that country had been attacked, their economy affect by terror moreover it affects to internationally. Recently there was a big terror in Paris. This Paris attack is seen as the work of terrorist group of Muslims which is IS. The reason why the terrorist attack the city Paris, because Paris is a big and famous city, so they want to give their messages to worldwide and other reason is historical background, which is legacy of French imperialism. French suppression to Algeria was very bloody compare to other independent movement for example India, so many Algerian still have bad feeling about it [1]. Since Imperialism is ended, but world still stand on legacy of imperialism. Because of the age Imperialism, the world’s economical status might become better condition, but also brought bad consequences as well. Also not only Paris attack, a lot of Muslims and Europeans having troubles.

Figure 1. the place have been attack on Paris attack 2015.

One of the biggest issue in these days was Paris Attack. In Paris, France, 13 November 2015, a suicide bombing was conducted by Islamic State. The terrorists armed with gun and attacked 6 different place at same time. The French president was watching the soccer match but after he got notice about the terror, he immediately declared a state of emergency, mobilized the military and tightened border controls [2]. However, this incident brought more than 130 people died and about 300 people wounded. France experienced many terrors after imperialism era, however, this was the most recent serious terror attack.

Imperialism is somewhat similar to colonialism. Basically, they both want to expand more land, moreover completely control other countries by invading. According to the book ‘Voices of Decolonization: A brief History with document’ by Todd Shepard, “The late nineteenth century had witnessed the reinvigoration of assertions by political leaders and pundits throughout Europe that their countries should seek to control and govern other areas of the globe. This process of building or expanding an empire is called imperialism” [3]. However, post-1860s era called new imperialism [4]. New imperialism was more concentrated on economical improvement also it contains nationalism. In new imperialism ere, many countries seized and control other countries for economical improvement and also forced colonies to adopt their culture or language. For example, Japan conquered Korea and Taiwan from 1876 to 1910 and America controlled Philippines in 1898 [5]. The motivation for activating new imperialism is Industrial Revolution. Due to the Industrial Revolution, countries needed lots of other colonies to have more supplies and storage. The new imperialism was activated from the end of the 19th century to the early 20th century.

Figure 2. French soldiers arresting Algerian as rebel suspect.

French invade Algeria in 1830 and Algeria became colony of French. Algeria has big land with many resources and in order to expand more African land, French really need Algeria. However, Algeria, which was persecuted, wanted independence so they began armed and build FNL (Front de Libération Nationale) to fight with France in 1945 [6]. When World War II ended, Algeria began independent war. Since many colonies, especially colonies from defeated nations, became independent at this time, Algeria also wanted to independent. France was not defeated on the war, but they affected by war. So in order to prevent Algerian independent war, France increased its troops to stop the Algerian and this expanded to the Algerian war. This is being recorded as hard and bloody independent war. FNL continued to fight against French and eventually gained independence in 1962, which is Evian Agreement [7]. Since Algeria is a Muslim country, so far France and Muslims have a not good relationship. This kind of historical background makes French to have through many terrors by Muslims and Algerian [8].

figure 3. French soldiers torturing an Algerian

Most of the Algerian who lived in France, they were those of who supported French side when they were belongs to French or people who does not uninterested in the Algerian movement. So after they gained citizenship in France after Algerian independence and settled in France. [9] Although they seem they have good relationship now, but some of Algerian people still have a bad feeling in France. So that is reason that France had been attacked many small or big terrors by Algerian or Muslims.

The relationship between France and Algeria is not so good. Because of that relationship, France experienced many terrors by Algerian and Muslims. As shown on the newspaper, there were many terrorist attacks in France from 1956 to 1960, resulting in many casualties and injuries; “A balance sheet of dead and wounded in five years of terrorist attacks in France attributed to Algerian nationalists- 2,998 killed and 7,287 wounded- was published today by the French News Agency on the basis of semiofficial figures. [10] Most of the victims were Muslim Algerians who living in France. 2,971 of Muslims, 88 of European Civilians, and 39 soldiers or policeman died because of attack. The attacks divided into two categories; disciplinary and terrorist. “In the first category are the virtual gang battles between agents of the national Liberation Front, the dominant nationalist organization in Algeria, and the Algerian National Movement, strong among Algerians working in France” [11].

There are many other bad things besides France and Algeria. For example, Countries that have been colonized, many of them are poor and experiencing civil wars. Because colonialism was forceful and even they achieved independence, it affects a lot. Another example is the conflict in Palestine [12]. The Palestine conflict is also beginning on imperialism era (world war 1). This conflict resulted in many wars and many casualties, however, it is still not solved.

Terrorism has become a global problem now. When people think what makes things worse, they would say because of ruthless past. Of course the past things make the economy or technology has advanced, but on other hand, there is many disadvantages as well. For example, a Palestinian conflict and a Paris attack, these are all bad legacy of imperialism. The reason French and the Muslim have bad relationship, is definitely legacy of imperialism and also it is based on religious backgrounds.

[1] Shepard, Todd. Voices of Decolonization: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2015.

[2] Marco Chown Oved, “TERROR IN PARIS: At least 120 killed in wave of attacks across city; French president vows ‘pitiless’ war against those responsible Fire brigade members come to the aid of an injured woman Friday night near the Bataclan concert hall in Paris, where authorities said at least 78 people were killed by gunmen who stormed the theatre”, Torstar Syndication Services, a Division of Toronto Star Newspapers Limited, Nov 14, 2015,

[3] Shepard, Todd. Voices of Decolonization: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2015.

[4] Shepard, Todd. Voices of Decolonization: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2015.

[5] Shepard, Todd. Voices of Decolonization: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2015.

[6] Evans, Martin. “France and Two Algerian Revolutions.” The Journal of African History 43, no. 3 (2002): 528-29.

[7] “Algeria after the Evian agreements.” Trades Union Congress, 1962,

[8] Crozier, Brian, and Gerard Mansell. “France and Algeria.” International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-) 36, no. 3 (1960): 310-21. doi:10.2307/2610008.

[9] Hargreaves, Alec G. “Third-Generation Algerians in France: Between Genealogy and History.” The French Review 83, no. 6 (2010): 1290-299.

[10] Special to The New York Times, “2,998 IN FRANCE DEAD IN ALGERIAN TERROR,” New York times, 02 Dec 1960, 

[11] Special to The New York Times, “2,998 IN FRANCE DEAD IN ALGERIAN TERROR,” New York times, 02 Dec 1960, 

[12] “Muslim Memories of West’s Imperialism.” 2016.Yerepouni Daily News, May 19.


Figure 1. The place have been attack on Paris attack 2015.

Figure 2.French soldiers arresting Algerian as rebel suspect.

Figure 3. French soldiers torturing an Algerian.


Police Brutality – Digital Research Assignment #5

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Jamar Ergas

History 105

Professor Unangst

Police Brutality

Police brutality has been a controversial issue that has been on the minds of many Americans for decades. This has been an ongoing problem since the 19th century until now. An example of a current event in the New York Amsterdam news was when there has been an issue with police killings (Daughtry, 2014). This brutality has been taken lightly in the police department and has been taken more seriously in the media recently. Due to the seriousness, solutions need to be found. Police brutality has not changed over time due to overarching themes of racism, lack of governmental interference, media spotlights, and historical references.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. mentioned police brutality in his messages to drive the Civil Rights Movement to end thus problem during the 1960’s. “The Black Lives Matter” activist group is a version of today’s “Ain’t I A Man.” During the 60’s our grandparents held “sit-ins,” (Figure 2) (Anyabwile, 2014). While protestors of today hold “die-ins,” which shows how today the protests are different from the freedom riders. The Civil Rights Act has ended segregation in all public facilities, but the law enforcement was not involved in legislation which has enabled the end of segregation. There are countless incarceration and deaths from over-policing African Americans. The Civil Rights Act is supposed to protect human rights says the government, but they have not ended civil issues our policemen are demonstrating through chokeholds, other acts of violence and other discriminatory acts. Police brutality is usually happening in areas which permits it, but also has the power to sanction this problem. In order to reduce the number of people getting killed something has to be done (Anyabwile, 2014).

