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RA#4: North Korea’s nuclear weapon project

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Hook: North Korea filed fifth missile on October 16th 2016, but this missile was not succeed. Also the US strategic commander said that missile did not provoked US at all. That type of missile can reach to Guam and Western Pacific. On August, North Korea fired missile into Japanese ocean. That kind of activities are provocation for declaring war. Their missile was not successful despite North Korea celebrate because they announced to citizen that they succeed their missile experiment. The US strategic command said North Korea is being isolate from other countries and rebel to UN. Also, he said those prohibited acts making more attention to resolve their problem. However, North Korea did not respond after missile experiment.

 

thesis: Humans have evolved for a long time. As mankind settled down in one place, the group grew up and developed as a result of the struggle. For more than thousands of years, humans have fought a lot, thereby showing strength, money, and power. In this era, physical warfare is not necessary because it can easily compromise negotiations and intimidation with nuclear weapons. Many countries want to develop nuclear weapons, but they are stepping aside for world peace, except one country. North Korea was not interested about nuclear weapons before 1950s; however, from lots of war experience and trade experience, North Korea wants to build nuclear weapons. North Korea is making nuclear weapons with people’s money and exploitation of labor and they want the attention and power from other countries.

Paragraph #2: The history of nuclear weapon

In former days, a country that fought well and is good at war was powerful country, but nowadays’ technology does not need physical force. These days, nuclear weapons are the strongest weapons and the most influential ones. With a single button, we can wipe the nation out of the country. Therefore, there is a huge brain fight between many countries. This huge nuclear weapon was first tested in 1945, the Second World War was going on. Dr. Einstein defected to the United States in 1933 to escape the German Nazi and he thought United States should make nuclear weapons earlier than Germany [3]. Because Germany was developing nuclear weapons, and Germany was the strongest. Many scientists and Jewish scientists in the United States launched the ” Manhattan Project” [3]. That project was succeed. It was the first time in Hiroshima that a nuclear weapon was used in the war. Because of this use of nuclear weapon, many countries wanted to have nuclear weapons, and the Soviet Union wanted more because of the cold war [3]. Thus, the Soviet Union developed nuclear weapons quickly and succeeded in developing stronger nuclear weapons than the United States, followed by Britain, France, and China were succeed to develop nuclear weapon [3].

 

Paragraph #3: When and why North Korea started to make nuclear weapon? What was the trigger for North Korea started to built nuclear weapon?

U.S. and other countries have begun developing nuclear weapons. Many countries wanted to strengthen their nuclear weapons program, but they decided to take steps to make peace for the sake of peace and build an International Atomic Energy Agency in 1956. Since then, North Korea has begun engaging in a friendly relationship between the Soviet Union and North Korea has developed nuclear weapons program with Soviet union’s nuclear technology and scientists. There is no exact reason why North Korea has nuclear weapons, but everyone has a weapon to protect themselves or something when it comes to protecting themselves. Therefore, North Korea needs a powerful weapon for its own isolated country.

Paragraph #4: North Korea supposed to give up their nuclear weapons but they kept ignore to enhance their weapons. North Korea is keep getting problems with other countries to making their weapons.

North Korea may have seen nuclear weapons from other countries. They will know how powerful and influential the nuclear weapons are. North Korea is the only isolated country. Kim Jong-il and his family are killing the people for themselves. They are building nuclear weapons for the purpose of Kim Jong-il and his family. Nuclear weapons are for their economic and political strength. Even though North Korea’s economy is falling apart, North Korea is making nuclear weapons with expensive ingredients. The money would have brought a much better result if the money had contributed to the recovery of the country. Especially, Kim Jong-un uses nuclear weapons as a weapon to enhance his leadership or get help from the international societies. Nuclear weapon became political weapons instead of war weapons.

Paragraph #5: Outside reasons and what happened in 1950s

The Korean War was fought on June 25, 1950 by the North Korean army. The peninsula divided by two parts of Korea peninsula, after Japan lost in World War II, the United States and Soviet Union were controlled over two parts of Korea [6].

 

Paragraph #6: In these days, North Korea is making and developing their missiles and nuclear bombs. North Korea’s desire to launch nuclear bomb was not these day’s dream and this is one of the political result as a product of the cold war. Many people are interested in North Korea’s nuclear experiments and their news. North Korea’s desire of nuclear bomb was started after cold war; however, North Korea did trade with other countries to make money. Many countries, such as British, Hong Kong, Filipino, Norwegian, communist countries, were came to Konam ad Chinnampo port at North Korea to trade manufactured good, raw materials, and food. North Korea made huge money by exporting goods and they exchanged good for ammonium sulphate and graphite. The irony is that, “… like many business men in Shanghai, including Americans, are clearly eager to carry on trade with the Communist. … In both American traders have manifested concern that the British would get the jump on them. Meanwhile British business men appear to be concerned lest “cold war” politics interfere with trade in Northeast Asia” [2]. Many non-communist countries wanted to trade with communist country , North Korea. That saved money could serve as a stepping stone for future missile and nuclear bomb making.

 

Conclusion: North Korea is put a lot of effort on nuclear weapon project, same time they are push themselves in international problems.

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[1] O’Donoghue, Rachel, “North Korea launches FIFTH missile test as US tensions mount”, Express Newspapers PLC, Oct 16, 2016, URL https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:6117/docview/1829405288?accounti d=14902 (Jan 25, 2017). [2] Lankov, Andrei. The Real North Korea : Life and Politics in the Failed Stalinist Utopia. Cary: Oxford University Press, 2013. http://orbis.eblib.com/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1153297 (accessed February 18, 2017) [3] EunGyo Jang, “History of Nuclear Test”, GyeonHyang News Paper, 15 January, 2016, URL: http://navercast.naver.com/contents.nhn?rid=134&contents_id=107480.

[4] Mack, Andrew. “North Korea and the Bomb.” Foreign Policy, no. 83 (1991): 87-104. doi:10.2307/1148719. [5] HENRY R LIEBERMAN, “Hong Kong Builds Brisk Trade with Red-Controlled North Korea,” New York Times, Feb 24, 1949, accessed 2017-02-02, https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:6117/docview/105748713?accountid=1490 2.

[6] “The problem of North Korea’s nuclear development”, Naver, URL: http://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=68766&cid=43667&categoryId=43667.

Geographic focus: North Korea, South Korea, United States, Korea peninsula Search terms: North Korea and nuclear*, “North Korea”, North Korea and nuclear bomb. Primary Source Database: JSTOR, SearchIt Primary Source Search Date Limiter: 1980-present Historical Research Questions: What if North Korea did not involved between cold war and trade, do they still available to made nuclear bomb?

 

RA 4 Terror in Paris: Legacy of French imperialism

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Hook: In now days, the biggest world problem is terrorism. Terrorism is cruel, merciless and dangerous. One of the biggest issue in these days was Paris Attack. In Paris, France, 13 November 2015, a suicide bombing was conducted by Islamic State. The terrorists armed with gun and attacked 6 different place at same time. The French president was watching the soccer match but after he got notice about the terror, he immediately declared a state of emergency, mobilized the military and tightened border controls. [1] However, this incident brought more than 130 people died and about 300 people wounded.

Thesis paragraph

In now days, terrors are frequently happened. Terrorism is a extremely bad and wrong expression. Terrorism was done when terrorists wanted to get what they wanted, and now terrorism became as the biggest problem in whole world. Recently there was a big terror in Paris. This Paris attack is seen as the work of terrorist group of Muslims which is IS. The reason why the terrorist attack the city Paris, because Paris is a big and famous city, so they want to give their messages to worldwide and other reason is historical background. The terror in France can be one of the legacy of French imperialism.

Imperialism is somewhat similar to colonialim. Basically, they both want to expand more land, moreover completely control other countries by invading. According to the book ‘Voices of Decolonization: A brief History with document’ by Todd Shepard, “The late nineteenth century had witnessed the reinvigoration of assertions by political leaders and pundits throughout Europe that their countries should seek to control and govern other areas of the globe. This process of building or expanding an empire is called imperialism” [2]. However, post-1860s era called new imperialism [2]. Many countries seized and control other countries for example, Japan conquered Korea and Taiwan from1876 to1910 and America controlled Philippines in 1898. [2] The motivation for activating imperialism is Industrial Revolution. Due to the Industrial Revolution, countries needed lots of other colonies to have more supplies and storage. Imperialism was activated from the end of the 19th century to the early 20th century.

Most of the Algerian who lived in France, mostly those of who supported French side when they were belongs to French or people who does not uninterested in the Algerian movement. When they gained citizenship in France after Algerian independence and settled in France. [3] Although they seem they have good relationship now, but some of Algerian people still have a bad feeling in France. So it brought small and big terrorism is happening frequently in France.

French invade Algeria in 1830 and Algeria became colony of French. Algeria, which was persecuted, wanted independence so they began armed and build FNL (Front de Libération Nationale) to fight with France in 1945.[4] In order to prevent this, France increased its troops to stop the Algerian and this expanded to the Algerian war. This is being recorded as hard and bloody independent war. FNL continued to fight against French and eventually gained independence in 1962.  Since Algeria is a Muslim country, so far France and Muslims have a not good relationship. This kind of historical background makes French to have through many terrors by Muslims and Algerian.

Paragraph #6: The relationship between France and Algeria is not so good. Because of that relationship, France experienced many terrors by Algerian and Muslims. As shown on the newspaper, there were many terrorist attacks in France from 1956 to 1960, resulting in many casualties and injuries; “A balance sheet of dead and wounded in five years of terrorist attacks in France attributed to Algerian nationalists- 2,998 killed and 7,287 wounded- was published today by the French News Agency on the basis of semiofficial figures. [5] Most of the victims were Muslim Algerians who living in France. 2,971 of Muslims, 88 of European Civilians, and 39 soldiers or policeman died because of attack. The attacks divided into two categories; disciplinary and terrorist. “In the first category are the virtual gang battles between agents of the national Liberation Front, the dominant nationalist organization in Algeria, and the Algerian national Movement, strong among Algerians working in France” [5]

Conclusion: French and Algerian or Muslims have bad relationship after colonization and it brought many kind of terrors in France.

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[1] Marco Chown Oved, “TERROR IN PARIS: At least 120 killed in wave of attacks across city; French president vows ‘pitiless’ war against those responsible Fire brigade members come to the aid of an injured woman Friday night near the Bataclan concert hall in Paris, where authorities said at least 78 people were killed by gunmen who stormed the theatre”, Torstar Syndication Services, a Division of Toronto Star Newspapers Limited, Nov 14, 2015, https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:6117/docview/1732910809?accountid=14902

[2] Shepard, Todd. Voices of Decolonization: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2015.

[3] Hargreaves, Alec G. “Third-Generation Algerians in France: Between Genealogy and History.” The French Review 83, no. 6 (2010): 1290-299. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40650637.

[4] Evans, Martin. “France and Two Algerian Revolutions.” The Journal of African History 43, no. 3 (2002): 528-29. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4100623.

[5] 1] Special to The New York Times, “2,998 IN FRANCE DEAD IN ALGERIAN TERROR,” New York times, 02 Dec 1960, https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:6117/docview/115108668accountid=14902 (accessed February 5, 2017).

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Geographic focus: France, Algeria, Muslim countries

Revised list of search terms: French, Algeria*, Bomb*, Terror*

Primary Source Database: Search it, JSTOR

Primary Source Search Date Limiter: 1900-1980, 1987-2017

Historical Research Questions: Why people have interested about relationship between France and Algeria? Why many Algerian or Muslims still live in France?

