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Drug Trafficking in South America: The Endless War On Drugs

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The war on drugs has been of great concern the past half century among the Americas. Since President Richard Nixon’s declaration of the war in 1969, this war has expended millions of dollars supplied by both the United States as well as many South American countries to pose no result. “With ample resources and a strategy of eradication and interdiction, the cocaine industry of Latin America could be brought to its knees. We are losing the war on drugs largely because our Government has not taken the initiative to provide the ammunition or a battle plan for victory” [1]. Without the proper support from the governments involved, this has lead the ongoing and dragging war on drugs. This has put significant stress in small communities and has led to a higher risk of violence. Countries that are indirectly affected such as Jamaica has seen an increase of “75% of homicides” that are tied to drug trafficking [3]. This ongoing war has allowed many of the drug cartels to expand their territory and influence among the poor South American communities.

The war on drugs was declared July 14, 1969 under President Richard Nixon of the United States. This war began a lapse of seizing various drugs like cocaine in Columbia and marijuana. In July of 1973, Nixon created the Drug Enforcement Administration; paired with other agencies to seize and detain drug abusers and dispensers. With the aid of Columbian police, they managed to seize 600 kilograms of cocaine being transported on a plane. In response, drug traffickers retaliate with what is known today as “Medellin Massacre”, killing more than forty people thus cementing the power of the cocaine industry in Columbia. As the Medellin Cartel become more powerful, they join with many other drug lords at the time such as Pablo Escobar and work together to ship cocaine to the U.S. in 1981. This power struggle between the DEA and the many drug lords continue for another decade. The power of finally shifts after President Clinton signs the North American Free Trade Agreement which increases the amount trade transported across the U.S.-Mexico border, thus making it more difficult for the U.S. to seize drugs. [5] The war on drugs continue after half a century. The amount still being moved in and out of South America is still in mass quantities. Many of the powerful drug lords have been killed or captured, but their industry still grows because of how much power they control over the lower class of citizens in their countries.

One of the very reasons for the growth and expansion begins with the publicity and the fear the drug cartel and the drug lords fed off. It is thought that a major contributor to this publication roots from the television show, “Miami Vice” which showcases one of the prime drug cartel ridden country, Columbia, as a “violent, sordid, and corrupt nation. [6] This depiction of Columbia created a fear among the American population. In 1970s, there was a marijuana boom and a vast majority was exported to the United States. There was a hysteria that Americans blamed Columbians for making Americans victims of this drug trade. After the marijuana boom in 1970s, Columbian traffickers switched to cocaine in 1980 which guaranteed more profit.

Figure 1: Pablo Escobar in Bogota, Columbia.

After this transition to cocaine there was an increase of violent crime. These spikes in violence contributed more to the fear that the United States was growing and refusing to aid. Drug lords began going public, “they gave interviews, started newspapers, bought professional soccer teams and contributed to political campaigns” [7]. This leniency towards drug traffickers allowed even the those with little power to rise, to taunt and control the Columbian government. While the DEA contributes $350,000 for antinarcotics to the Columbian government, it is not enough to stop the fifty-thousand jungle laboratories. [2] Money however cannot solve this foregoing issue because the amount of money that is funded against the drug cartels, the drug cartels earn more through distribution.

The Favelas of Rio began by the end of the nineteenth because of poor political change. Rio de Janeiro is the second largest city in the country that contained one of the most porous slums that housed many of the lower-class citizens that was seemingly ignored by the city and state government. In hindsight, the Favelas soon became a breeding ground for disease and crime.

Figure 2: Favelas of Rio de Janeiro

In the 1940s, mayor Henrique Dodsworth had a plan that would attempt to remove the Favelas by providing temporary housing until the government could afford permanent housing. [8] Although this plan worked for a short period of time, it soon faltered. This became a gateway for drug trafficking in the 1980s and the Favelas became the center of international trade for illicit drugs and had exported to the United States and Europe. In the book, Voices of Latin American Life : Living in the Crossfire : Favela Residents, Drug Dealers, and Police Violence in Rio de Janeiro, it says from accounts that experienced it, that many of the drug lords that came and entered the Favelas soon provided services to those who resided there such as cable, water, power, including cooking oil. [9] There were young adolescents that were dragged into the drug trade because the fear the drug lords imposed on them or residents trying to provide for themselves and families. The drug wars began to control how the citizen interacted publicly, they had to quit jobs, school, or even move to different areas. [10] Many of those involved in the drug trade were former police or militia that have nowhere else to work because of poor planning done by the Brazilian government.