Daughtry talks about the police killings and brutality, highlighting what are the causes and some solutions for them. Daughtry tells us that many police departments have denied any sorts of racism because there have been cases when black officers were just as brutal as white officers. But this denial is foolish because these are facts in history. There are different categories of racism such as simple racism, sophisticated racism, sadistic racism and smashers of racism. With all of this, there are a lot of good officers and bad officers using this quote “If the good apples do not rid the bushel of bad apples, the bad apples will contaminate the good apples,” (Daughtry, 2014). (Figure 3) (htt).  This generally means that officers who are protecting other officers who are doing wrong, are in the wrong themselves. They are contaminating officers who have not committed any brutality offences. There is a theory labelled the “Broken Windows” tactic that if you stop small incident violators, that this will reduce serious crimes. People went to school to become public defenders to those who have faced police brutality and could not afford to pay for a lawyer. More specifically “in the hood” (Daughtry, 2014).

Lawrence W. Sherman who is an author with high credentials as a professor of criminal justice at state university of New York a researcher for the police foundation, and on the National Advisory Commission on Higher Education for Police Officers. This primary source is an article about perspective on police and violence. This article informs researchers about the problem with police violence. The purpose is to give us the perspective of the police violence issue which still happens is today’s society. This historical context is written in an online document created by a political and social science industry which is there for information of these type of society affairs. Since the majority of the police officers in the department are Caucasian, the emphasis on African Americans officers are not pinpointed. An unspoken assumption the source contains is that they do not want to identity what officers the main ones are causing these offenses.

Police and violence is a focal point within American government. But the trouble with this is that often police believe that they must be violent in order to stop this problem of violence. Numerous newspapers and minority groups described that kind of violence to fight against violence as excessive and immoral. Especially since the police are supposed to be solving murder cases and preventing it. One section in this article highlighted that there was a huge jump in low visible patrol police officers in high crime neighborhoods. The problem is that police have a hard time in reducing violence. So this will be a frequent problem of doing harm to stop harm. The only help towards this is creating a more restrictive administrative policy when it comes to the use of deadly force. Police research as grown tremendously is looking for ways this problem can be addressed (Sherman, 1980).

Police brutality is an ongoing global issue which also has been a hot topic within the United States. There have been many cases of police brutality, some more prominent than others such as Rodney King dating back to 1991 which fired up media distribution of issues like this. There have been recent cases which occurred within the South in the United States which have been caught on tape numerous times. This has affected numerous families especially minorities which caused this to be a global issue in the media.

These situations including police brutality have been occurring throughout history, but we have not had the means to capture them in order to inform the public of these wrong doings. Through the increase use of social media citizens have been able to capture these situations and broadcast them globally. Instances like Michael Brown and Eric Garner have led to over 400 cases being caught since 2015. Groups such as Black Youth Project and Black Lives Matter have brought this issue to attention. Police brutality has gotten to the point where it is because of an increase in police brutality cases getting caught and the increase in activist groups forming.

Some incidents of police brutality dated back to 1952. The article “Police is Held in Brutality Case” speaks on an incident in Brooklyn, New York when the Civil Rights Act was violated by a patrolman named John A. Brullman. Francis D. Galatis who was a 46-year-old man was beaten by this officer. This incident indicated that Brullman was deprived of his rights, privileges and immunities that were secured by the United States Constitution within the 14th amendment. The case was resolved by the commissioner suspending Brullman from any duties without pay. The commissioner released a statement which said, “If any policeman is found guilty, he should be punished” (New York Times, 1953).

Another primary source was about a case in Houston, Texas titled “Court Upsets Probation Sentence in Houston Police Brutality Case”. During the 1970’s three former policemen violated the Civil Rights Act, by beating Mexican-Americans who later drowned once they were pushed down a bayou. Many Hispanic-Rights groups were upset with the Justice Department for the failure of pursuing these cases of police brutality. This was later resolved by Federal District Judge Ross N. Sterling who held a trial. The end result was ten years in prison after they have served five years on probation (Crewdson, 1979).

There is also police brutality in other countries. For example, another article which dated back to 1959 was titled “Brutality Protested by Haiti’s Prelates.” The Roman Catholic Bishops of Haiti sent a protest against the government based on police brutality. People of the church had been threatened with arrest because of their remarks of protest. During the time of the protest against the government for expelling two French priests, protesters were surrounded by policemen who were armed with guns and batons. Many them were arrested and policemen instigated many fights among the civilians who were involved in the protest. The government later suspended arrests of the priests based on “the rights of the temporal power.” The priests were then sent back safety to their home countries rather than stay in the controversy (New York Times, 1959).

R.K Sail speaks about how this problem of police brutality became a global problem. The Indian community has also been dealing with this issue. In the year 2000 the Andhra police violated human rights by killing human rights activists who exposed policemen for incidents of brutality. This was resulted in the suspension of those policemen and anyone who participated in denying anyone the right to life (Sail, 2000-2001).

David Bruce explains that there were some cases of police brutality in South Africa (Figure 4) (htt1). which caused people to die, most of these deaths were a result of shooting during a two-year period recording 1051 cases of deaths. David Bruce mentioned numerous tactics which he has listed to help reduce these incidents. He has given points such as rigorous selection systems in the police department, revision of the training curriculum, a code of conduct, “Special Service Order on the use of force” also when it comes to arrest there must be an anti-torture policy (Bruce, 2002).

In conclusion, police brutality has been a problem dating back from the 1800’s until the present. There is also a global problem of police brutality in areas as diverse as South Africa, Haiti, and India. America and these countries must continue to strive for solutions to fix this issue. Further training and community involvement can help with communication and the reduction of police brutality. The many issues involving police brutality require complex solutions such as better police oversight, policy on the use of force, and less racial profiling.











(1) Anyabwile, T. (2014, 12 10). The Final Civil Rights Battle: Ending Police Brutality. Retrieved from

(2)Bruce, D. (2002). Police Brutality in South Africa. Police Brutality in Southern Africa – A Human Rights Perspective, 1-10.

(3)Crewdson, J. M. (1979). ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times. Court Upsets Probation Sentence In Houston Police Brutality Case: Court Upsets Probation Sentence In Houston Police Brutality Case Federal Attorneys Hail Ruling, 1.

(4)Daughtry, H. (2014, December 25). <em>Police killings and brutality: causes and solutions .</em> Retrieved 1 20, 2016, from ProQuest:

(5)Ditz, Toby L. 2012. “Domesticating Women.” The Gendering of Politics in Great Britain and Anglo-America 1.

(6)New York Times. (1884). POLITICS IN GREAT BRITAIN. (1884, Feb 10). Retrieved from

(7)New York Times. (1953). Proquest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times. POLICEMAN IS HELD IN BRUTALITY CASE: U. S. Indictment Charges Civil Rights Violation in 1952 Beating of Motorman POLICEMAN IS HELD IN BRUTALITY CASE, 1. Retrieved from

(8)New York Times. (1959). ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times. Brutality Protested By Haiti’s Prelates: HAITIAN PRELATES DECRY BRUTALITY, 1. Retrieved from

(9)Sail, R. K. (2000-2001). Economic and Political Weekly. Police Brutality, 1.

(10)Sherman, L. W. (1980). Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.       Perspectives on Police and Violence, 1-12.