RA: 4 Roots of Contemporary Issues: Americas Need for Speed (and other drugs) Creates Mexico’s War on Drugs

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RA 1: Mexico and Drugs

Since the dawn of mankind marijuana, cocaine, opium, and various other drugs have been used to achieve a state of mind that we all know as ‘getting high’. Now even though drugs have always been ever present in society it was not until the 1960’s do we see a rise in drug culture. A culture that exploded in the 1980’s and has caused significant issues in the U.S. but more notably in Mexico due to the violence created by Mexican drug cartels.  A British frontline reporter who goes by the name Grillo has been living in Mexico and has been documenting the drug war for over twelve years. During his time in Mexico he has seen many violent acts performed by the infamous cartels. But, it was not until 2006 that he really noticed a huge increase the malevolent crimes committed by these influential gangs. The reason the cartels were created and have grown to such power in these past few decades is mainly due the huge amount of drugs that is consumed by the United States. Its no secret that in 2006 Mexico’s former president  Felipe Calderon declared a war on drugs in his country. But, as of today Mexico has lost that war and Mexico’s current President Enrique Pena Nieto along with the U.S., is trying to find a way to end the reign of drug cartels that doesn’t involve using a huge amount of military force. To him it is better to lightly take on the drug trade, rather than to take it head on, which he feels only fuels cartels’ violence.

RA 2:Latin America Drug Traffickers Escape Through Bribery

The New York Times sent reporters down to Latin America for two months to gather information on the logistics behind the drug trafficking scene that occurs mostly in what is called the ‘silver triangle’. During their time spent in Santa Cruz, Paraguay, and western Brazil reporters caught on to a trail of corruption. It became blatantly apparent that those who were busted for drugs were being let off the hook due to major officials being paid off. Gage provides evidence of this when he writes, “If drug traffickers can’t use political influence to stop investigations against them, they. . .have so much available cash, for example in Colombia judges sometimes compete to try major narcotics cases because of the potential payoffs involved.”[1] Due to these occurrences practically everyone in the drug trade is considered untouchable. Which creates quite a problem for those officials who are trying to stem the flow of heroin and cocaine into the United States, a problem that has been rising since the end of WWII. But, according to the attitudes of Latin American countries such as Peru, who Gage claims, “The Peruvian Government has no unified policy on coca. Many Ministers feel that cocaine is an American problem and not a Peruvian Responsibility.” [1] Although, unlike Peru, other counties have been working hard to rid their land of the insurmountable amount of coca crops being grown, a task that is proving to be redundant, for as fast as the crops are cut down twice as many are replanted. But, as said by police Capt. Theodoro Campo Gomez, “There are too many loopholes in our laws and not enough cooperation between countries,”[1] a factor that makes the stamping out the drug scene nearly impossible.

This is primary source is a news article published by The New York Times. The intended audience would be the American people. The purpose of this source is to inform readers the details behind the cocaine and opium scene in Latin America. The historical context would be in the mid-seventies, which was when the drug trafficking from Latin America to the United States was at the highest level anyone had seen during that era. It would be safe to assume that the writer, Nicolas Gage, is American and most likely of European descent and since he works for the U.S.’s most popular newspaper that he is financially well off, which compares considerably to the people of Latin America. For those who live in Latin America tend to have low incomes and generally considered a lower class of people.

RA 3: Title: While America Gets High Mexico Explodes Into a Scene of Drug Trade Induced Crime

Hook: Since the dawn of mankind marijuana, cocaine, opium, and various other drugs have been used to achieve a state of mind that we all know as ‘getting high’. Now, even though drugs have always been ever present in society, it was not until the 1960’s do we see a rise in drug culture. A culture that exploded in the 1980’s and has caused significant issues in the U.S. but more notably in Mexico due to the violence created by Mexican drug cartels.  A British frontline reporter who goes by the name Grillo has been living in Mexico and has been documenting the drug war for over twelve years. During his time in Mexico he has seen many violent acts performed by the infamous cartels. [1] But, it was not until 2006 that he really noticed a huge increase the malevolent crimes committed by these influential gangs. The reason the cartels were created and have grown to such power in these past few decades is mainly due the huge amount of drugs that is consumed by the United States. Its no secret that in 2006 Mexico’s former president, Felipe Calderon, declared a war on drugs in his country. But, as of today Mexico has lost that war. Mexico’s current President Enrique Pena Nieto along with the U.S., is trying to find a way to end the reign of drug cartels that doesn’t involve using a huge amount of military force. To him it is better to lightly take on the drug trade, rather than to take it head on, which he feels only fuels cartels’ violence. [2]

Thesis Statement: America’s demand for drugs from the 1930’s to the late 1970’s fueled Mexico’s drug issue to the point where “the war on drugs” became inevitable [3] [4]

Paragraph 3: A look back at the part drugs played in Mexico pre-1960’s era. [3]

Paragraph 4: How the usage of drugs significantly increased in America between 1960- 1970. How/what policies were set in place to control the usage spike. [4] [5]

Paragraph 5: How the crack down on drugs in America directly relates to the emergence of Mexican drug cartels and their increasing power. [7]

Paragraph 6: The New York Times sent reporters down to Latin America for two months to gather information on the logistics behind the drug trafficking scene that occurs mostly in what is called the ‘silver triangle’. During their time spent in Santa Cruz, Paraguay, and western Brazil reporters caught on to a trail of corruption. It became blatantly apparent that those who were busted for drugs were being let off the hook due to major officials being paid off. Gage provides evidence of this when he writes, “If drug traffickers can’t use political influence to stop investigations against them, they. . .have so much available cash, for example in Colombia judges sometimes compete to try major narcotics cases because of the potential payoffs involved.”[6] Due to these occurrences practically everyone in the drug trade is considered untouchable. Which creates quite a problem for those officials who are trying to stem the flow of heroin and cocaine into the United States, a problem that has been rising since the end of WWII. But, according to the attitudes of Latin American countries such as Peru, who Gage claims, “The Peruvian Government has no unified policy on coca. Many Ministers feel that cocaine is an American problem and not a Peruvian Responsibility.” [6] Although, unlike Peru, other counties have been working hard to rid their land of the insurmountable amount of coca crops being grown, a task that is proving to be redundant, for as fast as the crops are cut down twice as many are replanted. But, as said by police Capt. Theodoro Campo Gomez, “There are too many loopholes in our laws and not enough cooperation between countries,”[6] a factor that makes the stamping out the drug scene nearly impossible.

Paragraph 7: Further elaboration on how drug cartel violence escalated even further until it ultimately lead to the start of  the “War on Drugs” in the 1980’s. [7]

Paragraph 8: A summary tying all the above events together.

Conclusion: How the above events compare and contrast to the drug situation in Mexico and America today. [1]

 

RA 4: Roots of Contemporary Issues: Americas Need for Speed (and other drugs) Creates Mexico’s War on Drugs

Since the dawn of mankind marijuana, cocaine, opium, and various other drugs have been used to achieve a state of mind that we all know as ‘getting high’. Now, even though drugs have always been ever present in society, it was not until the 1960’s do we see a rise in drug culture. A culture that exploded in the 1980’s and has caused significant issues in the United States, but more notably in Mexico where drug crime is now integral to the countries identity. Mexico is America’s number one drug supplier, for hundreds of thousands of pounds of cocaine, marijuana, and heroin cross the Mexican border yearly. This illegal trade of these highly demanded pleasure inducing substances to the United States has caused a vast amount of crime and grief in the country. Today the war on drugs is still being fought in America, at the border, and more largely, in Mexico. A British frontline reporter who goes by the name Grillo has been living in Mexico and has been documenting the drug war for over twelve years. During his time in Mexico he has seen many violent acts performed by the infamous cartels. [1] But, it was not until 2006 that he noticed a huge increase in the malevolent crimes committed by these influential gangs. The reason the cartels were created and have grown to such power in these past few decades is mainly due the huge amount of drugs that is being illegally trafficked to the United States. Mexico’s current state of unruliness begs the historical question of how narcotics became powerful and dangerous enough to cause a full-scale war in Mexico. [2]

Thesis: To find the root of an issue that has prevailed throughout the years, one has dig deep through all the layers of information before finally striking the initial cause. When it comes to the Drug war in Mexico there are a lot of layers, but each one contains vital information that sheds light on what events were the embers that eventually sparked the blazing fire that is Mexico’s war on drugs. After sifting through all the information it can be seen that the United States of America plays a crucial role in the cause of the war on drugs. Their role being comprised of multiple factors that include not only its high demand for narcotics, but also the policies that were set in place to combat the increasing demand. The 1920’s is where this effect can first be seen when prohibition was set in place.  Although, this law dealt with the illegalization of consumption of alcohol it opened the door for many American’s to turn to drug usage. Speakeasies infamous to the roaring ‘20’s scene were a popular place for cocaine and marijuana users. [3] In the 1930’s American officials started to recognize the expansion of the drug scene, mainly that of marijuana, and taxes and laws were set in place in an attempt to slow and eventually stamp out the use of cannabis. But, despite their efforts marijuana usage continued to grow [4].

Although, the U.S. was not alone when it came to setting policies in place that restricted the flow of drugs across the border. In 1923 Mexico placed their own set of restrictions that banned the importation of narcotics into Mexico.  Then in 1927 the exportation of heroin and marijuana was also made illegal. [5] In 1948 Mexico finally decided to enact, “Mexico’s first “national eradication campaign,” also called La Gran Campaña (the Great Campaign).” [6] This campaign took the burden out of the hands of the Mexican police force, who proved to be unaffected, and placed it onto the shoulders of the country’s military. The military’s job was to do their best to remove all opium and marijuana fields from Mexico’s land through burning and stamping methods. Unfortunately, the combination of the U.S.’s and Mexico’s “clever” restriction policies only accomplished the raising of the price of the highly demanded narcotics. With such a considerable profit to be made underground operations began to flourish, for marijuana and opium cultivators simply turned to the murder or bribery of Mexican officials to keep their production amounts flowing. [7]

Policies remained relatively the same in both America and Mexico until the 1960’s where it became evident that the current set of eradication methods were proving to be unsuccessful. By 1967 thirteen percent of Americans between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five confessed to have consumed marijuana, a number that rose ten percent in a matter of only five years. Undoubtedly, the hippie scene spurred by the Vietnam War defiantly contributed to the rising demand of narcotics in the United States. [8] To combat the drug scene that still seemed to be growing, the Mexican and U.S. government decided to work together to implement Operation Condor. Operation Condor involved Mexico using the U.S.’s aerial surveillance technology to target opium, cocaine, and marijuana crops by spraying them with herbicides. [9] This proved to be a successful tactic and soon the three crops were reduced significantly, for on an annual basis around fifteen-thousand acres of marijuana and thirty thousand acres of opium were effectively destroyed.[10] But, this was not achieved without consequences, for, “. . .stiffer antidrug law enforcement, particularly eradication and interdiction programs, tend to have a “cartelization” effect on the market, in the sense that they push less daring and smaller traffickers out of the business and thus benefit the most powerful and organized”. [11] These more ‘powerful and organized’ groups are the equivalent to the drug cartels that we know today. They manage to boost their production of narcotics by increasing the number of officials they pay off or the amount of violent forces used to defy officials.
Evidence of the ‘cartelization effect’ can be seen in countries just south of Mexico. In 1975 The New York Times sent reporters down to Latin America for two months to gather information on the logistics behind the drug trafficking scene that occurred mostly in what was called the ‘silver triangle’. During their time spent in Santa Cruz, Paraguay, and western Brazil, reporters caught on to the trail of corruption. It became blatantly apparent that those who were busted for drugs were being let off the hook due to major officials being paid off. Gage provides evidence of this when he writes, “If drug traffickers can’t use political influence to stop investigations against them, they. . .have so much available cash, for example in Colombia judges sometimes compete to try major narcotics cases because of the potential payoffs involved.”[12] Due to these occurrences practically everyone in the drug trade is considered untouchable. Which creates quite a problem for those officials who are trying to stem the flow of heroin and cocaine into the United States, a problem that has been rising since the end of WWII. But, according to the attitudes of Latin American countries such as Peru, who Gage claims, “The Peruvian Government has no unified policy on coca. Many Ministers feel that cocaine is an American problem and not a Peruvian Responsibility.” [13] Although, unlike Peru, other counties have been working hard to rid their land of the insurmountable amount of coca crops being grown, a task that is proving to be redundant, for as fast as the crops are cut down twice as many are replanted. But, as said by police Capt. Theodoro Campo Gomez, “There are too many loopholes in our laws and not enough cooperation between countries,”[14] a factor that makes the stamping out of the drug scene close to impossible.