Latin America has been one of the top priority concerns for the United States because of its proximity. In the study done by Isaac Campos, Degeneration, and the Origins of Mexico’s War on Drugs, drug regulation in Mexico began much prior to the start of the War on Drugs. In 1919, they used the word “degeneration” instead of the war on drugs because they believed it would have more of an impact and disapproval against drugs but not tightly regulated. [11] Strict regulations against traffickers that were never truly imposed has led to increase of trafficking along the United States-Mexican border. “Based on the rule of thumb often cited by law-enforcement officials that only 10 percent to 15 percent of the drug flow is discovered and seized.” [13] From those deliveries, roughly five to seven tons of narcotics are hauled into the United States.

Figure 3: Map of the distribution of drugs in Central America

Those harboring’s are believed to be carried out by two of the major Mexican cartels, located in Tijuana and the other in Ciudad Juarez. Although patrol and regulation along the border has increased and have become stricter, these traffickers have begun using ships and various packaging to disguise drugs. However, that may not only be the issue. There has been numerous accounts of violence and corruption at the border, and in some cases traffickers would pay law enforcement millions of dollars just to pass through. [14] Despite the work that the United States is doing to prevent drug trafficking in Latin America, it has shown to cause more harm than good. In the 1990s, the United States attacked Panama and in that attack, Peru declined meeting with the United States in a meeting on drugs. [15] The motion to no longer aid in the resistance to drug cartels has led many to believe that Peru could be a “sanctuary” for drug lords because it grows more than 70 percent of the coca plants that is used in cocaine and is heavily involved in drug trafficking. [16] Much of the trafficking has been on the mainland of Latin America and has “eclipsed” much of the Caribbean drug trade. Most recently, the DEA reported more than 87 tons of cocaine seized in 2012 and that value doubled the previous year. [4] In the 1990s, the Caribbean was known for where the drug cartels of Columbia would hide out before sailing to Florida, it was a strong route for almost all traffickers. Since then however, the amount of violence has grown along with the number of traffickers going through the Caribbean.

Drug trafficking has shown to have a negative effect on very rural communities in South America. The war on drugs declared by President Richard Nixon has brought concern to neighboring countries, but has been to no avail as communities are still tormented by violence and fear like in Columbia or Peru. There are still notorious drug cartels that are controlling lower class societies such as the Favelas in Brazil or the Caribbean that had no desire to join until forced.

Endnotes

[1] Elizabeth Holtzman and, Stephen J., Elizabeth Holtzman is the Brooklyn,District Attorney, and Stephen J. Solarz. 1988. “Going Straight to the Source in the Drug War.” New York Times, Aug 12.

[2] New York Times, August 12, 1988

[3] Mcfadden, David; Coto, Danica, “THE WORLD; Caribbean’s rising tide of drug trafficking; The region appears to be back in favor with the cartels, -possibly because of the drug war in Mexico and Central America,” Los Angeles Times, Nov 10,2013,  http://search.proquest.com/newsstand/docview/1449521873/811D1610C6E14630PQ/2?accountid=14902 (accessed January 29, 2017)

[4] Los Angeles Times, November 10, 2013

[5] “Timeline: America’s War on Drugs.” NPR. April 02, 2007. Accessed April 27, 2017. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9252490.

[6] By, DANIEL SAMPERBOGOTA. 1987. “Who Created the Drug Trafficking Monster?” New York Times (1923-Current File), Jan 25, 1. https://search.proquest.com/docview/110849650?accountid=14902.

[7] New York times, January 25, 1987

[8] “Favelas in Rio de Janeiro, Past and Present,” Brown University Library, accessed March 21. 2017, https://library.brown.edu/create/fivecenturiesofchange/chapters/chapter-9/favelas-in-rio-de-janeiro-past-and-present/

[9] Alves, Maria, and Evanson, Philip. 2011. Voices of Latin American Life : Living in the Crossfire : Favela Residents, Drug Dealers, and Police Violence in Rio de Janeiro. Philadelphia, US: Temple University Press. Accessed March 18, 2017. ProQuest ebrary. http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2362/lib/wsu/reader.action?docID=660526#

[10] Alves, “Voices of Latin American Life : Living in the Crossfire : Favela Residents, Drug Dealers, and Police Violence in Rio de Janeiro.”

[11] Campos, Isaac. “Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico’s War on Drugs.” Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26, no. 2 (2010): 379-408. doi:10.1525/msem.2010.26.2.379. (Accessed February 22, 2017) http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/msem.2010.26.2.379?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

[12] Campos, “Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico’s War on Drugs”, 379-408.

[13] John Ward Anderson and William Branigin, – Washington Post. (1997, Nov, 23). Borderline Havoc on the Porous 2,000-Mile Border Between the United States and Mexico, The Drug Trade is Destroying Lives, Contributing to Drug Abuse and Crime in the U.S. and Poisoning Relations between the Two nations, and that’s just the beginning. Buffalo News Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/381283667?accountid=14902

[14] Washington Post, November 23, 1997

[15] Special to The New,York Times. Battle against drug trafficking is languishing in south america. New York Times (1923-Current file). https://search.proquest.com/docview/108640340?accountid=14902  (accessed April 23, 2017).