(11) Anyabwile, T. (2014, 12 10). The Final Civil Rights Battle: Ending Police Brutality. Retrieved from

(12) (n.d.). Retrieved from

(13) (n.d.). Retrieved from

Geographic Focus: U.S.A, South America, Asia

Primary Sources – New York Times





Organ Trafficking

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The black market also is known as underground economy is known for having transactions that have illegal aspects to it. If a particular type of goods or distribution of production is prohibited by law, then often these will be found on the black market. Parties that engage in these unlawful acts can be anyone; there is no distinct look to the black market. Examples of services one can find include drug trade, prostitution, human trafficking, and organ trade. Since the first successful organ transplant, illegal organ harvesting has been around for several years [5]. The first record of it in 1980, and since then it has become a booming business in the 21st century especially at a global level. Many countries like the United States have implemented laws that find it a crime to sell a body part.

figure 1: a comic figure of what the black market is like

However, there are few countries like Iran where selling a kidney is legal. Today, as thousands are on the transplant list, most will die from waiting before they get the organ they need. Many ask if donors of blood, semen, eggs and medical trials are compensated why not apply the same principles to organs? As it is closely tied to human trafficking, it has been found that by eliminating organ trade in the black market human trafficking will decrease, as well as health complications from illegal procedures [3]. Shortly after the success of the first transplant, by investigating the rise of illegal organ trade in the black market, there can be a better understanding of where the issue first surfaced at a global level. As well as the policies that have been implanted to end this fatal issue.

The first successful transplant was in 1954; it was a kidney transplant led by Dr. Joesph Murray and Dr. David Hume in Boston. It was a living related transplant; the donor willingly decided to give his kidney to his twin brother. A few years later, by 1962, the same two doctors made history again, and this time the donor was deceased [6]. As more medical breakthroughs were occurring, other doctors were doing transplants illegally. Organ trade has been closely tied with an underground economy, also known as the black market. The is where one can turn to find goods and services that are otherwise illegal. Depending on the service on is looking for, the black-market target customer is living in poverty. In organ trade, someone struggling financially can be easily manipulated to sell a kidney [5]. As research has shown, the highest rates of poverty come from people of color [5]. When looking at organ trade in other countries, the rates are higher in women as well. Since the black market  has started, most of the illegal activity going on is hardly ever heard of because it is so secretive. The government and police of several countries know it is there, but have a hard time trying to track it down. However, there have been some cases that have been able to prove that this has been around for some time [5]. The first known organ trade was in 1980, where a doctor in the United States was harvesting organs from recently deceased, their families believed they were just doing the standard autopsy, but he was also taking out the organs he planned on selling [8]. Compared to how the sale of organs occurs today, this was seen as a little more ethical because the donor was already dead.

At a global level, the same year a new form of organ trade emerged called transplant tourists in the Middle East and China [13]. This is where one will travel out of the country to India because they spoke with a doctor in the black market and intended to pay for the organ needed.  Transplantation began in China since the 1960’s; it is one of the biggest organ transplant programs in the world.  Though China has one of the largest transplant programs, they have the lowest rate of organ donations, one of the causes is because China has been illegally harvesting organs from deceased prisoners  [13]. It has been found that Chinese government is sourcing organs from prisoners so the hospitals can meet demand, as they rely on transplants to generate revenue [10]. During the 1970’s, if one sentenced to death in China, the doctors would take organs without the consent of the prisoner or their family and sell them to patients that needed them. Reports found that over 90% of the organs donated were from executed prisoners concluding that this is a billion-dollar business in China. Hearing about what was happening in China, the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations held a hearing discussing how China was involved in the trade of human body parts [7]. As they received evidence from sources like the family of the deceased prisoner, by 1998, they had reached an agreement that this practice was unethical. However, by 2000, China decided no longer to cooperate and were still taking organs from prisoners. A Chinese doctor, Wang Guoqi testified to the US Congress that same year admitting that he had removed skin, corneas and other primary organs from over 100 prisoners for China’s transplant system [7].  He stated that though most of them were dead, there were a few that were still alive at the time of the surgery. There were over 400 hospitals in China that were involved in organ trade, selling kidneys for over sixty thousand dollars. It was not until 2015 that China’s government made a policy that bans the use of organs from executed prisoners [13]. With this recent ban, the increase of human trafficking in China increased. As the list for people needed organs gets longer, the organ business has criminals turning to kidnapping and harvesting them from their victims. In 2016, a six-year-old boy was abducted from his home, right before he was drugged the last words he heard from his abductor were ‘Don’t cry, and I won’t gouge your eyes out,’ when he was returned to his family, both of his eyes and kidneys were missing [10].

figure 2: 6 year old boy abducted for his eyes and other organs

In other occasions, the physicians and the patient will travel out of the country for the procedure, for example;  there was a documented transplant of over 100 renal patients from three dialysis units in the United Arab Emirates [13]. They traveled with their private doctors to China where they received a kidney transplant organized by the local brokers. The brokers recruited people that were desperate for money as they were poverty stricken in areas like the slums. Initially promising the sellers five thousand, they only received two thousand for their kidney. Many of the transplant tourists suffered from post complications such as death and infections like HIV and Hepatitis C.

Globally, the black market is at an all-time high because the laws and government in other countries are not as strict as the US. After the US created a policy that forbids any sale of organs with the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984, many are no option but the black market. There have been numerous stories of networks of brokers, technicians, physicians and hospitals that participate in an illegal trade by working undercover in countries like India [6]. The reasoning for the increase in black market sales is because many of these countries are dealing with extreme poverty which makes them more susceptible to enticing offers by brokers. Cities and villages in these countries are dedicated to selling organs, the transplant surgeries themselves are being performed at hospitals where they are not meeting the standards for safety and quality of care. In the 1980’s, if one wanted a kidney India was one of the top places to go; people from all over like Europe and the US would go to extreme lengths for an organ [6]. Many have seen this as a form of colonialism, referred as biological colonialism [11]. As wealthy westerners will travel to poverty stricken countries and exploit the poor by paying them a few thousand or less, for their organs. This discussion of rich versus the poor is a large part to why many believe organ trade should not be legalized. The rich are the only ones benefiting as they use countries like India as a means for resources [11].

Figure 3: Poverty stricken victims (sellers) of organ trade in India

With a country where a significant percentage of the population is in poverty, they are willing to do anything to let go of financial burden. Dr. Lawrence Cohen has done extensive studies in India about the organ trade; he looked profoundly about the kinds of sellers that are risking their life for money. As the organ trade started, Cohen found that a significant percent of the sellers are women.  The women they were able to track down, said they were forced to do it by their husbands so they could use the money for their debts or their children [6]. Many of Cohen’s colleagues stated that they know of doctors that are involved in organ trade business, as more five-star hospitals were participating in the market as well, as many as 500 kidneys were being transplanted. It was this that made the Indian government ban the sale of organs for commercial gain in 1994. These laws that have been created all over, however, has not stopped those from turning to the black market for organs. Kidney donations compared to other organs is that we are born with two of them, this makes it possible for a living person to donate. The fact that people can live a long and healthy life with one kidney is what has helped the black-market increase [10]. Several reports have been found that customers of the black market are parents whose kid has only weeks left to live, or someone that is desperate for money. Parents of two teenagers, put their organs up for sale online after the father lost his job, “he has not been able to find any work, the telephone has been cut off, one meal of bread and salami is the family’s only extravagance. ‘when you need to put food on the table, selling a kidney doesn’t seem much of a sacrifice’ he said” [6]. In many cases, one can make up to $15,000 for selling a kidney. To them this gives them a chance to get out of a financial burden that they have grown up in or to provide an easier life for their children; it also gives them the opportunity to save a life [6]. However, the donors find themselves in worse shape than before the operation because they were unaware of the full risk being taken. For those receiving the kidney, they are told that the person they are buying the kidney from is in healthy and good shape when this is not always the truth.