As seen above drug cartels hold the most power in the drug scene, even more so than that of the United States and Mexican governments. Whenever a stricter law is set in place, the cartels are able to rapidly adjust and continue on with business as usual. For instance, when Operation Condor was enacted, cartels responded by spreading out crops to make them hard to locate from the air.[15] When authorities would get on the trail of cartels spies would tip off the cartels allowing them to get away at the last second. It seems as if it doesn’t matter how severe the laws become, for as determined as drug traffickers are, they always seem to find a loophole. [16] Although, sometimes its not the traffickers them selves finding a way out of being convicted. For instance it can be the judges who reside on the bench who let the cartels off.  This can be because they were bribed or it can also be a result of the judges finding the punishment to not fit the crime.  This can be seen in 1956 when the U.S. set in place a mandatory death penalty for those who were twenty one and over and convicted of selling drugs to a minor. Most judges thought this to be too harsh of a law, so they would more often then not find the defended not guilty [7].

Conclusion: How the above events compare/contrast/lead  to the drug situation in Mexico and America today. ((Depending on if its the right direction))

Endnotes:

[1] Billy Briggs, “FRONT LINE MEXICO,” Sunday Mail, October 6, 2013, from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1439564475?accountid=14902 (accessed January 20, 2017).

[2] Billy Briggs, “FRONT LINE MEXICO,” Sunday Mail, October 6, 2013, from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1439564475?accountid=14902 (accessed January 20, 2017).

[3]  Isralowitz, Richard. 2002. Drug Use, Policy, and Management. Westport, US: Greenwood Press.

[4]Isralowitz, Richard. 2002. Drug Use, Policy, and Management. Westport, US: Greenwood Press.

[5]Isralowitz, Richard. 2002. Drug Use, Policy, and Management. Westport, US: Greenwood Press.

[6] María Celia Toro,  Mexico’s ‘war’ on Drugs : Causes and Consequences, (Boulder : Lynne Rienner Publishers,1995)

[7]María Celia Toro,  Mexico’s ‘war’ on Drugs : Causes and Consequences, (Boulder : Lynne Rienner Publishers,1995)

[8]María Celia Toro,  Mexico’s ‘war’ on Drugs : Causes and Consequences, (Boulder : Lynne Rienner Publishers,1995)

[9] Craig, Richard. “Operation Condor: Mexico’s Antidrug Campaign Enters a New Era.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 22, no. 3 (1980): 345-63. doi:10.2307/165493

[10] JAMES M. “Earlier Efforts and Errors in War on Drugs.” New York Times, Jan 06, 1973, 1.

[11] María Celia Toro,  Mexico’s ‘war’ on Drugs : Causes and Consequences, (Boulder : Lynne Rienner Publishers,1995)

[12] Nicholas Gage, “Latins now leaders of hard-drug trade”, New York Times, April 21, 1975, 61.

[13] Nicholas Gage, “Latins now leaders of hard-drug trade”, New York Times, April 21, 1975, 61.

[14] Nicholas Gage, “Latins now leaders of hard-drug trade”, New York Times, April 21, 1975, 61.

[15] Craig, Richard. “Operation Condor: Mexico’s Antidrug Campaign Enters a New Era.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 22, no. 3 (1980): 345-63. doi:10.2307/165493

[16] Felix Belair, “Drug Drive Opens At Mexico Border”, New York Times,  September 22 1969, 1.

[17] Payan, Tony, Staudt, Kathleen, and Kruszewski, Z. Anthony, eds. 2013. A War that Can’t Be Won : Binational Perspectives on the War on Drugs. Tucson, US: University of Arizona Press.

 

Geographic Focus: Mexico, U.S.A

Search Terms: Mexic* AND drug*, Mexic* drug trade, drug* Latin America, heroin in Mexico, Mexica* Cocaine, drug war, Marijuana U.S. Popularity, U.S. Drug Timeline, Foriegn Relation* AND drug*, drug* AND 1960’s, Mexic* drug cartel*

Primary Source Data Base: New York Times

Primary Source Date Limiter: 1900-1979

Historical Research Questions: How did the usage of drugs in America impact the increase in drug related crimes in mexico? What did the Mexican Government do to try and stop the increase in Crime, did it help? How did the drug crime get so out of hand in Mexico? What did the U.S. do to help?

Under Castro’s control and with his decisions in trade with a different country, it has affected the relationships with countries that are still happening today.

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Fidel Castro’s ruling did not start until the late 1950s when he overthrew Fulgencio Batista with armed forces in Cuba.[3]  Cuba decided to take action under Castro’s ruling during the Cold War.  At this point there was tension between the Soviet Union and the United States.  In the 1950s was when times were heated because of the changes that were occurring.  Around 1959 Cuba was trying to reduce their dependency from the United States.[2]  Sugar was one way that the leaders of Cuba used to continue their economic development but this would eventually bring problems and concerns to the United States.  Dependency that Cuba had with the United States led to a zero percent trade with United States and an increase of 49 percent of trade with the Soviet Union.[1]  This economic growth continued until about 1961 and according to an article by William M. Leogrande and Julie M Thomas, it was “due to bottlenecks which caused sugar prices to go up reducing exports and affecting production.” [3]
Castro’s power allowed him to move around, work and make agreements with different countries.  With his decisions that he made in order to benefit himself and Cuba, he changed a lot of the relationships during the 1950s and 1960s that are still happening up to this day.  The citizens of Cuba were concerned with the different movements happening in regards to the Soviets going into Cuba as well as the poverty level at the time.[9]  He changed a lot of the policies and also changed trading partners from the United States, to then going to trade sugar with the Soviets.  This change of Cuba dealing with the Soviets grew a lot of concern in different areas to the United States and other countries that were afraid of this alliance.  Eventually different events came up.  The Bay of Pigs Operation was something that happened during the time, as well as the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Castro came to power when he overthrew Fulgencio Batista from his position as a military dictator. There was a point where there was serious tension between Castro and Batista and even though Batista had Castro and could have killed him.[3]  He never finished the job and Castro ran away from the country to plan his counterattack.  When Castro was ready to attack and he had his plan to remove Batista from power, in the early stages, the United States was supporting this movement because at the time it was leading towards democracy and it would eventually benefit the United States if Castro were to be successful.
When the United States saw how much power Castro was having they did not quite agree with the direction that his agenda was going in.  The United States eventually took action and decided it was best to act than to wait for catastrophic events to happen with Cuba being allies with the wrong countries.  The US stopped the sugar trade with Cuba.  Since Cuba produced a lot of sugar they were limited on what they would do with so much supply so they had to sell it.[3]  Cuba eventually signed a deal with the Soviet Union on sugar, which is something that concerned the United States.  It was a growing concern to the United States  but it wasn’t until the United States discovered the missile base that the USSR was building in Cuba (near the US) when the United States was more concerned about the serious risks and damage that that relationship would do. [4]  The United States found out about Russia creating a missile base in Cuba it was of concern essentially because it was in the backyard of the United States which i’ll go more in depth in the next few paragraphs.
Moscow played a big role in continuing to finance money for Cuba during it’s 5 year agreement for trade.  Cuba has been dealing a lot with politics and especially with the struggle to independence from any other country.[9]  The plan that Cuba had in mind was to generate enough money on exports so that it would eventually free Cuba from its deficit that it was suffering from.  The Soviets were holding on and sustaining the Cuban economy with the continuous trade of sugar during the time. [9]  When Cuba went to sell Sugar to the USSR the production of sugar declined over time.  By 1963 this affected the citizens of Cuba.  The standard of living in Cuba was poor.  There was a lot of poverty, Fidel Castro talked about his economic plans and he acknowledge it wasn’t doing well.  They for sometime refused to receive medicine or other essentials that the united States would proved.[2]  Cuba in order to fix its economy proposed a goal to meet a targe of about 10 million tons of sugar each year.
As Cuba was gaining power and was becoming a bigger threat to the United States happened about the same time as presidential elections in the United States.  John F. Kennedy had been declared as the new president in January 20th in 1961 .Nobody was supposed to know the the United States was involved.  The reason was this wasn’t a successful operation was because of all the restrictions and the fact that there were no set agreement set in stone 100 percent confirmed of how the operation was going to go.[8]  Since the operation was already planned during the previous president of the United States.  It was left for John F. Kennedy to carry on with the operation.  The people in the operation were not Americans, they were CIA trained ex Cuban exiles.  They wanted the people and Cubans to start against him but that act united them more and made them close, completely the opposite of what the United States wanted.
The Cuban Missile Crisis started early before John F. Kennedy took office.  The alliance that was happening between Cuba and the Soviets grew concern to the United States.[7]  The U.S tried to help the Cuban exiles take back Cuba from Castro.  But at the moment the Soviet leader was placing missiles and making a base near the backyard of the US.   In 1962 Oct. 15th-28th 13 days of October, a plane took pictures and saw that missiles have been in place facing the United States.  It was at this time when a decision needed to be made on what JFK was going to with the missile threats and the fact that the Soviets had missiles just 90 miles away from the United States.  As stated in James’ article, during the thirteen days the world and even the Soviet Union saw a clear determination in the use of power that the united states had. [7] With this event even if the United States would have chosen to invade Cuba and send the Soviets back there would have been a big effect on the relationships with foreign countries. As James A. Nathan stated in his article “this indeed might become a turning point in the relations between the east and west. [7]

Conclusion: How have these changes in power affected the trade market and the way we see different countries as allies?[11]

[1] Adam M. Pilarski and Donald Snyder, “Economic Effects of Revolution: A Reevaluation of Cuban Evidence,” American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 86, No. 5(Mar., 1981) pp. 1124-1129

[2] William M. Leogrande and Julie E. Thomas, “Cuba’s Quest for Economic Independence,” Journal of Latin American Studies Volume 34, Issue 2 (2002) pp.325-363

[3] Kosmas Tsokhas, “The Political Economy of Cuban Dependence on the Soviet Union,” Theory and Society, Vol. 9, No. 2, Special Issue on Actual Socialism (mar., 1980). pp.319-362

[4] Russell H. Fitzgibbon, “The Revolution Next Door: Cuba” March, 1961.  http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2135/stable/172569?seq=2#page_scan_tab_contents

[5] Argote-Freyre, Frank, “Fulgencio Batista: The making of a dictator,” New Brunswick : Rutgers University Press.  April 2006, Accessed Feb. 23, 2017.  http://site.ebrary.com/lib/wsu/detail.action?docID=10150133  pp. 22-24

[6] erepouni Daily News, “US visa-free residency for Cubans ends,” Syndigate Media Inc, Copyright 2017, http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2052/lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?oc=00240&hnsd=f&hgn=t&lni=5MMH-19V1-JDJN-607S&hns=t&perma=true&hv=t&hl=t&csi=411452&secondRedirectIndicator=true
(accessed January 13, 2017).

