Skip to main content Skip to navigation

Re-do RA#1: The Economic Relationship Between China and The U.S

Download PDF

Dustin Beene

The relationship between the U.S and China has had a rich history. After the Cold War era China lifted most trading sanctions and the U.S and China began a trading partnership that was mutually beneficial to its peoples. The relationship as of recently hasn’t been as stable as it has been. Due to China’s rise in economic power, China no longer feels like it needs the U.S anymore and many Chinese people feel that they are going to surpass the U.S in the global economy. This sudden surge in economic gain has created tension between the two countries. With China on the rise the relationships future seems as unsteady as ever.

PERLEZ, J. (2012, Apr 03). Chinese insider offers rare and candid glimpse of U.S.-china friction. New York Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from

Other search terms: trade, histor*.

Geographic focus: China and the U.S

This topic connects to diverse ways of thinking because I will explain the history of this trading relationship and both sides didn’t always see eye to eye.

Human Trafficking in asia ( re-do #1)

Download PDF

Human Trafficking is globalized issue in Asia and has not gathered the attention it needs. Human trafficking has become a reoccurring situation specifically in large cities. Most sex trafficking Is chosen or tried to be ignored by those who live in Asia but some people are afraid to acknowledge the things going on. All victims men, women and children are unwilling taken from places they feel safe and are victims of this industry. They can be traded and are forcefully sexually assaulted by multiple people. Human trafficking Can be lead back to slave trade in history, mainly because it is forced labor against their will.

UN project combats human trafficking is Southeast Asia. ” Provincial , May 14, 2014.  Accessed January 19, 2017. accountid=14902
Geographic focus: (southeast asia) Tai Wan, Hong Kong, Vietnam
Search Terms: human trafficking, asia

Revised RA #3- Epidemic of sex trafficking in Asia

Download PDF

Hook: There  is a global issue spreading rapidly that attention needs to be called to, affecting the human population in the shadows. Sex trafficking has again and again become a reoccurring problem, especially in the larger cities, behind closed doors. This is exploitation of men, women, and children for sexual use almost in ‘slave like conditions’. Sex trafficking is not a matter of will, rather a matter of force. Most individuals are taken, kidnapped, lead or even sold into trafficking in this respect. In Asia, this matter is growing rapidly everyday, the major hubs of Asia such as Tai Wan, Vietnam, or Hong Kong. Many are working hard to prevent sex trafficking and locate the trade, “HA NOI, A five-year regional project to fight human trafficking across Southeast Asia was launched in Ha Noi.” The goal is to end sex trafficking and the ideology of modern day slavery, except the object desired is not later but human sexuality.

Thesis: Sex Trafficking in Asia, specifically in the major cities,  has increasingly become an industry that is an epidemic in the recent decades that preys on  children, young men and women, and travelers and forces them into situations of rape, abuse, torture, and even death.

Paragraph 3: The history and evolution of sex trafficking and where it derived from such as slave trade internationally [4]

Paragraph 4:  analysis of facts and Statistics of Sex Trafficking, where the biggest on goings of sex trafficking occur as well[1]

Paragraph 5:  analysis of how sex trafficking has changed over the course of the last few decades and what it entails, the tactics, groups of sex traffickers, and how people are sold into sex trafficking[2]

Paragraph 6: Comparison of sex trafficking in south Asia and the United States [5]

Conclusion: Sex Trafficking is relevant in today’s society because it is still prevalent issue going on in most countries around the world. The Asian continent is one of the heaviest populated places on Earth so naturally it is breeding ground for trouble. Everyday individuals are taken, lured, and misguided into the crevices of society in Asian culture to be sexually abused and raped against their will. The idea of exchanging sexual actions for money is bad enough, but forcing individuals into an industry of sexual dominated patriarchy is the worst form of slavery there is.