A way to put these issues at ease might be allowing the compensation of selling your organs. Director of Transplantation at Massachusetts General Hospital believes that endorsing the payment of organs could propel other countries to put an end to the unethical and unjust standard in which the rich takes advantage of the poor. In the current state the black market it is now; the poor remains poor, but they lose health and an organ in the process. Legalizing the sale of organs could decrease human trafficking, traffickers are always preying on new victims [14]. Organ trafficking occurs in three different ways; the first is when they force or deceive victims into giving up an organ [5]. The second is when victims will agree to sell an organ but are scammed as they don’t receive the money or they receive far less than discussed. The last one is when they take advantage of vulnerable people like the uneducated, the poor, immigrants or homeless and have them believe they are being treated for one thing and waking up with their organs removed without consent [6]. By lurking on tourist on vacation and smuggling children from other countries the black market can continue selling organs [5].

figure 4: a visual representation of organ trade, selling your organs for money

In 2014, a Mexican cartel henchman was arrested for killing children to harvest their organs, that same year they found hundreds of young girls that were smuggled out of Somalia and taken to India to remove their organs. These are only a few of the horrific stories that are still occurring today, and the only solution to these issues would be to improve their laws or legalize the sale of organs. Many believe that harvesting organs from executed capital felons is another solution, and that could save many lives. In the United States, over 14,000 inmates have been registered for the state organ donor program [2]. During booking, they are asked if they want to be an organ donor, and several states across the border have allowed deceased donations from their inmates and with the incarcerated population of 2 million it could save thousands [7]. Although not everyone is with having convicted felons donate their organs, inmates have an increased rate of diseases and infections that could make the transplant dangerous [2]. Organs and tissues are tested and screen before they consider donating, there are still bacterial infections that put it at risk. Another argument is that because they are in prison, their current mental state compromises their ability to make decisions as such, ‘the ability to comprehend the facts about donation and to make a voluntary choice must be carefully weighed, for prisoners – true informed consent isn’t possible”[2]. It also might raise concerns that the justice system could be at stake because the need of organs could influence verdicts but for the inmates, this would give them a chance at redemption and going out in a way that is meaningful and helpful despite what they did to get there.

Since organ trafficking has become a gruesome reality, there have been steps that governments from all over the world are making to put an end to this. Making policies such as The Declaration of Istanbul on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism developed a few years ago, This system has attempted to stop organ trafficking by educating doctors working in transplantation medicine and policy makers, it provides them with ethical guidance [13]. This prompted Egypt, Pakistan, and India to create new laws to prohibit organ trade, bringing more attention to the issue and making the authorities in these countries much stricter [11]. Organ trafficking like any other illegal activity is not going to stop overnight, and new markets will continue to emerge and replace those that were shut down [11]. However, it is a step in the right direction and to fix that we must look at how we can improve our health system; making access to organ donations easier, so people won’t have to turn to the black market.

Work cited:

[1]: Benjamin E. Hippen. “Organ Sales and Moral Travails Lessons from the Living Kidney Vendor Program in Iran.” CATO Institute.  (6 December 2009)

[2]: Bennion, Kate. “Kidneys from felons? Prisoner organ donation spurs debate.” April 24, 2013. Accessed March 22, 2017.

[3]: Budiani-Saberi, D. A. and Delmonico, F. L. (2008), Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism: A Commentary on the Global Realities. American Journal of Transplantation, 8: 925–929. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02200.x

[4]: DeJong, William, Jessica Drachman, Steven L. Gortmaker, Carol Beasley, and Michael J. Evanisko. “Options for Increasing Organ Donation: The Potential Role of Financial Incentives, Standardized Hospital Procedures, and Public Education to Promote Family Discussion.” The Milbank Quarterly 73, no. 3 (1995): 463-79. doi:10.2307/3350375.

[5]: Friedman, E.a., and A.l. Friedman. “Payment for donor kidneys: Pros and cons.” Kidney International 69, no. 6 (2006): 960-62. doi:10.1038/

[6]: Novelli, G., M. Rossi, L. Poli, V. Morabito, S. Ferretti, A. Bussotti, F. Nudo, G. Mennini, F. Antonellis, and P.b. Berloco. “Is Legalizing the Organ Market Possible?” Transplantation Proceedings 39, no. 6 (2007): 1743-745. Accessed February 22, 2017. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2007.05.075.

[7]: Palmer, Louis J. Organ transplants from executed prisoners: an argument for death sentence organ removal statutes. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2014. [para 7]

[8]: Perry, Clifton. “Human Organs and the Open Market.” Ethics 91, no. 1 (1980): 63-71.

[9]: Phadke, K. & Anandh, U. Pediatr Nephrol (2002) 17: 309. doi:10.1007/s00467-002-0853-y

[10]: Scutti, Susan, and Susan Scutti Susan Scutti Is a Reporter, Novelist, and Loather of Self-descriptions. Read More. “Organ Trafficking: An International Crime Infrequently Punished.” Medical Daily. July 09, 2013. Accessed March 22, 2017.

[11]: Smith, Wesley J. “Biological Colonialism Kills.” Discovery Institute. June 11, 2012. Accessed April 28, 2017.

 [12]: Smith, Wesley J. “Biological Colonialism.” Discovery Institute. January 13, 2009. Accessed April 28, 2017.

[13]: Tazeen, Jafar H. “Organ Trafficking: Global Solutions for a Global Problem.” American Journal of Kidney Diseases 54, no. 6 (2009): 1145-157. Accessed February 22, 2017. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.08.014.

[14]: “The Rise of Black-Market Organ Trafficking.” In Public Safety. April 29, 2014. Accessed March 22, 2017.


Figure 1: Black market,

Figure 2: Organ Harvesting in China,

Figure 3: Organ Harvesting in India,

Figure 4: Organ trade,


Gender Equality in Africa

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Gender inequality has been a pertinent issue in African history for many years and continues to be an important topic that the government is trying to fix. Creating a gender equal continent isn’t easy and the whole continent can’t change overnight but, since the 1970s, there have been laws and initiatives created to help smooth along this process. To fight for gender equality, discussions must happen and everyone has to be on board and willing to put aside differences to make it happen.

To begin, women leaders and experts from all over the world, including Africa, met in Kigali for the 3rd annual African Union High-Level Panel on Gender and Women’s Empowerment. While there, the women announced that the African government, as well as, the citizens in Africa need to step-up their efforts to create laws and policies that will increase gender equality throughout the continent. The main theme of this meeting was discussing how these policies and laws that involve gender equality would be implemented into the daily lives of Africans. Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, urged her fellow female leaders that they need to be strong and passionate towards their support for women’s rights. She mentions that the push for political action regarding gender equality in Africa is making progress every day [1].

Image result for gender equality in africa[10]

To continue, a book that was published in 1977 explores the idea of “whether the condition of African women has been improved or worsened by modernization and a movement to the cities”. When people read this book, they will realize it is for women who want to learn about other countries where equality isn’t seen as such a main problem/topic of discussion. During the 1970s in Africa, modernization and movement to the cities were the main events that were happening that would affect women and their places in society. If the book came from a different perspective, the demeanor of it would be a lot more depressing and accusatory towards women, which would only make African women more upset [2].

Report on Feminist Dialogue: “Who’s Afraid Of Feminism? The State Of Gender Equality 20 Years After The Democratic Transition”[8]

Furthermore, it is important to note that women’s rights in Africa are viewed as “…an enormously powerful and important agenda”. Throughout different news stories and occurring events, it oven seems that gender inequality is not a main focus for the African government but, in fact, it is just being worked on behind-the-scenes. The sudden push for women’s rights came from the arrival of democracy which shook up “both the policy world and South Africans’ everyday lives”.  Nelson Mandela played a large role in democracy coming to Africa and replacing apartheid. This came with a new flag, anthem, more thoughts on nation-building, and citizenship that was dependent on human rights. With democracy taking over, it seemed as if everything that had been done for the country before was wrong. But actually, it just shows the changes that had to be made to fit the modern era where all genders are considered equal [3]. What many people do not realize is that the government is working on many different laws and initiatives to try and achieve gender equality. They’re using the Women in Development (WID) framework which happens to be “the oldest and most widely used feminist critique of development”. The initiatives they’re trying to implement would attempt to include women in programs that already exist or in new programs that would be created exclusively for women [4]. Although the passing of these laws and initiatives are not broadly stated, it is encouraging to know that something is, in fact, being done to work towards gender inequality.