[7] James A. Nathan, “The Missile Crisis: His Finest Hour Now,” Cambridge University: World Politics, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Jan., 1975), Accessed March 20th, 2017. Pg. 272 http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2009883.pdf

[8]  “Official Inside Story of the Cuban Invasion,” U.S. News & World Report.  August 13, 1979,  Accessed 3/20/17.  http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic/?verb=sr&csi=8065&sr=HEADLINE%28Official+inside+story+of+the+Cuba+invasion%29%2BAND%2BDATE%2BIS%2B1979

[9]  Jorge Mario Sanchez “Challenges of Economic Restructuring in Cuba”, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.  2012, Accessed March 20th 2017,  Pg. 143

[10] Ricardo Torres Perez, “Economic Changes in Cuba: current Situation and Perspectives”, Harvard International Review. Summer 2012.  Accessed March 20th 2017.

[11]  International New York Times, “With one Castro Gone, Questions what the other Castro will do,”  Nov 27th, 2016, http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2098/newsstand/docview/1843905164/A851D8CB534D4625PQ/1?accountid=14902  (accessed January 13, 2017).

________________________________________

Geographic focus: Cuba, Havana, Soviet Union, (also may include Mexico)

Search Terms: Diploma*, Batista, Socialis*, Cuba, Soviet Union, Sugar, Trade, Communis*
John F. Kennedy,  Bay of Pigs,  Cuban Missile Crisis

Primary Source: Sage Publications

Date Timer: 1940-1979

Historical Research Questions:  What role did the Soviets play when Cuba and the United States had tension, and how did they manage to make the United States take action against Cuba and Castro.

DRA #4: Prostitution in France

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DRA #4

Hook: Today, there are many women in France that go into prostitution because they cannot obtain a decent job because they aren’t qualified or they don’t have an education that can help them achieve a job. So, there last resort is prostitution. This happens from ages ranging from as young as 15 to as old as 40. Many women are struggling into finding work that can pay a decent amount and help them achieve a better life. In recent years, there hasn’t been much stop to prostitution in France. Many women work in brothels, private areas, or even in the public because those are only some of the places that they can go to perform these sexual acts without being criminalized. Women are being forced into working in such a harsh way because they cannot afford to obtain a different job, since they aren’t qualified or they need more money than the job can provide. These women are being sexualized for money. Kilvington, Day, and Ward write, “the major problems of prostitution for the workers remain exploitation, stigma, abuse and criminalization.” [5] Women are performing this work in dangerous conditions that they shouldn’t have to endure.

Thesis (Paragraph #2): The rise of prostitution among young women in France is due to the lack of laws regulating the practice and, the rise of inequality among women from men. There have been many preconceptions about France and prostitution that women only do it for their sexual desires, but that is incorrect. Women get involved with it because they need to support themselves some way, and cannot get a job because they lack the education. There has also been a lack of laws regarding prostitution and hasn’t been stopped. These women are enduring such hard conditions, that one would think to try to stop it permanently.

Paragraph #3: Preconceptions about France and prostitution

Paris has always been known as “the city of love” for many reasons; how beautiful and romantic the city is, and the amount of sex workers that are in the city. In France, many women work as sex workers because they get paid much more than what they would be getting paid for having a “real job”. That doesn’t make it okay for them to work like that though. Many women who are prostitutes are in dangerous conditions, not knowing what their nights are going to be like or whom they are going to be with. Many women continue to work regardless of the terrible conditions because they need to make a living somehow. Per the article, “it’s not against the law to take money for sex in France, the new legislation—passed on Wednesday by the National Assembly—makes almost everything connected with the trade, including paying the money illegal.” [1] This is supposed to cause less prostitutes in France, but no matter what there will always be women doing this kind of work. Most people believe women go into prostitution for their benefit and sexual desires but this is not true. Women and young girls get involved with prostitution because they need to find some substantial work.

Paragraph #4: How women get involved into prostitution

Prostitution has been relevant in society and culture, mainly focused on French culture, involving many young girls and older women. Women and young girls go into prostitution because they are born into poverty and can’t afford to go attend school, and need to find work to earn money for a way of living. These women are being forced into this labor because they need to feel significant and have a sense of worth in their lives. The book, Writing with a Vengeance, is an account of a young girl, Céleste, who goes through life and becomes a prostitute. Mossman, the author, writes, “in 1840 Céleste Vénard registered herself with the Parisian police as a prostitute in accordance with the regulations.” [3] She was at a such a young and vulnerable age that she didn’t really know what she was doing. She needed to find some form of work that allowed her to work at a young age and earn some sort of living. Most of these women that are going into prostitution are from families or environments that are hurting them emotionally and physically. Among these women, most of them are being raped or beaten from someone in their family. Céleste didn’t have a father figure in her life, except her “mother’s lover” [3], Vincent, which “attempted seduction and rape.” [3] Vincent tried to force Céleste to have sex with him because she was going into prostitution and that she wanted it. Yes, that’s her way of living and finding money but it is not okay to force it out of her and rape her. These girls are coming from some sort of broken relationship that they then go and find some way to heal it. This was another reason that many young women fall into prostitution. First, money, and second, a torn relationship. Céleste didn’t necessarily have the best relationship with her mom, in fact it was terrible. Mossman writes, “…consented to give the written parental permission required for minors.” [3] After her mom gave her consent, their relationship was broken. Céleste went on and became a full-time prostitute. These women are enduring horrible conditions because they have no other way of finding a job because they lack the proper education. These women are also coming from harsh conditions before they even go into work. They’re coming from broken families that lead them to fend for themselves and try to live a new life. Those are the main reasons why prostitution started to become more relevant in society and, continue today.

Paragraph #5: Laws regarding prostitution

Before 1980, France had many problems with prostitution and today, still does. In 1960, there was an article published in The New York times explaining the measures they are taking to prevent prostitution and have women obtain a “more normal life.” [2] The article was written for people who were paying for prostitution and, or prostitutes in general. The purpose of the article is to inform people who are paying for prostitution that the government and police are taking serious measures to end prostitution. The New York times writes, “broader powers have been given to the police to control hotels and bars frequented by prostitutes. Such establishments may now be closed for periods of three months to five years and the proprietor faces possible loss of his driver’s license and passport.” [2] Anybody found with a prostitute will face huge consequences. The article was written on November 28, 1960 and read after it was printed. The author of the article is probably American since the article is from the New York Times. I think he may have a biased opinion on the situation happening in France because he isn’t in the country experiencing what is happening. The article is just meant to inform people on the consequences and give an insight on what is going on in other countries. One unspoken assumption the article contains is that there seems to be a lot of prostitution in France and that people haven’t been doing anything about it. In France, prostitution was so relevant that they weren’t sure what to do. So many women and young girls were getting involved in it, that they couldn’t stop mass movements of it. Soon enough, they presented laws that prohibited it, and tried to end prostitution. According to the book, Prostitution and the Ruling Class in Eighteenth-Century Montpellier, the government imposed many measures to try and end prostitution. These measures were focused on the middle class, and didn’t really end prostitution. They only reduced it. First, they write, “a series of laws between 1684 and 1687 attempted to eradicate the problem of prostitutes following the army.” [7] They wanted to diminish the chance of obtaining a disease from these “sex workers”. They didn’t care about these women, but instead wanted to do everything that they could to get rid of them. This also relates to the idea that men were treated better than women during these times, and still are. They continued to write laws that tried to end prostitution, they write, “the second aspect of government measures in the 1680’s was concerned with the honour of families.” [7] Again, the government did not care about the women, but the face of their families. They wanted everyone’s family to look great and act like they didn’t do anything wrong. They wanted the perfect family. These women who are involved in prostitution obviously didn’t care about what their families though. They needed to find a way to make money fast, and carry on with their lives. These laws did not end prostitution because it is still occurring today in many places around the world, especially in France.

Paragraph #6: Inequality among men and women with crime and prostitution, and how prostitutes are being treated

Today, many people define standards for men and women. Women are expected to act like a charming lady while men are to show how masculine and tough they are. This is unacceptable. Women, are also treated way differently than men. Men are treated like kings, always in charge and controlling everything around them. This is a prominent issue in prostitution today. These women don’t know where they’re going when they are “picked up” and don’t know anything about these men. They have a sense of fear in them, not knowing what their nights are going to be like. The British Medical Journal, written in 1957, wrote about prostitution saying that “Lombroso regarded prostitution in women as the equivalent of crime in men.” [8] This is comparing men committing actual crimes, like burglary or arson, to women who are trying to make money to support themselves. This is unfair. There was also another newspaper article, written by the New York Times in 1975, talking about several prostitutes that are calling federation and fighting for what they want. A quote written in the newspaper from a prostitute reads, “As a result, some of us have been getting arrested for or five times a night. Usually that means a $40 fine, or several nights in jail. What is particularly intolerable, is that then they send us to prison, they take our children away from us.” [9] The authorities do not see these women as women, they instead see them as sex objects because they do not believe that they are real people. This is wrong, they have lives, children and families that they need to support, but instead are being treated wrongly. When they are taken away for multiple nights, it puts a huge damper on them. A few nights can mean losing hundreds or thousands of dollars for them. This is all unacceptable. These women aren’t being treated fairly among their male race, and are also not being treated right by the authorities.

Paragraph #7: What’s happening today with prostitution

Conclusion: How to end prostitution and why it’s important in society

[1] Dickey, C “France’s New Prostitution Law Targets Johns, Ignites National Debate” 5 December 2013 https://search.proquest.com/docview/1662703172?accoundtid=14902

[2] “Prostitution Curbs Posed in France” New York Times, November 28 1960 (Assessed February 6 2017) https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:6117/docview/115114525?accountid=14902

[3]: Mossman, Carol. Writing with a Vengeance. Canada: University of Toronto, 2009

[4]: Gaissad, Laurent. “From Nightlife Conventions to Daytime Hidden Agendas: Dynamics of Urban Sexual Territories in the South of France.” The Journal of Sex Research 42, no. 1 (2005): 20-27.

[5]:Kilvington, Judith, Sophie Day, and Helen Ward. “Prostitution Policy in Europe: A Time of Change?” Feminist Review, no. 67 (2001): 78-93.

[7] Jones, Colin. “Prostitution and the Ruling Class in Eighteenth-Century Montpellier.” History Workshop, no. 6 (1978): 7-28. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4288189.

[8] “Prostitution.” The British Medical Journal 2, no. 5041 (1957): 399-400. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25383562.

[9] “FRENCH PROSTITUTES FORM A FEDERATION.” 1975.New York Times (1923-Current File), Jun 18, 23. https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:6117/docview/120383873?accountid=14902.

RA4

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The use of animals in research is controversial and has various regulations across the globe and moral implications for how humans interact with the planet. Scientists maintain the position that the use of animals in medical research is still necessary as it benefits and saves human lives. Animal rights advocates claim that the animals endure unnecessary suffering.  For decades the use of animals in medical research and testing has been grossly overdone, it is cruel, expensive, dangerous and unnecessary. In this essay I will be focusing on the EU (including the UK) policies toward animal research and testing in comparison to other nations across the globe in search of a solution to ending all animal cruelty for the sake of human greed across the globe.