George, Annie, U. Vindhya, and Sawmya, Ray. “Sex Trafficking and Sex Work: Definitions, Debates and Dynamics — A Review of Literature.” Economic and Political Weekly 45, no. 17 (April 24-30, 2010): 64-73. Accessed February 27, 2017.

[1] George, Vindhya, and  Sawmya, Sex Trafficking and Sex Work,  64-73.

Silverman, Jay G., Decker R.Michele, McCauley L. Heather, Phuengsamra, Dusita, and Janyam, Surang. “Sex trafficking, sexual risk, sexually transmitted infection and reproductive health among female sex workers in Thailand .” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 65, no. 4 (April 2011): 334-339. Accessed February 27, 2017.

[2] Silverman et al., Sex Trafficking, 334-339.

Snyder, Paul. Prostitution in Asia. Vol.10.Series 2. Taylor and Francis Ltd, 1974.

[3] Snyder, Prostitution.

Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similiar to Slavery. Yale Law School, 1956.

[4] Yale Law School, Supplementary Convention, 1.

UN project combats human trafficking is Southeast Asia. ” Provincial , May 14, 2014.  Accessed January 19, 2017. accountid=14902

[5] UN Project,  1.

Revised Geographic Focus: Thailand, South Asia, Japan

Revised Search Terms: human trafficking, southeast asia, prostitution, sex trafficking, rape, Asians, sex workers

Revised Date Limiter: 1960-1979

Revised Historical Question: How has sex trafficking evolved throughout history in Asia and what are the key differences and affects between sex trafficking and prostitution?

RA 3

Download PDF

David Bingham

History 105


in a Article i found it was a newspaper article pressed out in 1969 explaining because of apartheid Black south African soccer stars are pushed out of country and forced to play somewhere else. when interviewed the South African soccer stars desired to play for their home country but because of theses harsh laws from apartheid have made it impossible to do so. When asking the stars about playing they said it represents more than just the game to play for south Africa but a sign of strength and gratitude they have for their homeland. But because of Apartheid FIFA, has penalized their country for the wrongs and now they have to leave and find their chance somewhere else. This creating a decline in winnings and performing better at the world cup for south Africa. not just affecting their team but economy in less money being brought in from the team because of less support.



Hook: From 1960 to 1994 Apartheid in South Africa created the world to take a stand a change the world for better.


Thesis: Because of the the consequences handed out by FIFA to South Africa from 1965 to  in the  it created an effect across the world in the racism, discrimination, and inequality around the world.


Paragraph 3-  Ananlysis of first consquences handed out by FIFA for apartheid


Paragraph 4- how this affected the economy in South Africa


Paragraph 5- analyze how America and Europe reacted to apartheid in South Africa


Paragraph 6- Lead into shooting of 1970 in south africa expelled from olympics creating uproar to america and europe


Paragraph 7-  The sounds of south africa and white and black athletes and how its affected them in life as well as well playing and representing their country


Paragraph 8- how the world and south africa worked together to break this rule and boundaries and open sports to equality in south africa


Conclusion- Why the decisions and FIFA voting to discipline south africa help bring apartheid to an end in 1994




[1] Staff Reporter, Apartheid: The political influence of sport, ( Jan 16, 2007,)


[2] Not said , Policy of Apartheid Blocking Soccer in South Africa: Black African Stars Are Forced to Play in Other Countries Many Still Express Desire to Compete in Own Homeland (NEW York: ,1969), S29


Geographic Focus


America, Europe, South Africa


Search terms: African Racism, and sports


Historical question: What role did FIFA play in helping advocate and stop Apartheid in South Africa and making sports a way to bring out equality and free disrimination?

RA#3: North Korea’s nuclear weapon project

Download PDF

Hook: North Korea filed fifth missile on October 16th 2016, but this missile was not succeed. Also the US strategic commander said that missile did not provoked US at all. That type of missile can reach to Guam and Western Pacific. On August, North Korea fired missile into Japanese ocean. That kind of activities are provocation for declaring war. Their missile was not successful despite North Korea celebrate because they announced to citizen that they succeed their missile experiment. The US strategic command said North Korea is being isolate from other countries and rebel to UN. Also, he said those prohibited acts making more attention to resolve their problem. However, North Korea did not respond after missile experiment.