On the other hand, the government may be working towards different initiatives and laws to help push for gender equality, that does not necessarily mean they will be beneficial. The Gender Policy Framework (GPF) “aims to engender gender equality within government structures and practices”. Most of the changes that the government wants to make would be in the general South African society, not just in the government. The GPF also said that it would commit itself to creating better access to education for both genders and to remove stereotypes pertaining to gender. Not all legislature is going to work and that is simply a fact of life, but since the government is willing to recognize that not everything is going to work and they are committing themselves to trying as many programs and laws as they must to get the outcome that they want, it shows that gender equality is truly one of their end goals [5].

In addition, the idea of women’s studies being implemented into South African schools has started to become a reality. At first, it had not really been recognized as a separate field of scholarship but it seems that opinions are changing on the topic. After a collection of essays was published, Women and Gender in Southern Africa to 1945, and there were more articles on the history of women from South Africa appearing in journals, people came to realize that South African feminist scholarship was quite marginalized and that that needed to change. Most historians who were doing ‘general’ or ‘universal’ history actually ignored gender. Other, particularly male, historians tried to rationalize this by implying that it was too hard to include “a gender perspective [in] their work”. This shows that the fight for gender equality is not only mainly led by women, but it also, mostly, only includes female participants as men do not generally see the disparity, or at least they do not see it yet [6].


To conclude, gender equality still remains a large issue in the continent of Africa and many of the countries in it. With more women speaking up, as well as, more input from the government, there is a high chance that women will start being treated the same as their male counterpart [7]. Although there is a lot to change regarding scholarship, especially in South Africa, the government is willing to listen to its people and figure out how to get headed in the right direction.

[1] Unknown, “Women leaders push for gender equality in Africa”, The New Times, July 9 2016,

[2] Carmel Dinan. “Pragmatists or Feminists? The Professional ‘Single’ Women of Accra, Ghana (Pragmatistes Ou Féministes? Femmes Célibataires Cadres à Accra).” Cahiers D’Études Africaines 17, no. 65 (1977): 155-76.

[3] Mark Hunter, Love in the Time of AIDS: Inequality, Gender, and Rights in South Africa, (Indiana University Press, 2010),, pp.

[4] Pontso Moorosi, “Gender, Skills Development and Poverty Reduction,” Agenda: Empowering Women for Gender Equity 81 (2009): 110-117

[5] Angelique Wildschut, “Engendering Gender Equality in Professional Employment: Can Policy Rise to the Occasion?,” Agenda: Empowering Women for Gender Equity 78 (2008): 93-104

[6] Linzi Manicom, “Ruling Relations: Rethinking State and Gender in South African History,” The Journal of African History 33 (1992): 441-465

[7] Karen Oppenheim Mason and Larry L. Bumpass, “U.S. Women’s Sex-Ideology, 1970,” American Journal of Sociology 80 (1975): 1212-1219

[8] “Report on Feminist Dialogue,” last modified May 15, 2014,

[9] “Africa Files,” last modified November 8, 2014,

[10] “Women Leaders Push for Gender Equality in South Africa,” last modified July 9, 2016,

Geographic focus: Africa

Search terms: Afric*, women, inequality, gender

Primary Source Database: Journal Storage

Primary Source Search Date Limiter: between 1920 and 1980

Historical Research Questions: Are African governments working to help create a gender equal continent where opportunities are equal for each gender?

The Effects of Policies Created in China Post-Maoism

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China has been struggling with their massive population since the 1950s. The population began to outgrow their food supply, so they created a policy in 1979 to control the problem. The one-child policy that was enacted in 1979 just recently shifted to a two-children policy in January 2016. The damage that the one-child policy did to their population is now trying to be amended with the birth of 15.5 million babies this year. The majority of their population is currently in the retirement stage of their lives, which has caused a dilemma for their younger generation. This policy has caused a wide population gap between men and women. There are approximately 40 million more men than women in China, which makes it more challenging to reproduce. Some experts like Lu Jiehua at the Institute of Population Research at Peking University, say that the increase of newborns will not fix the issue. [1] Since some women are hesitant about having more children due to the poor social service in China, “many Chinese provinces have already started offering incentives, like in northern Shanxi where the number of holidays have been increased from 10 to 30 days for newlyweds.” [2] In Fujian, they offer women up to 5 months for maternity leave. In order to make a change in the population, Lu believes that the Chinese government will have to slowly expand their social policies. It is predicted that by 2020 Chinese couples will be able to have as many children as they want.

The population in China has been a major issue since the 1950s, and has been caused by several other political decisions from this time forward. China has experienced several political revolutions that have impacted their history economically and socially. Mao Zedong was the leader of China from 1949 until his death in 1976. Following his death, Deng Xiaoping came into office and created policies of his own- specifically the one-child policy. Deng set several economic goals and would do anything to achieve them, including sending anybody who stood in his way to prison. Policies such as the Great Leap Forward, the Great Proletarian Cultural revolution, and the one-child policy implemented from 1949 and onward have positively affected China economically, but the country has faced an overall negative effect on their society socially and has caused political corruption.

In 1949 there was a complex revolutionary process occurring in China. For the next few decades (1949-1956) China experienced several changes, which included an implementation of a ‘socialist’ state. These changes greatly affected the citizens’ lives for the worst socially and politically. Mao Zedong, the President of the People’s Republic of China (1954-1959) had this idea in mind to transform China into a competing society with other industrialized nations, like Britain. He called this campaign ‘The Great Leap Forward.’ This revolution brought many “leaders and peasants… chaos, agonizing choices, unbearable demands, and, in the ensuing family, death in a tragic number of cases” [3]. The civilians experienced famine and had to leave their homes in order to search for food.  The famine was estimated to be the worst of “human history altogether,” taking somewhere from 14-40 million lives [3]. Chinese, Wang Fucheng, gave some insight about his experience during the Great Leap Forward. Fucheng once in poverty, rose to village leader in rural communist China. He knew nothing about the world outside of his small village (Houhua Village). At the beginning of the revolution, Fucheng states, “we all supported the cadres and constantly shouted slogans” [4]. When others would criticize the movement, Fucheng was trained to respond with sayings like, “your thought is incorrect. If all are like you, how can we have a happy life?” [4]. The farmers would farm all day long, stopping only once or twice to eat. They worked so hard and had such little outcome or reward. This source allows the reader to assume that the citizens of China were working so hard during this time period, and they were not fully aware of what was going on around them. Fucheng and others were brainwashed to believe that Mao’s new system would industrialize their country. It was not until the whole country was under famine for a couple of years when this movement of “The Great Leap Forward” finally ended. The author, Glennys Young, would collect people’s words and translate them for her book. This source is an interview type text, that informs students and other individuals what it was like first hand for people experiencing communism in the twentieth century. Mao’s Great Leap Forward negatively affected the citizens due to their individual struggle of being over-worked and not receiving any benefits in return.









Figure 1: Peasants Toiling During The Great Leap Forward, 1958

The economic policies under Mao help explain the current intervention of the Chinese Party in the economy. Under Mao policy, Mao made the “ultimate [decision]” and anybody who dared to not follow his lead, was viewed as extremely risky [5].During the Mao era, the economy did grow; however, only “fitfully and unevenly” [6]. The majority of the population of those living in rural China were those who experienced poor living conditions, such as starving to death. Those residing in urban China experienced quite the opposite. They lived a more stable and economic secure lifestyle. Mao’s reasoning behind his economic policies were to follow the correctness of a communist based political system. He believed that the only way to implement a system which created economic growth “in an equal and non-exploitative manner was through the communalization of land, factories, and all other forms of property”[7]. As a result, he “prioritized cultural transformation over economic gain” and the population experienced different outcomes from this mindset [7]. Urban rural residents experienced very different lives during this Maoist period in China. For example, The China Communist Party (CCP) gained control of all private companies, and followed the “Russian communist model of urban industrial growth” [7]. Urban residents were designated to work for these CCP controlled companies, and were not given the opportunity to change jobs or even leave the job throughout their career. Overall, the majority of the urban residents faced little to no stress and were secure financially. They received an adequate amount of food and basically free housing.