The use of animals in research in the UK can be traced back to the 17th century but it didn’t truly expand until the 19th century. This expansion led to the Parliament of the United Kingdom passing the Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876, which was the world’s first legislation to regulate the use and treatment of live animals in scientific research. Animal research is one of the most regulated industries in the United Kingdom it is regulated by principles known as the three R’s created in 1959; refinement, replacement, and reduction of animals research. With all the diseases that ended numerous lives in the 20th and 21st centuries another act was put in place to protect animals, known as the 1986 Animals (4). It was put in place to ensured higher animal welfare standards in laboratories across the UK”(4).

In vitro(test tube) test methods and models are based on human cell and tissue. In vitro methods are usually more accurate and easier to perform. In 1885 the foundation for the principles of in vitro research were laid by, German embryologist Wilhelm Roux, “work to isolate the medullary plate (a key structure in the developing nervous system) of a chicken embryo and sustain the cells’ viability for a period of days”(7). Going into the 20th century there was an invasion of cell culture experimentation. Ross Harrison then took part in the advancement of in vitro methods, “Harrison was able to successfully culture, maintain, and grow nerve cells outside of the body – detailing the process by which nerve endings originate. His technique, the ‘hanging drop’, combined frog embryonic nerve fragments and frog lymphoid tissue by drops, which were then covered by a sterile coverslip. When the lymph clotted, the apparatus would be inverted over a glass depression slide maintaining the organic materials and allowing them to be observed for a period of time. This proved to be a vital breakthrough in cell culture that confirmed or rejected many existing theories and provided the means to develop new ones to expand the field.” (7). In 1974 J.L Gowans stated in the British medical journal, “ In vitro methods are usually more accurate, easier to perform and cheaper”([1]).

 

The EU banned cosmetic testing because non-animal related methods were created to guarantee the safety of cosmetics. According to the EU cosmetic products include soap, shampoo, deodorant, toothpaste, makeup, and any other hygiene items. First there was a ban on animal testing in finished products. Then, there was the ban towards animal testing on cosmetic ingredients. Next a ban the marketing of finished products tested on animals. Finally, there was a ban making it illegal to market or sell cosmetic products that have been tested on animals. The ban was first introduced in 1993 then by 2013 they were all in full effect(1).

Everyone feels differently towards animals but regardless animals are living beings that do not deserve to be captured, tortured, and enslaved. Mankind and animals were meant to live together in harmony. Peter Singer’s animal liberation was a shocking philosophy when first published in 1975 because it gave humans a brand new perspective to how animals deserve to live. Humans realized speciesism similarly to discrimination towards women and minorities allowed individuals to inscribe a superior status over animals, “If possessing a higher degree of intelligence does not entitle one human to use another for his or her own ends, how can it entitle humans to exploit non-humans?” (6). Animals are not objects to fulfill our needs and desires. Although the United Kingdom is supposed to use the three R’s in it’s animal testing extremists argue they are not trying hard enough, “During the 1990s and 2000s, there was a renewal of extremism against animal research facilities and their staff with the rise of the direct action group SHAC.” (5).

Animal testing is used to assess the safety and effectiveness of drugs on humans, but there is evidence that animals are not reliable candidates for the job. Every species has a different biochemical entity, and it is illogical to extrapolate data from one species to another. Those who do not oppose animal testing claim it is a necessary evil to help save and improve human life. Perhaps the most famous example animal test being a failure is with the drug Thalidomide, “Like all drugs, it was tested on animals prior to being released. However, not until phocomelia had been recognized in babies whose mothers had taken the drug… The researchers working with Thalidomide had done experiments on rats, but had not produced the characteristic limb abnormalities seen in humans (2). After scientist were aware the drug was harming the babies they went back and tested it on more than 50 animals but the same results were not seen in one single animal. Millions of animals are tortured to death without even a guarantee that they will advance medicine.

Not matter how certain individuals may perceive animals; the fact is that research facilities and cosmetics companies are exploiting animals all across the world. There have been times were animals provided assistance to medical advancements but there is never a guarantee with testing products on animals because our human biology strongly differs from theirs. It is not only cruel to the animals, but also expensive compared to alternative methods. In laboratory work “alternative”‘ (in vitro) methods have been available with the goal to reduce the use of living animals. Additionally if the UK declared it unnecessary to use animal testing in cosmetics decades ago why is the United States and dozens of other countries not following their lead. Alternative methods must be used as long as they are available.

 

 

 

 

[1] “Animal law.” Cosmetics. Accessed March 23, 2017. http://www.understandinganimalresearch.org.uk/policy/cosmetics/.

  1. Greek, C. Ray. “How reliable is animal testing?; Podium.” The Independent. March 08, 1999. Accessed March 23, 2017. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-

entertainment/how-reliable-is-animal-testing-podium-1079311.html.

  1. Gowans, J. L. “Alternatives To Animal Experiments In Medical Research.” The British Medical Journal1, no. 5907 (1974): 557-59. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20468446.
  2. “Resources.” History of animal research. Accessed March 23, 2017. http://www.understandinganimalresearch.org.uk/resources/animal-research-essay-resources/history-of-animal-research/.
  3. Murnaghan, Ian . “Facts About Animal Testing.” Facts About Animal Testing. March 18, 2017. Accessed March 23, 2017. http://www.aboutanimaltesting.co.uk/facts-about-animal-testing.html.
  4. Singer, Peter. Animal liberation: towards an end to man’s inhumanity to animals. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: Thornsons, 1986.
  5. “1885 – Roux Maintains Embryonic Chick Cells in Saline Solution.” Research Alternatives to Animal Testing. Frame, 27 May 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2017.

RA #4: Racism in Sports

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Racism is still seen today throughout many parts of the world and is an ongoing problem that many people have tried to put an end to. In sports; however, racism is blatantly clear. Soccer in recent years has seen increased racism. On February 17, 2015, Chelsea FC fans pushed a passenger of the opposing team they were playing against off of a Paris train, stating that there was not enough room. After the black man was pushed off the train, Chelsea FC fans then began, “chanting about World War II, along with shouts of ‘We’re racist, and we like it'” [1]. This whole incident was recorded on film and when Chelsea heard about it, they made a statement saying they would look in to banning any members involved. Although it may seem that sports teams are making conscious efforts to fight racism, it is simply not enough. Soccer is considered the world’s sport, but something that belongs to the world should not be associated with racism. Despite efforts to end racism in sports, racism in society must come to an end, to diminish racism everywhere else. This article raises questions as to whether racism is always going to be a problem in sports because of the immense amount of competition that comes along with it.

Thesis Paragraph:

The racist instances experienced all throughout sports in recent years have not come without historical relevance. Racism around the world is nothing new, but when it comes to sports, racism has always been a problem. This racism is likely the outcome of the period in time when the color line was broken in sports. Jackie Robinson signing with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1946 ultimately set the foundation for blacks integrating with other races in sports. The roots of this not only lie in the color barrier being broken, but more deeply in the history of blacks and whites being segregated for hundreds of years. While African Americans in countries all around the world tried for years to end segregation, it was evident that was not going to happen anytime soon. Countries such as South Africa, enforced racial segregation and they were not going to make any exceptions when it came to sports. during this time period, African Americans were considered and ‘inferior race,’ so people believed that because of this, blacks were not worthy, or of the same athletic ability as other races. Post World War II attitudes caused the rise of civil rights movements that consequently set the stage for integration in sports. In reality, racial segregation policies were extremely brutal and caused much resistance from countries such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Britain against South Africa. In turn, these countries and many more were the driving force that helped to integrate different races of people in to the same sports and stop the seemingly never ending battle that is racism.

To begin, the legacy of race and racism go back for hundreds of years and that played a huge role in regards to racism in sports all throughout the 20th century. In particular, the legacy and history of antisemitism is what sparked racism all around the world. After the Franco-Prussian War in 1880, France began experiencing mass amounts of political antisemitism. Even before the war took place, “Ideology during 1860 through 1890 on Jews was based upon a conspiracy theory that ‘could always “prove” that any misfortune was the work of Jews, even in the absence of evidence’” [2]. The aftermath of the war caused Jews to be manipulated by public opinion. Jews made up a huge portion of the working class and had control over world capitalism, so they made for any easy target to be manipulated by the public. In the period after 1880 as times began to change and modernize, “[there was a] connection between new fears uprising from conditions of modernity and old European hatreds that for centuries targeted Jews as the killers of Christ” [3]. Jews were not only seen as a plague to society, but many people saw them as a physical danger as well as a political threat because of their place in the working class. Peoples’ negative opinions of Jews gradually began getting more intense which led to the ghetto isolation of them. In the end, the roots of antisemitism yield the latter half of the 20th Century when the shift of racism moves toward ‘immigrants’ or black people.

In addition, as racism started becoming blatantly clear in the world of sports, African Americans began realizing that they could make a positive change. Jackie Robinson was of the first to make the historic break of the color line in major league baseball that was heard all around the world. In 1945, the general manager of the Red Sox, Eddie Collins, was urged by Boston City Councilor Isadore Muchnick, to start the process of integrating major league baseball teams. Years before this, Eddie Collins was accused of preventing African Americans from trying out for his team, but he denied those charges. Collins then stated that, “he never received a single request for tryout by a colored applicant” [4]. With threats from Muchnick; however, Collins agreed to have an integrated tryout where Jackie Robinson, Marvin Williams, and Sam Jethroe attended. After the tryout took place, then men were told that they would hear from Collins soon, but they never did. Two years after this historic tryout, news broke of Jackie Robinson making the Brooklyn Dodgers and having his first major league appearance in 1947. It was evident that while other teams began accepting African Americans after Jackie Robinson broke the color line, the Red Sox were still against interracial sports teams. People in the mid-1900s still believed that African Americans did not have the same athletic ability as whites and could not compete at such a high level. “Major league baseball profited from segregation” [5] which is what mainly yielded teams from accepting African Americans at first. Negro teams rented the fields they played on from major league teams, so if teams began integrating then there would be a loss of money. Regardless, these color line transformations give inciteful information that could be used to teach the role culture played in sport-wide racism and the rise it gave to Civil Rights Movements.

As color lines in sports began to disappear, a change in culture started taking place in countries around the world. Mexico was of the first where this culture change was evident. In the early 1900s, Mexico had a burdened reputation for crime that ensued as they expressed a sense of backwardness as a society. However, when dictator Dorfir Diaz came to power, Mexico shifted from a backward country to a progressive civilization. Diaz wanted respect from leading nations which is what initially drove him to change the overall culture of Mexico. Revolutionary violence; however, yielded this full cultural change while Diaz was still in power, but what came from this revolutionary disorder was, “[a] renaissance in artistic expression and folklore appreciation” [6]. Helen Delpar made a comment on the matter of Mexico’s changing society and, “instead of being a backward country full of bandits as many imagined, [Mexico] was now seen as a nation full of culture” [7]. Because of this new-found culture in Mexico, they were asked to host the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. From there on out, Mexico’s central promotional strategy for the Olympic Games was to alter the negative stereotype associated with Mexico’s native people and change the view of racial “mixture” as a positive instead of a negative. Mexico’s native people were now seen as authentic and no longer a burden while the European faces were seen as progress to a new cosmopolitan. Lastly, although it may have seemed like the world was starting to change for the better and racial differences were being diminished, what ensued at the Olympic Games was something unprecedented.