Early thesis: North Korea was not interested about nuclear weapons before 1950s; however, from lots of war experience and trade experience, North Korea wants to build nuclear weapons. North Korea is making nuclear weapons with people’s money and exploitation of labor and they want the attention and power from other countries.
Paragraph #2: analysis of real life in North Korea
Paragraph #3: North Korea supposed to give up their nuclear weapons but they kept ignore to enhance their weapons. North Korea is keep getting problems with other countries to making their weapons.
Paragraph #4: North Korea is keep working on their nuclear weapons project and their enhancing their weapons.
Paragraph #5: In these days, North Korea is making and developing their missiles and nuclear bombs. North Korea’s desire to launch nuclear bomb was not these day’s dream and this is one of the political result as a product of the cold war. Many people are interested in North Korea’s nuclear experiments and their news. North Korea’s desire of nuclear bomb was started after cold war; however, North Korea did trade with other countries to make money. Many countries, such as British, Hong Kong, Filipino, Norwegian, communist countries, were came to Konam ad Chinnampo port at North Korea to trade manufactured good, raw materials, and food. North Korea made huge money by exporting goods and they exchanged good for ammonium sulphate and graphite. The irony is that, “… like many business men in Shanghai, including Americans, are clearly eager to carry on trade with the Communist. … In both American traders have manifested concern that the British would get the jump on them. Meanwhile British business men appear to be concerned lest “cold war” politics interfere with trade in Northeast Asia” [2]. Many non-communist countries wanted to trade with communist country , North Korea. That saved money could serve as a stepping stone for future missile and nuclear bomb making.

Conclusion: North Korea is put a lot of effort on nuclear weapon project, same time they are push themselves in international problems.

[1] O’Donoghue, Rachel, “North Korea launches FIFTH missile test as US tensions mount”, Express Newspapers PLC, Oct 16, 2016, URL d=14902 (Jan 25, 2017).
[2] Lankov, Andrei. The Real North Korea : Life and Politics in the Failed Stalinist Utopia. Cary: Oxford University Press, 2013. (accessed February 18, 2017)
[3] Stone, Richard. “A Career Change Possible for North Korea’s Nuclear Scientists?” Science 311, no. 5758 (2006): 170-71.
[4] Mack, Andrew. “North Korea and the Bomb.” Foreign Policy, no. 83 (1991): 87-104. doi:10.2307/1148719.
[5] HENRY R LIEBERMAN, “Hong Kong Builds Brisk Trade with Red-Controlled North Korea,” New York Times, Feb 24, 1949, accessed 2017-02-02, 2.

Geographic focus: North Korea, South Korea, United States, Korea peninsula
Search terms: North Korea and nuclear*, “North Korea”, North Korea and nuclear bomb.
Primary Source Database: JSTOR, SearchIt
Primary Source Search Date Limiter: 1980-present
Historical Research Questions: What if North Korea did not involved between cold war and trade, do they still available to made nuclear bomb?


Download PDF

Organ harvesting and human trafficking have been closely tied together, in the more recent years in the black market the sales for illegally harvesting organs to sell has increased.  Though in the United States it has not taken off as much as it has globally in areas like China and India. Many Indian cities are becoming the go to place for illicit kidney business (Parker). In the black market, parts of the body like the heart, lungs etc. is quite small it is kidneys that are most sought after. Kidneys make up the biggest proportion of transplants because donors can survive with just one, there are over 2,000 Indians selling a kidney every year (Parker). Recently, authorities in India broke up an illegal organ business that they say was one of the largest uncovered with over 500 removed kidneys from abducted or conned clients. For example, a young British girl that was on vacation with family in India was a victim of human trafficking and organ harvesting. What her parents believed to be a routine surgery, turned into something much worse. As the doctor in India injected her she died instantly, returning to the UK with their daughters body they found all of her organs were missing (Parker). Due to the fact that her organs were missing they will never find out the cause of death. This shows how big the business is in India and how people will go to extreme lengths to get organs for the black market.  Many have turned to the black market because waiting on the donor list can take up to years, this brings up many questions. How the government is working with other countries to put an end to this, and if it is so successful why not legalize it? Though organ harvesting is illegal, by legalizing it; it could be more effective as it would eliminate the current unsafe organ black market and decrease the rate of human trafficking as well as increase the number of organs donated.