On the other hand, rural residents were treated very differently and were effected greatly by Mao’s policies. One of these polices is referred to as “The Great Leap Forward” and lasted from 1958-1960. All rural homes, land, and property was gathered together into “gigantic communes”[8]. The CCP would come and collect the rural workers’ harvests to supply food to the urban residents. Since the rural workers faced strict conditions and put under intense pressure, they would over report the amount in the harvest. This left the rest of the rural residents with little to no food, especially in harsh weather seasons. Approximately 20-45 million rural wokrers died from starvation [8]. Another policy of Mao’s, called the “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution”(1966-1976) added more destabilization to the rural residents of China [8]. The rural workers were required to house and feed Chineese children and urban residents who would come for education in manual labor. Mao used propaganda in order to enforce more of a communist ideology throughout the society. To sum this up, the economic policies implemented under the Maoist period had different effects on the population: the urban residents experienced economic stability, while the rural residents were forced to work hard without receiving much in return. Consequently, China experienced an unstable government and lost millions of their population. The people of China experienced unequal and unfair treatment, posing a negative effect socially due to the corrupt political decisions that were made by Mao Zedong.

Figure 2: Propaganda of Mao stating, “The Chinese People’s Liberation Army is the great school of Mao Zedong Thought”, 1969

The economy in China grew exponentially post-Mao era. From 1980 to 2005, GDP increased more than 680%, which has never been matched in human history [9]. People in China experienced an average of about eight percent increase in income growth each year. Over 500 million people have risen out of poverty, when nearly 60% of the population during the Maoism period lived in poverty. Both urban and rural residents have been able to purchase more consumer goods, including home appliances, televisions, and motorcycles. The China-Party state did a great job of getting the Chinese out of poverty and into more of a financially secure economic system. One of the most significant factors to this change of economy has to do with the complete reverse of the policies Mao put into place during his time served. The initiator of this flip is Deng Xiaoping. Deng had the idea that they must put economic pragmatism over ideological correctness in order to have a more stable economy. Deng lived by a saying which showed this new mentality, “it doesn’t matter if the cat is black or white, as long as it catches the mouse” [10]. Deng and other Chineese political leaders felt that as long as they had no set path, they could mke adjustments on the way and move in a forward direction. They implemented a blend of communist economic fetaures, like the continuation of party-state ownership of large businesses and also capitalist ideas, like free-market Special Economic Zones. Due to the blend of the political policies that were posed in the post-Mao era, China’s economy was able to benefit tremendously.

Shortly after World War Two in the early 1950s, a population movement around the world was happening due to the many challenges rapid population growth had in other societies. The first United Nations organized meeting about world population was in 1974. At this meeting, the Chinese stated that population was not a “detriment of national economic growth and well-being” [11]. However, a nationwide birth control plan was in the making. Ten years before this meeting, the Chinese had already established the Birth Planning Commission with the goal of reducing population growth to one percent by 2000 [11]. Shortly after Mao Zedong’s death, the Chinese political leaders implemented a system that would keep the communist party in control and decrease the population. By 1977, a goal of reducing population growth rate by one percent within three years was set; however, was not achieved until 1998 . In 1978, the CCP came up with the idea that if families only had one child, the birth rate would reduce quickly. The policy began to come into act when the CCP would reward families who had only one child and punish those with more than one. The post-Mao leadership was successful in re-establishing the economy and largely included controlling the population size. This was because in order to gauge the success of increased living standards of the population was per capita GDP growth [12]. Deng had a goal of quadrupling per capita income between 1980 and 2000. GDP growth has  been the ultimate goal of the Chinese political system and reducing population makes that easier to do so [12]. The one-child policy was never written explicitly in Chinese law, but was brought to attention through an “open letter to members of the Chinese Communist Party and the Communist Youth League” [13]. With this announcement, there was notation of the consequences this policy may bring: population aging, lack of elderly support, sex imbalances, and labor shoratges. Also included in the letter was a promise that this policy would end within the next 25-30 years. The one-child policy was supposed to achieve several goals for the Chinese government, but really showed to have more of a negative effect on the society as a whole.

The Chinese government claimed that approximately 400 million Chinese births were prevented due to this policy. Although some say there were negative consequences because of this, the government insisted that this policy was necessary in order to facilitate economic growth. The implementation of this policy in fact had an even greater effect on the society as a whole. The social effect this policy left on the society is underestimated by Chinese officials [13]. It left hundreds of millions of families with just one child, has altered families, and caused an unbalanced sex-ratio. Today, approximately one-third of families in china only have one child [13]. Since the start of this policy, China has changed significantly over the last thirty-five years. The goal of quadrupling GDP that was set by Deng was easily achieved in only half the time. Today GDP per capita is roughly over $8,000, making China the second largest economy in the world- just behind the United States. The generation of the one-child policy has the most significant effect economically, socially, and politically. These citizens “are the best educated in Chinese history, are highly mobile geographically, and exert their power and voice in the sphere of social media” [14]. This generation strongly believes in respect and that the decision of adding to the population is for the individual. Feng, Cai, and Gu stated that this policy will go down in the most detrimental in Chinese history, surpassing the famine of 1959-1961 and the Cultural Revolution in the late 1960s [14]. In summary, they also believe that the one child policy has created a society “with a seriously undermined family and kin structure, and a whole generation of future elderly and their children whose well-being will be seriously jeopardized” [14]. Although the one-child policy accomplished the Chinese government’s economic goals, this policy destroyed Chinese society by interveing with the natural life-cycle.

Although China has experienced several democracy movements starting in the 1950s, Deng began to label these movements as dangerous by the end of 1979. People were imprisoned for attempting these movements, yet they still continue to occur to this day [15]. Wang Junato grew up studying communist ideology. He stated, “but as I was confronted with social realities, I discovered a huge gap between the poverty of the people, and the ideological promises made to me, and I began to have my doubts about communist rule” [16]. He participated in a democratic movement in 1976, and was placed into prison because of it. He was released from prison when Mao died, but continued his work on democratization. He was put into prison once again in 1989. Wang was released in 1991 and was exiled to the United States.  Throughout the 1980s, several protests led by college students occurred throughout China. In 1989, a large protest in Tiananmen Square brought millions of people to the streets of Beijing. This protest posed a major challenge for the CCP, yet the party remained to stay in power. At the same time, several other communist countries in Europe were starting to collapse. In China, the government regulated the web and implemented systems similar to “Net Nanny” which restricted access to some websites [17]. This caused a separation between the citizens because some were able to get around this firewall while others were uneducated and do not have access to these techniques. In the years following the Tiananmen protest, some westerners wondered if China would ever shift to a democratic political system. Bill Clinton estimated that if China were to see a change in media, that they may have the chance of seeing new forms of politics [18]. As a result, the CCP has been working very hard on trying to keep their current political system in place. As the government thinks that these political policies are beneficial to Chinese society, it truly prevents the citizens from being able to become educated on world events and unable to see political change.

Figure 3: Democracy Protests in Tiananmen Square, 1989

China has experienced an unclear political system over the past three decades. The country has been running under communist rule for over sixty years, and then was mixed with private entrepreneurship and capitalist policies over the last thirty years. Currently, it is unclear where China stands politically, due to the “lack of transparency” by the Chinese government [19]. The communist party is still in charge of government in China, “and is the only legal political party” [20]. Some say that the evaluation of the country’s present and future are quite risky due to the uncertainty behind the political decisions. Since the Mao era, there have been more peaceful transitions in leadership and there have been some Democracy activists emerging.  According to Morris, some say that China may experience a lack of development because it may never see a democratic heritage [20]. With the communist party being in charge, the citizens’ role in decision making is not an option. Those who attempt to advocate for human rights are occasionally detained. Additionally, the central government officials show “disregard [towards] ordinary citizens” [21]. For example, when building the Three Gorges Dam, they moved more than a million people out of their homes and diverted water onto their land. Other reports have been made that water has become infested with garbage, and experts have said that the creation of this dam caused an increase in the possibility for landslides and earthquakes. An additional lack of care of the officials include the permission of contaminated food and liquor to be sold, which has put the population’s health at risk. The country also experiences nepotism and corruption. In 2012, China ranked 75th out of 178 countries on Transparency International’s Corruption Index. This is not a good ranking due to the size of the Chinese economy being one of the largest in the world [21]. The communist system post-Mao has prevented advancements of economics, education, and the political system. Therefore, this has caused a difficult time for the Chinese to modernize.