Furthermore, as the 1968 Olympic Games approached, student protests erupted in Mexico City. Hundreds of people were killed which gave this frightful event the name of the Tlatelolco Massacre. The Mexican government; however, wanted the games to be clean and put on this façade that Mexico was an ideal country with no faults, so they hid the massacre from the rest of the world with great success. The Olympic Games then went as arranged, except for the revolutionary actions of two American entrants in the 200-meter dash, Tommie Smith and John Carlos. “Their plan was inspired by Harry Edward’s Olympic Project for Human Rights which had originally called for an Olympic boycott by all black athletes” [8]. They both ran the 200-meter dash with Smith getting first place and Carlos getting third place. When they mounted the victory stand they held up their black gloved fists as The Star Spangled Banner played in the background. The men also had beads around their neck to symbolize the deaths of thousands of African Americans all around the world. This event shocked the world, “and [because of this] Carlos and Smith were treated like terrorists, as if their fists were guns and they had fired them” [8]. However, this event was seen as a victory for the African American community. In carrying out this silent protest against racism in sports, Carlos and Smith’s voices were clearly heard. Their black gloved fists not only stood for black injustice in regards to sports, “but it saluted black power and black unity” [9]. Tommie Smith and John Carlos were both stripped of their medals and sent home after this historic event, but their stripped medals did not hide the fact that they were going to make their voices heard. Overall, because of Carlos and Smith’s incredible courage to silently speak out in front of the world while putting their athletic careers on the line to stand up for racial discrimination in sports and in society, many other countries around the world were inspired to create change when it came to segregation in sports.

Thus, for black athletes, the post 1968 Olympic Games were a time of unprecedented civil rights activism by many black sports figures. Black athletes were involved in black freedom movements that drew attention to the battle of racism in society and in sports that African Americans were suffering from every day. Arthur Ashe was one of the most well-known black activists who played a role in sports and politics in 1968. On September 15, 1968, CBS’s Face the Nation invited Arthur Ashe on their show to discuss his political views on the Voting Rights Act, the Civil Rights Act, and the role of black athletes in society. This show was televised nationwide and Ashe received much praise for his courage to go on the show and speak on behalf of the African American community. In turn, the South African government became aware of Ashe’s international activism and in March 1969, “Prime Minister B.J. Vorster personally rejected Ashe’s request for a visa to compete in the South African Open” [10]. The South African government stated they denied his visa because of his overall disapproval to apartheid, but many believe that South Africa rejected him because of the color of his skin. Ashe then used his athletic status to fight against this injustice to the Davis Cup Committee, the United Nations, U.S. Congress, and the ILTF. This resulted in action being taken against south Africa and, “near the end of 1969, a collection of international sports bodies, including the International Olympic Committee, removed South Africa from almost all world sporting events” [11]. This was a monumental victory for Ashe and black activism overall. This incident was the driving force for Arthur Ashe to focus on apartheid activism in South Africa because it affected him personally. In the end, Arthur Ashe’s contributions to the African American community in the aspect of sports sparked upset in other countries against South Africa as they started to take Ashe’s side on the views of apartheid.

Moreover, the history of South Africa plays a vast role in understanding apartheid and why it was present in South Africa for so long. This country was well known worldwide for its excellence in the sporting arena. South Africa was of the first to establish horse-racing in 1802. Many more additional sports prospered as well such as rugby, golf, boxing, and cycling. By the time the national party came into power; however, segregation between groups of athletes had already advanced. The apartheid during this time limited sports teams from being multiracial because the thought was that if it was illegal for blacks and whites to mix in society, then it was illegal for them to mix and compete with each other as well. Many people believed that, “apartheid was the hurdle to integrate sports” [12] because of its complexity in South Africa. There were numerous laws associated with the apartheid such as the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act of 1953, where owners of properties such as sporting amenities, could prohibit racial groups from entering. The Group Areas Act of 1966 split South Africa into segregated areas based on race which caused black athletes to suffer because they could not journey to competitions that were outside of their segregated areas. For years, apartheid has controlled black involvement in sports and when a survey was conducted in one of South Africa’s four provinces, “in 40% of sports registered, no black participation was recorded” [13]. These numbers caused vast unrest in the black community not only in sports, but in society as well where African Americans had an unequal disadvantage. Consequently, not a decade past without apartheid being the central focus for the African American community’s resistance to its rule.

Additionally, although western nations disapproved of interracial sports teams, the South African government became the only supporter of segregation by the late 1960’s. They felt as though their own racial views were more important than the principle ideals of sports. South Africa also stated that there was evidence to conclude that interracial mixing in sports would cause social stress and racial tension. They believed that if blacks and whites could not get along in society overall, then it would be impossible for them to do so while they are intensely competing with each other. Because of this, only white officials could appear for international federations on behalf of South Africa. As time went on, it seemed as though African Americans voices were not being heard and people were accepting propaganda that black people were in fact not interested in playing sports or they fell victim to conditions that in other peoples’ eyes, were only the faults of their own making. When South Africa reported on Jake Ntuli’s boxing victory in the British Empire flyweight competition in 1951, “the New Zealand Free Lance noted that the ‘pint-sized zulu boy’ was a role model ‘to millions of black men whose opportunities in life are restricted by poverty’” [14]. South African emphasis on the word “poverty” added to their preexisting thoughts of superiority over African Americans. They wanted to subtly show that blacks were an inferior race and they needed to know that. However, in 1963, a chairman of South Africa’s Non-Racial Olympic Committee, Dennis Brutus advocated for the people of the Olympic Movement to join him and many others to fight for interracial sports. When the International Olympic Committee received Brutus’s requests, “the I.O.C.’s member in New Zealand, Arthur Porritt, dismissed Brutus as a ‘well known trouble-maker’” [15]. In the end, it seemed as though African Americans voices were never going to be heard in a country whose policies were solely focused around apartheid.

Likewise, as nations began working against South Africa to end racial segregation in sports, other nations followed suit. In 1976, Egypt and Morocco were 2 of the over 20 countries that withdrew from the Olympic Games. This boycott was comprised of almost the entire African continent. Only 3 out of the 27 African nations that initially planned to play in the games were remaining. This exemplified that the hard work and dedication of black athletes to make a change in racially segregated sports was ultimately starting to pay off. New Zealand’s government; however, was encouraging a rugby team to travel to South Africa to play despite their radical racial policies. Jean-Claude Ganga, Congo Republic Delegate, helped create this Olympic boycott and stated that he did not understand New Zealand’s reasoning on sending athletes to South Africa and thinks that New Zealand should send their sports teams back home. More nations then began dropping out of the Olympic Games because of New Zealand’s trip to South Africa which prompted Ganga to state, “that just deploring apartheid is not enough” [16]. He believes by New Zealand going to South Africa, they are giving them exactly what they want which is a sports team to play against. Ganga believes if countries isolate themselves from South Africa, then they will have no choice but to get rid of their radical apartheid policies. However, New Zealand does not see eye to eye with Ganga in the slightest. They believe the best way to deal with racial discrimination in sports in South Africa is bringing interracial teams to that country that are good to show South Africa it is possible to have successful interracial sports teams. Lance Cross, a New Zealand member of the I.O.C. believes, “we need to talk to South Africa before we can do anything about apartheid” [17]. Nations isolating themselves from South Africa in Cross’s eyes, is just going to cause massive conflict in the end. Regardless of whether one county believes isolation is the key to end racism in South Africa or whether bringing interracial teams to South Africa is the key, both sides share a common foundation in that apartheid in South Africa needs to be stopped.

Consequently, on March 23, 1970, South Africa was prohibited from participating in the Davis Cup tennis competition, whereas Rhodesia was allowed to compete. Robert B. Colwell of Seattle stated, “It was felt that South African participation would endanger the carrying out of the competition” [18]. One of the main reasons South Africa was banned from the tournament that year was because there would have been teams they were not allowed to play. That past year Czechoslovakia and Poland refused to play South Africa because of their racial politics and segregation of players. Also, four bombs had went off during a tennis series with South Africa and Britain and people were afraid it was going to happen again. In the newspaper it also stated that, “The United States move was triggered by the South African Government’s refusal to grant Arthur Ashe, the American Negro star, a visa to play there” [19]. South Africa did not allow mixed competition which is why so many people became infuriated with the matter and demanded South Africa be prohibited from competing. This newspaper was written in a time when there was still much racism occurring, but people were finally starting to take a stance against it to demolish racism. Many reported in the newspaper that the Ashe incident was not the main reason for South Africa not being able to compete, but it is clear to see that was one of the main factors in deciding based on their apartheid policies. Rhodesia on the other hand was invited to compete because they were finally able to prove that colored men were playing with them in tournaments and not just being benched. This was hard news for South Africa to hear that they could not compete as they were not able to compete in the last Olympic Games and the soccer World Cup that summer because of their radical racial views and politics. This incident exemplified the changing positive attitudes of other nations toward interracial sports teams and the fight to diminish racism in sport and society altogether.

Conclusion: Why is 20th century racism in regards to sports important to know in the further understanding of racism today.

Endnotes:

[1] Shulman, Dan. “Indirect Kick: Racism in Soccer-It Needs to Stop.” University Wire. February 24, 2015. http://search.proquest.com/docview/1657710269?accountid=14902. (Accessed January 15, 2017).

[2] Lentin, Alana. Racism and Anti-Racism in Europe. London, GB: Pluto Press, 2004. Accessed March 15, 2017. ProQuest ebrary.

[3] Lentin, Racism and Anti-Racism in Europe, 2004.

[4] In the Game: New Essays on Race, Identity, and Sports. Gordonsville, US: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Accessed March 15, 2017. ProQuest ebrary.

[5] In the Game, 2006.

[6] In the Game, 2006.

[7] In the Game, 2006.

[8] Greil, Marcus. “1968.” Common Knowledge 15, no. 3 (2009): 331-335. http://muse.jhu.edu/ (accessed March 16, 2017).

[9] Greil, Common Knowledge, 332.

[10] Hall, Eric Allen. Arthur Ashe: Tennis and Justice in the Civil Rights Era. Baltimore, US: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014. Accessed March 16, 2017. ProQuest ebrary.

[11] Hall, Arthur Ashe, 2014.

[12] Riordan, Professor Jim, and Riordan, Jim. The International Politics of Sport in the Twentieth Century (1). London, US: Routledge, 2002. Accessed March 16, 2017. ProQuest ebrary.

[13] Riordan, The International Politics of Sport in the Twentieth Century, 2002.

[14] Booth, Douglas. “Hitting Apartheid for Six? The Politics of the South African Sports Boycott.” Journal of Contemporary History 38, no. 3 (2003): 477-493. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3180648.

[15] Booth, Journal of Contemporary History, 479.

[16] By Steve Cady Special to The New, York Times. (1976, Jul. 21). Egypt, Morocco Join Olympic Walkout. New York Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/122855937?accountid=14902.

[17] Cady, New York Times, July 21, 1976.

[18] Fred Tupper Special to The New, York Times. (1970, Mar 24). South Africa Barred in Davis Cup Tennis. New York Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/118838353?accountid=14902 (accessed February 22, 2017).

[19] New York Times, 1970, Mar 24.

Geographic Focus: South Africa, Europe, Latin America

Revised list of search terms: (race OR racism), Arthur Ashe, histor*, athlet*, sports

Primary Source Database: Historical New York Times

Date Limiter: 1946(the year Jackie Robinson broke the color line in sports)-1980

Historical Research Questions: What role did countries play in the segregation of sports and the attempt to demolish radical racism in sports throughout South Africa?