Parker, Andrew. 2013. “ORGAN HARVEST DOCS KILLED OUR DAUGHTER.” The Sun, May 15, 29.

Geographic Focus: China, India, Iran

Search Terms: organ harvesting, black market, illegal organs, global

Primary Source Search Date Limiter: 1900-1980, early 2000’s.

Historical Research Questions: What is the relation between human trafficking and organ harvesting? How did organ harvesting start? Where is organ harvesting the worst? What are some benefits to it being legalized? Solutions?

RA#3 Women use political power to gain rights in India

Download PDF

Katie McGourin
History 105
Research Assignment #3

Title: Women use political power to gain rights in India

Hook: Introduce the issue of Women’s rights. Access the effects it has on their political involvement in India. Focus in on the change in equality over time. Starting with the Indian Revolution [1].
Early Thesis: Women’s inequality was directly reflected with their inability to partake in politics.
Paragraph #2: Analysis of the rights that women gained around the time of the revolution and the unchanging treatment of women there after [2].
Paragraph #3: Mrs. Indira Gandhi was just elected a Prime Minister of India. She had multiple running mates, however, at the end of the day, she was just flat better than them. Which is why she won the election. Many people were shocked. Some angry, some excited. Singh proceeded to explain the situation speaking of how his father reacted to the news. “My father conceded the argument all along the line. But though vanquished, he continued to grumble. “Mark my words, we are heading towards disaster. No woman can possibly rule a country like India.”” [3]. Many men and even some women did not believe that she had the power to rule the county.
Paragraph #4: Khushwant continues, stating that the only women with political power were from the upper class which happened to be extremely small. “There is no such thing as a working-class woman leader in India” [4]. The women in the working class had no chance of getting equal rights during this time. Most daughters in this class were still given away in marriage at this point. Women’s rights and ability to participate in politics also changes among different regions of India and the varying cultures of the people that reside there.
Paragraph #5: The advancements of neoliberalism and the equality benefits that women gained between 1991 and 2006 [5].
Paragraph #6: Analysis of the AIDWA (All India Democratic Women’s Association) [6].
Paragraph #7: Analysis of women’s rights to own land and how politics helped gain them these rights [7].
Paragraph #8: The Vice President of India, Shri M. Hamid Ansar, spoke at the first Conference of Women Legislators in India on the topic of women’s role in legislature. He blatantly stated the unfortunate truth that women are woefully underrepresented in India’s Parliament. [8] This being so, he believes that with the continued rise of women’s involvement in political positions, there will be a greater responsiveness to citizens’ needs. He continued, saying that women tend to have a more collaborative manner than male colleagues which assists in the politics all together. [9] The increasing the contribution of women in politics will help to bring the country together as a whole and will continue to bring forth new improvements and diversity in the government.

Conclusion: How women have continued to fight for equality through politics. The hope they had that got them to where they are now[10].