From 1950 and onward, the political goals and decisions that were posed by Mao Zedong and Deng Xiapong have been corrupt. This corruption has had a negative impact on Chinese society, specifically because of the imbalanced sex ratios that occur in Chinese society today. As a result, families in China have been torn apart, and people are no longer wanting to have children because of poor social services in the country. The Chinese have been limited to knowledge due to internet restriction by the government, and have been prevented from seeing a democracy ruled political system. There are 40 more million men in China than there are women, causing a massive population gap. These issues all stemmed from an economic hungry government. By placing restrictions on the society, the Chinese lead the world economy, right behind the United States. It is vital to understand the importance of the effects of these policies due to the terrible consequences that they left on the Chinese people. Although there has unarguably been economic growth, it has destroyed the country in aspects that some believe to have caused a difficulty for the Chinese to modernize.


[1] “China Ends 2016 with More Births, but Not Enough to Balance Population.” EFE News Service, Dec 28, 2016, (accessed January 17, 2017)

[2] EFE News Service, Dec 28, 2016.

[3] Young, Glennys. The Communist Experience in the Twentieth Century: a global history through sources. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. 209.

[4] Young, The Communist Experience in the Twentieth Century. 210.

[5] Wright, Teresa. Party and State in Post-Mao China. Chicester: Polity Press, 2015. (accessed February 21, 2017). 69.

[6] Wright. Party and State in Post-Mao China. 114

[7] Wright. Party and State in Post-Mao China. 115

[8] Wright. Party and State in Post-Mao China. 116

[9] Wright. Party and State in Post-Mao China. 117

[10]Wright. Party and State in Post-Mao China. 118.

[11] Feng Wang, Yong Cai, and Baochang Gu. “Population, Policy, and Politics: How Will History Judge China’s One-Child Policy?” Population and Development Review 38, 2013. 115. 117.

[12] Feng, Cai, and Gu. Population, Policy, and Politics. 118-119.

[13] Feng, Cai, and Gu. Population, Policy, and Politics. 120.

[14] Feng, Cai, and Gu. Population, Policy, and Politics. 126-127.

[15] Wasserstrom, Jeffrey N. China in the 21st Century: what everyone needs to know. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. 71-72.

[16] Hom, Sharon K., and Stacy Mosher. Challenging China: struggle and hope in an era of change. New York: New Press, 2008. 101.

[17] Wasserstorm. China in the 21st Century. 85-86.

[18] Wasserstorm. China in the 21st Century. 123.

[19] Rossabi, Morris. A History of China. Malden, MA: John Wiley and Sons, 2014. Accessed March 21, 2017. 403.

[20] Morris. A History of China. 404.

[21] Morris. A History of China. 405.


Figure 1. Peasants Toiling During The Great Leap Forward, 1958,

Figure 2. Propaganda of Mao stating, “The Chinese People’s Liberation Army is the great school of Mao Zedong Thought”, 1969,

Figure 3. Democracy Protests in Tiananmen Square, 1989,


Final Paper

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The Effects of China’s Population on its Economy

            China is known to be one of the biggest countries in the world, with a large population and strong economic growth. Many families have migrated to large cities in China, including Hong Kong, to settle with their families and have a well-paying job. Too many families and people have migrated into the Mainland and Hong Kong, where the Chinese created the permits, such as the “one child policy”, which will create a slower rate of population grow for the ongoing years and bring less citizens into Hong Kong. Mainlanders were noted of only using about 100 out of 150 daily permits that were available for them to go to Hong Kong. After China had begun efforts to slow down the population in the first half of the nineteenth century, many more job opportunities were offered in the mainland and that slowly decreased the population rate of people moving to Hong Kong. With more job availability in the mainland compared to before the permits were created, the living conditions also started to improve as “a leading social policy academic and a social worker said better living standards on the mainland had led to fewer applications for one-way permits” [1].  China will begin efforts to decrease in population, but the number of citizens will remain high and bring impacts to China’s economy.

China is known to have one of the largest population in the world. The large population has brought positive and negative effects to the country. The population growth caused the government to create new policies, including the one child policy, to help control the population so that by 2030 the population will begin to decrease and areas will no longer be over-populated. Although there are negative effects to having an over-populated country, it can bring many  benefits to the country as well. Business corporations have advantages by having an abundance of applicants, that brings many labor opportunities. The large amounts of applicants lead to an increase in productivity in international trade for export demands. China’s economy continues to stay strong with the large population, providing many jobs and opportunities for people to help improve the economy and government.

Figure 1 displays a graph of China’s population from 1961-2005 [22]

The Opium Trade brought strong importance to the world by how it impacted China’s current economic system. On June 3, 1893, it was an important day in Chinese history. On that day, Chinese government had commended the crimes of the alien intruders, after Lin Tse-hu destroyed the beach at Humen, which had destroyed some of the opium [2]. After Lin had stopped the Opium trade, a war had soon begun between the Chinese and the British.  There was a strong connection between China and Burma, and that the connection was important to Burma opium industry. Under the British rule, Nisbet stated that “all licenses to sell opium were held by Chinese men” [3]. During 1903-1904, a report came back in lower Burma, stating that out of the 91 license holders, 44 of them were Chinese[4].  The Chinese mass population in Burma had brought strong benefits to the opium trade, which gave many opportunities for labor. They were known to be the most useful tool, for they alone had a lot of experiences and knowledge with smugglers. Even though Chinese population continues to increase, it slowing started to decrease as the Europeans were catching up to them as licensed holders. Three years later, a report came back to lower Burma and this time 35 were Chinese, 30 were Europeans, 12 were Burmese, and 4 were of other ethnicities [5]. The Chinese brought strong importance to the opium trade and increase sales. After the war between the Chinese and British, China had announced that India had chosen to ended their connection with China and the Opium trade [6]. The first international opium trade conference was held in Shanghai in February of 1909[7]. The conference had not gone as planned and many countries had left disappointed with the new regulations of the opium trade. The Treaty of Nanking was soon signed after the Opium War, and was the first unequal treaty signed by the Chinese. The treaty was that the Chinese had to pay 21 million silver dollars to the British and fix the tariffs rates, after the collusion with Britain. The following year, China had to sign the general regulations at five ports of trade with Britain. Trades throughout China have brought changes to the structure of the economy by bringing more labor opportunities and finical benefits to Chinese economy.

Ideology had become the product of modernization in China. People had believed that ideology was an escape from freedom and sign and a reluctance for an individual to accept the price of social autonomy [8]. A new movement came with the rise of national capitalism in China during the early 1900’s. In 1915, a new magazine came out called Hsin Ching Nein, that gave a rise to the people in China with a new cultural movement. The magazine had emphasized democracy and science to the Chinese people. Li Ta-chao, Chen Tu-hsiu, and Lu Hsun were the authors of the magazine, whose purpose was to change China’s government from an “old, feudal society into a young democratic country” [9].  This would create China into a more stable democratic economy.


     Figure 2 displays Chinese opera performance in the 1900 circa, in San Fransisco. [23]

Shanghai is one of Chinas biggest cities, that is located on the central cost of China. Between 1910 and 1930, the population of Shanghai had tripled, from 1,289,000 in 1910 to 3,145,000 in 1930 [10]. During that time of human growth, the city had gone through many physical changes. New forms of night life had appeared, including nightclubs, sky-scrappers were built, red neon lights were put along the Nanking road that alter a new urban landscape of hotels and commercial places. The population growth also impacted entertainment changes. The large amount of people gave use to many labor opportunities in the entertainment industry and gave large crowds of customers.Imperialism had a rise in China’s government with advancements in entertainment, amusement centers, movie theaters, and gambling.  Beginning in 1903, moving picture shows became more culturally enhanced. The movie theaters were places of high culture and brought many people together. “Westernization…represented the debasement of Shanghai’s Chinese population.” [11]. That lead to the attack of all sides by the temptations of gambling, prostitution, and narcotics. Due to political change, the nationalist taking power in 1927 brought need from Chinese to establish a new civic culture. The new culture would bring control to the chaotic life of the city, and that the establishment of modern police force would order a Public Security Bureau.