 

 

Now the clean air is no longer free(RA4)

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When spring came, people usually opened the door and swallowed a fresh wind. But air pollution becomes worse in China; East Asian checks the air quality index in every morning before leaving a home. In 19th century, China did not have air pollution and nobody wore a mask but it changed since china started economy reformation and open policy. Before china started open policy, China was really poor country but their economy growth increased since they started open policy. Open policy makes increased china economy growth and it resulted numerous factories without environment regulation, which makes pollutant. One of the reasons China is the world’s leading emitter of man-made air pollution is that China is producing so much of the world’s manufactured goods. A lot of those goods come to us. In other words, we have outsourced our manufacturing to China, and that means we’ve outsourced the associated air pollution as well. [1] After China economy gets better, China’s population also rapidly increased and those people started using more energy and produced air pollution. China’s air pollution is a result of China economic reform policy in 1978 which helps to china increased economic growth and resulted in increased population growth who using more energy.

In 19th century, China did not have air pollution and nobody wore a mask but it changed since china started economy reformation and open policy. Before china started open policy, China was really poor country but their economy growth increased since they started open policy. Open policy makes increased china economy growth and it resulted numerous factories without environment regulation, which makes pollutant. After China economy gets better, China’s population also rapidly increased and those people started using more energy and produced air pollution. China’s air pollution is a result of China economic reform policy in 1978 which helps to china increased economic growth and resulted in increased population growth who using more energy[2]. China started open policy and made a remarkable economic development based on foreign capital, but rapid economic growth brought them another environmental problem.

On account of its successful economic reform and open-door policy, the Chinese economy has achieved spectacular performance, growing at an average annual rate of 9.7% for the past three decades.[3]Before China started to reform and open policy China did not the large economy country. When Mao Zedong ruled the China, China’s economic growth of an annual average of 4.8% but Deng Xiaoping started to reform the economy system than China economy growth increased to 9.2%.[4]China was promoting socialism and socialism has created a low productivity and economic downturn because socialism purse coproduce and jointly distribute profits. People do not have to work hard under the socialism because everybody share the profits even someone work harder than other. Mao kept remains a socialist state without market system and it makes China poor country.

After Mao Zedong died in 1976, Deng Xiaoping became a leader of China and he was a pragmatist. He felt China’s economy system has fundamental problem and realized to reorganization so he found new economy concept called “socialist market economy”. Contrast to Mao’s economy system, Deng’s economy system is flexible and opportunistic. Deng’s pragmatic idea helps to China’s economic development because his pragmatic ideas make coproduce and co-distribution systems abolished. Since people get incentive, people became more motivated to work harder to earn more profits. Thus, China chose to start first with agricultural reforms by introducing the household responsibility system, as many peasants readily responded to the new incentive system.[5] Deng abolished collective production and joint distribution through the people’s corporation and created production contractors and it makes farmers were active in production. Also encouraged village enterprises to improve rural economy

The Chinese government established the four special economic zones of Shenzhen, Xiamen, Shantou, and Zhuhai.[6]China developed the coastal area because coastal area is advantageous for foreign material exchange. Since China started open to foreigner, foreigner capital has flowed into China. China sucked the world’s capital like a sponge with cheap labor and good infrastructure. The world’s multinational corporations have poured enormous amounts of money into China because they treat China as huge consumer market, not just a production base. After China started open policy foreign investment came in the form of FDI. China should pay it back when foreign money come as foreign loan but Foreigner Direct Investment does not have to pay back. When Mao ruled the China, they did not have FDI but Deng’s open policy makes China get investment through FDI. China was able to make rapid economic development based on FDI and the world has production base that produces goods at a low price. China has cheap and high-quality labor to produce goods. China government was implement tax exemption and tariff exemption policy to activate foreign capital inducement.

In the early stages of reform, Deng Xiaoping and reformers pointed out that the biggest problem China faces to productivity development in socialist phase so socialist asserted contribute to productivity enhancement is the way to follow socialism idea. As a result, the logic has been developed that capitalism and market economy factors can be accepted to increase productivity and economic development; so China could actively promote economic development.[7] Deng’s made socialist market economy and it was adopted as a formal program of the communist party in 1992.[8] Socialist market economy represent politics is socialism but economy is capitalism; china is a nominally socialist country but more capitalist than any other capitalist state. Since China changes as capitalist state, it brings good effects but also makes side effect. Public officials do anything to attract foreign capital and senior official committed corruption. China’s socialist market economy makes income inequality worsened and corruption in the communist party became serious. Deng took a trip to several pro-reform cities in South China in 1992 to spread his reform ideas. This trip called nanxun, which marks the climax of China’s reform. [9]After his trip, China economy has once again entered a high-speed growth. China’s GDP was decreased in 1989 because of pro-democracy movement but after his trip China’s GDP was rapidly increased.[10]During pro-democracy movement, Deng criticized for being dictator but his nanxun speech bring second economic growth period and Chinese stop to criticized him as dictator. Chinese know that the corruption of the Communist party’s dictatorship is severe but they endured because they believe China will develop more than today and their life will better than today.

 

Even China GDP has been growing every year but they never satisfied and hope to grow further. China grown tremendously and become great powers but they have one thing to never developed; it is environmental protection technology. The problem is many Chinese companies are state-owned enterprise and those state-owned enterprises are corruption.[11] Also China government does not have strict environment regulation so people just emit pollutants without discharge controller. Pollutants are produced by the enterprises, also a lot of Chinese people produced pollution. Since China GDP has increased, Chinese population growth also increased.[12] As population grows, energy consumption also increased. People need energy such as stove and oil for car. Petroleum is mostly used in vehicle and in the last decade, the number of cars in China has increased by 100 million units. Also thousands of coal boilers spewed smoke without complying with environmental standards because China does not have pollution control. China also has many ocean freighters at costal area which is special economy zone and they causes black carbon. China did not want to develop environmental protection technology because it cost them a lot. Instead of develop environmental protection, cheaper to lobby government official. China’s many factories are over-producing but government still give a subsidy. They believe it should be keep over-producing for economic growth.[13]They only focused on their GDP and economic growth graph so government is corruption and do not follow environment regulation for more profits; now they are always checking air quality index and spend more money to clean the environment. [14]

Air is a fundamental natural resource, critical to the very existence of life on Earth. The degradation of air quality by human activities therefore constitutes an ominous threat to the environment and to human health and well-being. Air is an essential resource for a human living but industrial development and other human actions are ruining our air quality. Air pollution is not only the destroying environment but also destroying human health. “Beijing issues a red alert on pollution levels after its reluctance last week when the air-quality index surpassed 500” [15] China’s air quality is considered as hazardous and many Chinese are wearing facemask but it cannot be perfect protection from hazard air. Many power plants and industrial facilities were making air pollution and serious air pollution is a reason to make 500,000 million Chinese premature deaths. [16]Now China government realizing the seriousness about air pollution so they trying to reduce co2 emission and making regulation for sanctions to heavy industry but they still have air pollution problems. China started to change to reduce smog but they need more action to clean air.

Conclusion: Why China’s open door policy is the reason for the current Chinese environmental problem?

[1] KIRSTENPETERS, E.  “Air pollution knows no borders” Bismarck Tribune, Mar 18, 2014. https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:6117/docview/1508213930?accountid=14902 (accessed January 20, 2017).

[2] Cannon, Terry. “China’s ‘Open Door'” Third World Quarterly 6, no. 3 (1984): 717-32. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3992072 (accessed February 21,2017)

[3]John Wong, and Bo Zhiyue. China’s Reform in Global Perspective. (Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific,2010),1.

[4]Wong and Zhiyue, China’s Reform in Global Perspective,2-3

[5] Kueh, Y. Y. “Growth Imperatives, Economic Recentralization, and China’s Open-Door Policy.” The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, no. 24 (1990): 93-119. doi:10.2307/2158890.

[6]Brown, Shannon R. “The Transfer of Technology to China in the Nineteenth Century: The Role of Direct Foreign Investment.” The Journal of Economic History 39, no. 1 (March,1979): 181, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2118919 (accessed February 8,2017)

[7]Prichard, Earl H. “The Origins of the Most-Favored-Nation and the Open Door Policies in China.” The Far Eastern Quarterly 1, no. 2. : (1994) 161-72. October 14,2016. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2049619, 171-172

[8]Siming Li; Wing-shing Tang. china’s regions, polity, and economy : a study of spatial transformation in the post-reform era, (Hong Kong : Chinese University Press, 2000) ,115.

[9] Wong and Zhiyue, China’s Reform in Global Perspective, 68

[10] Wong and Zhiyue, China’s Reform in Global Perspective, 56

 

[11]Fewsmith, Joseph, and Fewsmith, Joseph, eds. China Today, China Tomorrow : Domestic Politics, Economy, and Society. Blue Ridge Summit, US: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010 (Accessed February 21, 2017)

[12]Delang, Claudio O. China’s Air Pollution Problems. : Taylor and Francis, 2016. http://orbis.eblib.com/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=4513399 (accessed February 22, 2017)

[13] Joseph Fewsmith, Lanham.md. china today, china tomorrow: domestic politics, economy, and society. (USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, 2010.) http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2217/lib/wsu/detail.action?docID=10483531,9-10.

[14]Chia Jing. “Under the dome” Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pUY7nixXdNE (accessed march 20,2017)

[15]Ho, Mun S, and Nielsen Chris P. Clearing the Air : The Health and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China. Cambridge, US: MIT Press, 2007. (Accessed 22 February 2017)

[16]Chen, Te-Ping, and Brian Spegele. “China’s Red Alert on Air Pollution Puts Focus on Regulators.” Wall Street Journal, December 08, 2015.

http://www.wsj.com/articles/china-issues-red-alert-for-the-first-time-as-smog-envelops-beijing-1449574341. March,15,2017

Geographic focus: China, East Asia, North America and British

Search terms: Environment, air pollution, china open policy,smog

primary source database: Jstor.org

primary source database time limiter: before 1980, but china open policy started 1978-1979 so focused on 1978-1979 to find historical root for current problem.

Historical research question: how China’s open door policy effected on economy of china and how China economy growth effected on air pollution in Asia? Are there really two correlations?

Women’s Rights in Afghanistan – RA #4

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Hook:  After many years of fighting against their own people, Afghan women have finally integrated themselves into Afghan political life, however, call for action to advance and protect women’s rights has risen as talk of presidential candidates trying to make peace with the Taliban puts women’s rights in danger. Since just a decade ago Afghanistan was a completely male-dominated country, there is no question that there should be awareness that the political climate of Afghanistan is fragile and can change really quick. Moreover, seeing that a record breaking “300 women are running for provincial council seat around the country [and] for the first time a woman is running for vice president on a leading ticked,” a setback in women’s rights will not go down without a fight. [1] Hence, women seek to ensure their future before western influence disappears from Afghanistan and/or extremists gain back political power where “[women’s] celebratory moment [will be] also colored by the worry that those gains [could] so easily be reversed,” for some presidential candidates will still not allow their wives to make public appearances. [2] Nonetheless, as female political figure, Ms. Sarobi, stated: “people want some change and a woman on the ticket is [the start] for that change,” reassuring worried populace that a deterioration of core morals of newly acquired rights is unlikely, for many presidential candidates have figured out the value of women and have gone to women’s groups to take their opinions into account. [3] This change in views raises questions about the drastic change in political views in Afghanistan and the path that led to that change.