1. Todd Shepard, Voices of Decolonization: A Brief History with Documents, (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2015) pp.
2. The Washington Post; Women Gaining Rights in India, Feminist Says, ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Washington Post, Jul 26, 1935. pp.
3. Asia New Monitor, India: Women’s contribution is crucial to building a strong and vibrant nation – Addresses the First Conference of the Women Legislators in India on the theme ‘Role of Women Legislators in Nation Building’, Bangkok, Oct 12, 2016, (Jan 07, 2017)
4. Bangkok, Oct 12, 2016
5. Elisabeth, Armstrong; Gender and Neoliberalism: The All India Democratic Women’s Association and Globalization Politics (Taylor and Francis) Nov 07, 2013. pp.
6. Armstrong, Nov 07, 2013.
7. Indu Agnihotri; More on Land Rights for Women, Economic and Political Weekly. Volume 31, No. 39 (Sep. 28,1996) pg. 2706.
8. Khushwant, Singh; India is Led by a Woman, but Emancipation is Still Not Complete for The Women of India. Proquest Historical Newspapers: New York Times, March, 13,1966. (Jan 15, 2017)
9. New York Times, March 13, 1966
10. Shilpa Das, Janet Horrgan (ed. And introd.), Ed Wiltse (ed andintrod.); Hope for the Invisible Women of India: Disability, Gender and the Concepts of Karma and Shakti in the Indian Weltanschauung; Hope Against Hope: Philosophies, Cultures and Politics of Possibility and Doubt. pp. 129-147.

Geographic focus: India, middle east, U.S., Rural Indian farm land, New Delhi.

Search terms: (women’s’ rights) India*, Politic*, Equal*, Right*, Democra*, The Independence of India, Indira Gandhi.

Primary Source Database: Historical New York Times

Primary Source Search Date Limiter: Before 1980. 1966 seemed to be a crucial year as that was the Year that Indira Gandhi was elected as Prime Minister of India. Potential date range for project might be 1947 to present. This is because the issue is still rather current. The AIDWA was founded in 1981 which was one of the biggest steps women took towards gaining equaility.

Historical Research Questions: What have women in India done to fight for their rights? What Political positions and freedoms have they won? How were women treated in political positions in the early 20th century, late 20th century and early 21st century? What are some changes that occurred in that time frame? Did the election of Indira Gandhi in 1966 cause a turning point in women’s history?

The roots of inequality is the main RCI course theme that connects to this topic due to the inequality of women’s rights.

Women’s Rights in Afghanistan – RA #3

Download PDF

Hook:  After many years of fighting against their own people, Afghan women have finally integrated themselves into Afghan political life, however, call for action to advance and protect women’s rights has risen as talk of presidential candidates trying to make peace with the Taliban puts women’s rights in danger. Since just a decade ago Afghanistan was a completely male-dominated country, there is no question that there should be awareness that the political climate of Afghanistan is fragile and can change really quick. Moreover, seeing that a record breaking “300 women are running for provincial council seat around the country [and] for the first time a woman is running for vice president on a leading ticked,” a setback in women’s rights will not go down without a fight. [1] Hence, women seek to ensure their future before western influence disappears from Afghanistan and/or extremists gain back political power where “[women’s] celebratory moment [will be] also colored by the worry that those gains [could] so easily be reversed,” for some presidential candidates will still not allow their wives to make public appearances. [2] Nonetheless, as female political figure, Ms. Sarobi, stated: “people want some change and a woman on the ticket is [the start] for that change,” reassuring worried populace that a deterioration of core morals of newly acquired rights is unlikely, for many presidential candidates have figured out the value of women and have gone to women’s groups to take their opinions into account. [3] This change in views raises questions about the drastic change in political views in Afghanistan and the path that led to that change.

Early thesis: The Russian invasion in the late 1970s to keep communism in Afghanistan directly disturbed, destabilized, and dismantled women rights in Afghanistan that without external help and financial aid the future of women in Afghanistan is jeopardized.