Chinese believed that they could obtain order of themselves now after the new establishment of Nationalist. China later saw new policies to urban societies in 1927, as overseeing the proper dress attire for people, licensing places of entertainment, regulating communication and traffic, and guiding public demeanor [12].  There were punishments directed on Chinese citizens if the policies were not followed. The Chinese government resulted in political corruption that lead to social corruption. It was caused due to the displacement of foreign control of modern industries through Chinese management. The most prominent example was the trafficking of narcotics. The imperialisms had smuggled opium by foreign groups between countries, then China had begun to grow their own poppy field, and finally heroin and morphine had been brought by government gangsters. Revenues from the trades of narcotics had helped finance the government.

China had emerged a new economic system between the two world wars. The growth of China created new goods from the boost of large scale industries and newly created financial institutions, both gave increasing economic growth. The Chinese government always had a strong economy, especially in Hong Kong. Many Chinese business men were known to dominate the economy after World War Two [13]. The growth of China came from the economic crises in the Mainland. It had soon become more socially and economically integrated in the Mainland. The senior officials began to change the Chinese government by raising taxes and expanding welfare. The relationship between the Mainland and China become so strong between the wars, that the Chinese trade had dominated Hong Kong’s economic outlook. By the 1930’s, Hong Kong was a “robust, free-standing and international banking system” [14]. The system met all finical requirements of commerce and industry in Hong Kong, but also carried to the Mainland as well. A silver crises had occurred that effected the Mainland and Hong Kong by creating them to abandoned their traditional basis for their currencies. The price of silver had declined in 1931, which left the economy to a severe downturn until 1935 when silver was abolished [15].

After 1949, China had gone through new regulations and policies. The post-1949 state had been known to be an effective rule over the entire country. The government had control over revenues, procedures, and appointments throughout China. The Communist State had new domestic challenges brought to them. Those included creating new institutions of ideology by expanding both rural and urban areas of China and to rule all of China. The differences between the rural and urban areas created it hard to be able to bridge the two areas together [16]. The government soon began to create political and economic structures between the two areas. The Chinese communist were motivated to reduce the social and economic inequalities across all the regions.

As Hong Kong’s population continues to increase in present day, there were also major issues relating back to population in 1957. Many of the Chinese had resulted in building new houses on top of the roof of others, in which the Chinese government had forbidden construction on top of rooftops to continue. Issues had arisen when there were about 2.5 million people living within 391 square miles, or rather 64 square miles of unusable land. As compared to Israel with 1.8 million people within 8,000 square miles. With the outgrown population, many refugees had resulted to sleeping on the streets. Hong Kong is known to be a beautiful city to look down onto, until you take a walk down the street and how “it’s an appalling city when you come down and look, close up, at how the thousands live” [17]. In Hong Kong the rooftop dwellers were known as the middle class. Newspaper articles were written in 1957 to show the world how Hong Kong’s economy is at an all-time high even though their population is increasing rapidly, and that refugees are sleeping on the streets. Living conditions may be hard due to the outrage of population, but yet families are still able to exceed in life and come in contact with their families. Also that the refugees are living a normal everyday life, due to the harsh living conditions they face. Hong Kong is exceeding in exports, and manages to find solutions to control population and refugees coming in. With the outrage in population and the poor living conditions people were beginning to face, there was an explosion of economics. Exports to the United States had jumped from 15.4 million, to 20.4 million within a year. Imports had also become heavier, as in 1957 there were 56.9 million and the next year there were 74.2 million [18]. The skyrocketing trade had provided numerous jobs for the refugees. As to this day, Hong Kong still remains as a major exporter to the world,  and the increase of population can sufficiently benefit the  economy.

Figure 3 displays China’s economy percentage in 1952, 1977, and 1997. [24]

             In 2005, China was reported 1.29 billion people, 7 million people living in Hong Kong and Macao, with another 23 million living in Taiwan [19].  People have estimated that China’s population will hit its maximum in 2030, and then slowly decline afterwards. With China’s large population, it gives people many opportunities for employment, which is why China is known to be the “factory of the world”. China has formed economic policies to deal with the factor of increase population. The three factors responsible for China’s demographic dimensions are “cultural homogeneity, the key socioeconomic role of the family”[20] and the one-child policy. During 1956 many new policies were formed to control the Chinese population, that controlled the economic and social construct of Chinese people. Many Chinese in rural areas relied on renting of farms in village governments, jobs in factories, welfare, and permits for employment. With the high numbers in population, it lowers the costs of transportation and transactions, and impacts “well-functioning markets for labor and capital”[21]. The one-child policy was initially creating to decrease China’s population, to where by 2030 most people will be of older age and the population will decrease. This can also bring many negative impacts to the urban area. It limits birth in urban areas where child development for social and health conditions are the best and skilled labor is needed [22]. This creates an unbalanced structure for China’s population.

I believe that this topic is very important and the reason I researched it is because many people are familiar with how large China’s population and how important they are in the world of trade. Yet people do not realize how China controls their government and economy, and all the struggles they have gone through to reach the point they are at. This paper has given me an opportunity about a subject I was unclear about and expanded my knowledge not just on China, but around the world. History is so important for people to learn about and pay close attention to because it tells the stories through events that have happened, of how governments  policies were formed.



[1]  Henry  Gemmill Staff Reporter of The Wall Street Journal . (1957, May 17). Harried Hong Kongarried Hong Kong: Its Booming Population Turns to Making Shirts And Yachts for Yanks Houses Hang on Roof’s; China Refugees Sleep in Streets, Shun Bids to Return Home Mr. Lo To’s Low Pay Scale Harried Hong Kong: Population Booms; Exports to U. S. Rise. Wall Street Journal (1923 – Current File) Retrieved from

[2] Yi, Lin A Short History of China 1840-1919 Foreign Languages Press Peking (1965),6

[3] Yi A Short History of China, 38

[4] Gemmill The Wall Street Journal May 17, 1957

[5] Wright, Ashely. Opium and Empire in Southeast Asia: regulating consumption in British Burma 1980- (2014) 100

[6] Yi A Short History of China, 104

[7] Yi A Short History of China, 105

[8] Frederic E. Wake man Jr. Telling Chinese History a Selection of Essay (2009), 288

[9] Yi A Short History of China, 99

[10] Wakeman Telling Chinese History, 221

[11] Wakeman Telling Chinese History, 222

[12] Wakeman Telling Chinese History ,218

[13] Goodstadt, Leo F. Profits, politics and panics: Hong Kong’s banks and the making of a miracle economy, 1935-1985 (2007) 116

[14] Goodstadt Profits, politics and panics 47

[15] Goodstadt Profits, politics and panics 39

[16] R. Bin Wong China Transformed: Historical Change and the Limits of European Experience (1997) 195

[17] Sun, N., & Lee, E. (2015, Dec 05). Fewer mainland Chinese settle in Hong Kong, leading to cut in population growth projection. South China Morning Post Retrieved from (accessed January 18, 2017)

[18]   Sun, N., & Lee, E. Fewer mainland Chinese settle in Hong Kong, leading to cut in population growth projection December 5, 2015

[19] McNicolle, Geoffrey.  The Political Economy of Global Population Change, 1950-2050 (2006) 115

[20] McNicolle The political economy of global population change, 115

[21] McNicolle The political economy of global population change,121

[22] McNicolle The political economy of global population change, 121

[23] N.p., n.d. Web. <>.

[24] Benjudkins, Posted By. “Cantonese Popular Culture and the Creation of Wing Chun’s.”Kung Fu Tea. N.p., 03 Nov. 2014. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <>.

[25] N.p., n.d. Web. <>.