Early thesis: The Russian invasion in the late 1970s to keep communism in Afghanistan directly disturbed, destabilized, and dismantled women rights in Afghanistan that without external help and financial aid the future of women in Afghanistan is jeopardized.

Paragraph #3: analysis of the first era of change for women in the 1920s. [4]

Paragraph #4: analysis of the 1970s women movements and the controversial PDPA, which creates a path to the invasion. [5]

Paragraph #5: 1979~1989 Afghanistan’s decade long war because of the Russian invasion, which rips all the progress women had been making since the 1920s. [6]

Paragraph #6: Analysis of the condition of women after invasion. [7][8]

Paragraph #7: (I’m thinking of changing this paragraph to a contrast between three articles, one in 1970s before the invasion, one in 1979~1989, and one right after the invasion to really see the drastic change that took place. From women gaining a lot of recognition/rights to loosing everything gained) Just to compare the drastic change that took place here is what an American reporter, Fergus M. Bordewich, from The New York Times newspaper reported on December 9, 1973 when Afghanistan was still on the prime of male-dominance in their country. In a segment titled “Where Women Are an Annoyance That Disturbs the Symmetry of Life” he writes about the impossibility of feminism in Afghanistan after spending a significant amount of time in Afghanistan, a proclaimed Muslim country, and paying close attention to the status of Afghan women. Later he takes a cautionary tone toward travelers suggesting, especially female travelers, to “avoid some of the embarrassing, unpleasant, [and] even potentially dangerous situations” one can witness by visiting Afghanistan. [9] Further, he explains that the inferior behavior toward women is accepted in their society because of the highly religious culture they live in, where “a Muslim woman moves only as the shadow of a male… women do not have souls… [and] the most basic relationship is between men and God,” at last concluding that “to the average Muslim, a woman is a mere accessory of life.” [10] However, not taking into account that the Islam orthodox might have been taken to the extreme by religious extremists.

Conclusion: Talk about how this bipolar change that follows Afghanistan in regards to women’s rights is still happening today and western powers need to help and aid Afghan women. [11]

[1] Nordland Rod, “Wary hope for Afghan women: Candidates are trying to advance rights before Western influence fades,” International New York Times, April 3rd, 2014, http://search.proquest.com/news/docview/1511947273/C725E5DBC2564E3CPQ/1?accountid=14902 (Accessed February 2, 2017).

[2] International New York Times, April 3rd, 2014.

[3] International New York Times, April 3rd, 2014.

[4] Dr. Huma Ahmed-Ghosh, “A History of women in Afghanistan: Lessons Learnt for the Future Or Yesterdays and Tomorrow: Women in Afghanistan,” Journal of international women’s studies Vol. 4, issue #3 (May, 2003): pages 4-6

[5] Ahmed-Ghosh, “A History of women in Afghanistan: Lessons Learnt for the Future Or Yesterdays and Tomorrow: Women in Afghanistan,” pages 6-7

[6] Inger Marie Okkenhaug, Ingvild Flaskerud, Gender, religion and change in the Middle East: two hundred years of history (Oxford; New York: Berg, 2005) pp.

[7] Okkenhaug, Flaskerud, Gender, religion and change in the Middle East, pp.

[8] Ahmed-Ghosh, “A History of women in Afghanistan: Lessons Learnt for the Future Or Yesterdays and Tomorrow: Women in Afghanistan,” pages 7-10

[9] Fergus M. Bordewich, “Where Women Are an Annoyance That Disturbs the Symmetry of Life,” The New York Times, December 9, 1973, accessed February 7, 2017, http://search.proquest.com/docview/119750727/abstract/85C437A5D262418FPQ/7?accountid=14902.

[10] The New York Times, December 9, 1973.

[11] Sally Armstrong, Veiled threat: the hidden power of the women of Afghanistan (Toronto: Viking, 2002) pp.

___________________________________________________________________________

Geographic focus: Western Europe and USA.

Search terms: Rights, Wom?n, Afghan*, histor*, Russia*, PDPA.

Primary Source Search Date Limiter: 1970s (start of women getting active/gaining rights) -1989 (women losing rights)

Historical Research Questions: How did the Russian invasion of 1979 affect women’s rights? And how did it affect the future of the country in regards to women’s issues?

South Africa Apartheid DHRA4

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In 1948, a policy determined the future of South Africa. The two different groups that inhabited South Africa at the time were feuding to determine where the power lies. The Afrikaners came from the South, while the Bantu came from the North. Although both groups arrived at the same time, neither of the groups were willing to negotiate who gains control. The idea of discrimination based on race was introduced when the Afrikaners were convinced that discrimination was necessary for building a prosperous community. The Bantu population disagreed with this allegation, noting that discriminatory measures are not necessary.

Thesis: The policy was called Apartheid to represent the separateness and development between the races. But the question still stands, what contributing factors lead to the apartheid? To reveal the answer, nearly one hundred years of history explains the rise and decline of the apartheid. Through analyzing the construction of the apartheid, the roots of racial discrimination begin to unravel. There are two different elements to the apartheid. The first, known as the petty apartheid, refers to the racially motivated laws that adhere to everyday life. The second, called the grand apartheid, is described as the regions where different races were allowed to reside. [1] Both types of apartheid hinder and degrade human rights for the inferior group. The idea of systematic segregation occurred due to ancestral racial differences and sociological conditions.

Approximately seventy years before the Apartheid was announced, the white rule government was persevering the gap between the races. The white rule bounded the South Africa Act in 1910, stating that non-whites have little to no say in the elections, depending on region. While 8 million native South Africans were allowed to vote for three European officials, 2 million Europeans were able to elect 150 officials. [2] In 1913, the Native Land Act was formed, which divided the country along racial lines; whites took 93% for themselves and left 7% for all the other races residing in South Africa. Ten years later in 1923, the Urban Areas Act was formed noting that whites and non-whites could not live in the same areas of the country. By doing so, the government maintained political and economic power. They knew “their wealth was built on the poverty of the other races.” [3] Throughout the history of the apartheid, there are three different stages recognized. The first stage was acknowledged to be from 1948 to 1959 and was described as embedding European power, while instilling discrimination within the South African community. The second stage was between 1959 and 1966 that would be known as separating the developing world between the races, which would contribute to the apartheid. The final phase was over the course of 1966 to 1994 when the idea of apartheid became normalized and increasing in power. [4] As time went on, the white rule government began to decompose.

The Group Areas Act of 1950 deemed all unnecessary contact unproductive between different races. This act was to ensure that race-to-race conflict be minimal. In 1962, Nelson Mandela, a prominent leader in the South African community, was to stand trial for coercing individuals to protest illegally and leaving the country with an invalid passport. Mandela’s claim confronted white authority about the inequality within their society. “All the rights and privileges to which I have referred are monopolised by whites, and we enjoy none of them.” [5] In his defense statement, Mandela continued to argue that the apartheid was built on false morals, according to human rights. This idea was demonstrated in the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act that was passed in 1953, which visually separated whites from non-whites in public spaces. This example of a petty apartheid dominates the main argument that racial differences are one of the causes of the apartheid. After Nelson Mandela had reapplied the values of human rights, South Africa residents began to protest for their natural rights as humans. This was the beginning of the South African uprising and the decline of the white empire.

Within the 46 years of white control, South Africans began to gain control. In 1990, Nelson Mandela was released from prison and later elected as President. He was released with support from the South Africa community in regards to the progress he made. In 1991, the Abolition of Racially Based Measures Act demands for the removal of any racial motivation in other laws. During this year, all remaining apartheid laws would be repealed, especially the Group Areas Act and Population Registration Act. These were the last group of laws to erase white power’s apartheid progress. [6] Beginning in 1960, Resolution declarations were issued to preserve the South Africa community from the apartheid. Resolution 1514 on the Declaration of Independence of the colonized countries and people states, “…domination and exploitation constitutes a denial of fundamental human rights. [11] To halt the progress of the apartheid, South Africa’s people had to first be acknowledged as having more potential than solely being colonized. Resolution 32/105 of 1977 emphasizes the people’s right in South Africa as a whole, “irrespective of race, colour or creed, to determine, on the basis of majority rule, the future of South Africa.” [11] The future of South Africa was finally in the people’s hands.

After the final remnants of the apartheid diminished, Nelson Mandela dedicated his life to protecting and enforcing human rights in South Africa and around the world. Because South Africa transitioned from the apartheid and assumed peacetime so seamlessly, they were seen as an empowering nation around the world. South Africa established itself as a powerful role in global relations. In May of 1994, South Africa joined the Organization of African Unity and the Non-Aligned Movement as well as rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations after being denied membership for thirty-three years. Later, South Africa was even able rejoin the U.N. General Assembly and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization after forty years. [1]

Paragraph 7: Global impact of the Apartheid.

Paragraph 8: The bigger picture of the Apartheid-global racism.

 Conclusion: how to prevent Apartheid from occurring again and how we, as a society can learn from these mistakes and not repeat them. The progression is key.

 

[1] Roger Beck, The History of South Africa The History of South Africa (West Port, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2000).

 

[2] New York Times, Racism in South Africa (ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times, 1950), p.29. Retrieved from http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2098/docview/111358260?accountid=14902&rfr_id=info%3Axri%2Fsid%3Aprimo.

 

[3] David Downing, Witness to Apartheid in South Africa (Illinois: Heinemann Library, 2004), pp. 4-15.

 

[4] David Welsh, The Rise and Fall of Apartheid (Jeppestown, South Africa: Jonathan Ball and Charlottesville, Virginia: University of Virginia Press, 2009).

 

[5] Nelson Mandela, Defense Statement: Nelson Mandela Papers, (1962-1964) retrieved from http://www.historicalpapers.wits.ac.za/?inventory_enhanced/U/Collections&c=172419/R/A2519-A4.

 

[6] David Welsh & E. Spence, Ending Apartheid (Edinberg: Pearson Education, 2011).

 

[7] Paul Maylam, “The Rise and Decline of Urban Apartheid in South Africa,” African Affairs 89, 354 (1990): 57-84.

 

[8] Lyndsey Chutel, “African Migrants in South Africa are in Fear of Their Lives- Again,” Quarts Africa (2017), retrieved on February 22, 2017 from https://qz.com/915845/nigerians-somalis-and-malawians-have-been-attacked-in-south-africa-sparking-fears-of-a-repeat-of-xenophobic-violence/.

 

[9] Stephanie Ott, “Heroes of the Anti-Apartheid Movement,” CNN (2013), retrieved February 20, 2017 from http://www.cnn.com/2013/12/10/world/anti-apartheid-heroes/.

 

[10] Greg Myre, “20 Years After Apartheid, South Africa Asks, How are We Doing?,” Northwest Public Radio (2014), retrieved February 20, 2017 from http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2014/05/06/310095463/20-years-after-apartheid-south-africa-asks-how-are-we-doing.

 

[11]Enunga Reddy, “Apartheid, South Africa and International Law” (United Nations Centre against Apartheid: Notes and Documents, 1985), retreieved from http://www.sahistory.org.za/sites/default/files/Apartheid,%20South%20Africa%20and%20International%20Law.pdf.

 

Geographic Focus: South Africa.

List of Search Terms: Apartheid*, History of Apartheid, Nelson Mandela.

Primary Source Database: Searchit

Date Limiter: 1900-Present.

Research Question: What caused the South Africa Apartheid? How can we prevent political racial discrimination in the future?