Paragraph #3: analysis of the first era of change for women in the 1920s. [4]

Paragraph #4: analysis of the 1970s women movements and the controversial PDPA, which creates a path to the invasion. [5]

Paragraph #5: 1979~1989 Afghanistan’s decade long war because of the Russian invasion, which rips all the progress women had been making since the 1920s. [6]

Paragraph #6: Analysis of the condition of women after invasion. [7][8]

Paragraph #7: (I’m thinking of changing this paragraph to a contrast between three articles, one in 1970s before the invasion, one in 1979~1989, and one right after the invasion to really see the drastic change that took place. From women gaining a lot of recognition/rights to loosing everything gained) Just to compare the drastic change that took place here is what an American reporter, Fergus M. Bordewich, from The New York Times newspaper reported on December 9, 1973 when Afghanistan was still on the prime of male-dominance in their country. In a segment titled “Where Women Are an Annoyance That Disturbs the Symmetry of Life” he writes about the impossibility of feminism in Afghanistan after spending a significant amount of time in Afghanistan, a proclaimed Muslim country, and paying close attention to the status of Afghan women. Later he takes a cautionary tone toward travelers suggesting, especially female travelers, to “avoid some of the embarrassing, unpleasant, [and] even potentially dangerous situations” one can witness by visiting Afghanistan. [9] Further, he explains that the inferior behavior toward women is accepted in their society because of the highly religious culture they live in, where “a Muslim woman moves only as the shadow of a male… women do not have souls… [and] the most basic relationship is between men and God,” at last concluding that “to the average Muslim, a woman is a mere accessory of life.” [10] However, not taking into account that the Islam orthodox might have been taken to the extreme by religious extremists.

Conclusion: Talk about how this bipolar change that follows Afghanistan in regards to women’s rights is still happening today and western powers need to help and aid Afghan women. [11]

[1] Nordland Rod, “Wary hope for Afghan women: Candidates are trying to advance rights before Western influence fades,” International New York Times, April 3rd, 2014, (Accessed February 2, 2017).

[2] International New York Times, April 3rd, 2014.

[3] International New York Times, April 3rd, 2014.

[4] Dr. Huma Ahmed-Ghosh, “A History of women in Afghanistan: Lessons Learnt for the Future Or Yesterdays and Tomorrow: Women in Afghanistan,” Journal of international women’s studies Vol. 4, issue #3 (May, 2003): pages 4-6

[5] Ahmed-Ghosh, “A History of women in Afghanistan: Lessons Learnt for the Future Or Yesterdays and Tomorrow: Women in Afghanistan,” pages 6-7

[6] Inger Marie Okkenhaug, Ingvild Flaskerud, Gender, religion and change in the Middle East: two hundred years of history (Oxford; New York: Berg, 2005) pp.

[7] Okkenhaug, Flaskerud, Gender, religion and change in the Middle East, pp.

[8] Ahmed-Ghosh, “A History of women in Afghanistan: Lessons Learnt for the Future Or Yesterdays and Tomorrow: Women in Afghanistan,” pages 7-10

[9] Fergus M. Bordewich, “Where Women Are an Annoyance That Disturbs the Symmetry of Life,” The New York Times, December 9, 1973, accessed February 7, 2017,

[10] The New York Times, December 9, 1973.

[11] Sally Armstrong, Veiled threat: the hidden power of the women of Afghanistan (Toronto: Viking, 2002) pp.


Geographic focus: Western Europe and USA.

Search terms: Rights, Wom?n, Afghan*, histor*, Russia*, PDPA.

Primary Source Search Date Limiter: 1970s (start of women getting active/gaining rights) -1989 (women losing rights)

Historical Research Questions: How did the Russian invasion of 1979 affect women’s rights? And how did it affect the future of the country in regards to women’s issues?

Now the clean air is no longer free (RA3)

Download PDF

Hook: When spring came, people usually opened the door and swallowed a fresh wind. But air pollution becomes worse in China; East Asian checks the air quality index in every morning before leaving a home. In 19th century, China did not have air pollution and nobody wore a mask but it changed since china started economy reformation and open policy. Before china started open policy, China was really poor country but their economy growth increased since they started open policy. Open policy makes increased china economy growth and it resulted numerous factories without environment regulation, which makes pollutant. One of the reasons China is the world’s leading emitter of man-made air pollution is that China is producing so much of the world’s manufactured goods. A lot of those goods come to us. In other words, we have outsourced our manufacturing to China, and that means we’ve outsourced the associated air pollution as well. [1] After China economy gets better, China’s population also rapidly increased and those people started using more energy and produced air pollution. China’s air pollution is a result of China economic reform policy in 1978 which helps to china increased economic growth and resulted in increased population growth who using more energy.

Early thesis: China started open policy and made a remarkable economic development based on foreign capital, but rapid economic growth brought them another environmental problem.

Paragraph #3: analysis of china’s socialism and early foreign capital attraction [2]

Paragraph #4: analysis of China’s patterns of marketization and economy reform [3]

Paragraph #5: China was promoting socialism and socialism has created a low productivity and economic downturn because socialism purse coproduce and jointly distribute profits. People do not have to work hard under the socialism because everybody share the profits even someone work harder than other. Mao kept remains a socialist state without market system and it makes China poor country. China government realized importance of foreign investment for economic growth. One of the most important source of growth for a less development economy is the technology imported from more advanced economies.[4]Before 1949 in China, they did not have any problem with air conditions after they started open door policy and all factory started to release toxic substance than it changed everything.Air is an essential resource for a human living but industrial development and other human actions are ruining our air quality. Air pollution is not only the destroying environment but also destroying human health. They exchanged the economy growth and people’s health. On account of its successful economic reform and open-door policy, the Chinese economy has achieved spectacular performance, growing at an average annual rate of 9.7% for the past three decades. Before China started to reform and open policy China did not the large economy country. [5] When Mao Zedong ruled the China, China’s economic growth of an annual average of 4.8% but Deng Xiaoping started to reform the economy system than China economy growth increased to 9.2%.[6]

Paragraph #6:analysis of china’s foreign direct investments and how they affected to china’s economy growth[7]

Paragraph #7:shows the steps that make the air pollution by china’s rapid industrialization [8]

Paragraph #8:briefly shows how air pollution impact on human health and causes economy losses[9]

Conclusion: Why China’s open door policy is the reason for the current Chinese environmental problem?


[1] KIRSTENPETERS, E.  “Air pollution knows no borders” Bismarck Tribune, Mar 18, 2014. (accessed January 20, 2017).

[2] Cannon, Terry. “China’s ‘Open Door'” Third World Quarterly 6, no. 3 (1984): 717-32. (accessed February 21,2017)

[3] Kueh, Y. Y. “Growth Imperatives, Economic Recentralization, and China’s Open-Door Policy.” The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, no. 24 (1990): 93-119. doi:10.2307/2158890.

[4]Brown, Shannon R. “The Transfer of Technology to China in the Nineteenth Century: The Role of Direct Foreign Investment.” The Journal of Economic History 39, no. 1 (March,1979): 181, (accessed February 8,2017)

[5]John Wong, and Bo Zhiyue. China’s Reform in Global Perspective. (Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific,2010),1.

[6]Wong and Zhiyue, China’s Reform in Global Perspective,2-3

[7]Fewsmith, Joseph, and Fewsmith, Joseph, eds. China Today, China Tomorrow : Domestic Politics, Economy, and Society. Blue Ridge Summit, US: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010 (Accessed February 21, 2017)

[8]Delang, Claudio O. China’s Air Pollution Problems. : Taylor and Francis, 2016. (accessed February 22, 2017)

[9]Ho, Mun S, and Nielsen Chris P. Clearing the Air : The Health and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China. Cambridge, US: MIT Press, 2007. (Accessed 22 February 2017)

Geographic focus: China, East Asia, North America and British

Search terms: Environment, air pollution, china open policy,smog

primary source database:

primary source database time limiter: before 1980, but china open policy started 1978-1979 so focused on 1978-1979 to find historical root for current problem.

Historical research question: how China’s open door policy effected on economy of china and how China economy growth effected on air pollution in Asia? Are there really two correlations?