[16] New York Times, 1923

Illustrations

Figure 1: Pablo Escobar in Bogota, Columbia. Forbes magazine lists him as the seventh-richest man in the world. 1989 http://media.npr.org/programs/atc/features/2007/apr/drugwars/timeline/escobar350-5d1334dc8a591ab0e47d5ea2ba4f9465eacd1c59-s400-c85.jpg

Figure 2: Favelas of Rio de Janeiro https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Favela

Figure 3: Map of distribution among Central America. https://thegreenpulpit.com/tag/colombia/

 

China’s Population Growth and Policy

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Re-submission of Research Assignment 1: 

Article: “China to end its one-child policy, lifting the limit to 2: Beijing hopes to reverse aging of the labor force and help bolster growth”

Recently, China has decided to end its one-child policy and now all citizens are allowed to have two children. The one-child policy was originally put in place in the early 1980s to curb population in order to distribute funds and resources elsewhere like the economy but now hinders economic growth because China’s population is rapidly aging out of the work force and there won’t be enough people to replace them. Many however are unsure if the new two-child policy will be effective. The number of couples having another child isn’t as high as China had hoped. Many couples don’t want to have a second child because of the high cost. Since the introduction of the one-child policy there has been a cultural shift in terms of family. Individuals marry and have children late. One child is now the ideal. While the two-child policy is still in its early stages it doesn’t seem likely that there will be enough babies born soon enough for China to continue to grow economically. Incentives may need to be put in place to encourage more children, and more short term fixes like ways to increase productivity, more education, and changing the retirement age may help to stave off the worst of the effects of the population flux.

[1] Chris Buckley, “China to end its one-child policy, lifting the limit to 2: Beijing hopes to reverse aging of the labor force and help bolster growth,” International New York Times; Paris, 30 October 2015, https://search.proquest.com/docview/1728046750?accountid=14902 (29 January 2017).

[2] China to end its one-child policy, lifting the limit to 2: Beijing hopes to reverse aging of the labor force and help bolster growth, 30 October 2015.

Geographic Focus: China predominantly but may also involve the U.S., Russia and others.

Search Terms: Chin*, populat*, grow*, Mao, polic*, family planning, birth*, work*, child*, Deng Xiaoping

Course Theme(s): This topic relates best to Humans and the Environment and Globalization because it deals with the world’s most populated country, which makes China extremely influential politically, economically, culturally and socially as well as being a large consumer and producer of resources/goods that thus affects the environment.

Side Note: To continue with this topic I could explain other methods used by the Chinese government to curb birth rates like sterilization, birth control, family planning, and financial and food incentives. I could also explain what will happen to China’s population in the future. To talk about the past I could explain China and its relationship with the rest of the world from the 1970s and the decades that follow. Another part I could look at is why China made the decision to implement ways to decrease the birth rate (politically, economically etc.) and what outside pressures it may have pushed this decision one way or another.

Research Assignment 2:

Article:China’s Changing Society Seems to Cut Birth Rate: Birth Rate in China Appears Lower”

Date Range: 1949-2017. This covers the beginning of the communist period up to today. This date range allows room for talking about the one-child policy, it’s effects and the events leading up to China’s decision to implement the one-child policy. The “side note” section from research assignment 1 also helps explain the time range.

Search Terms Added: demograph*, one-child, communis*, birth rate*, incentive*, birth control, steril*, abort*, shortage*

Tillman Durdin, longtime foreign correspondent for the New York Times, in his 1971 article titledChina’s Changing Society Seems to Cut Birth Rate: Birth Rate in China Appears Lower”, explains the preconditions that lead up to the instillation of the one-child policy. Durdin also writes to an American republic about the changing social climate regarding family, marriage and birth control in effort to explain the impact that a changing communist China will have on world powers. Durdin seems to be writing to those of the same social status as himself as well as the less educated lower middle class in regards to the West’s fear and fascination with China and its influence on the world. This article reflects American sentiment and ignorance regarding communism and poverty of the second world.

[3] Tillman Durdin, “China’s Changing Society Seems to Cut Birth Rate: Birth Rate in China Appears Lower,” The New York Times (1923-Current File), 21 April 1971, http://search.proquest.com/hnpnewyorktimes/docview/119230165/CF550507E4FB4B5BPQ/1?accountid=14902 (5 February 2017).

[4] The New York Times (1923-Current File), 21 April 1971.

Historical Questions

Q1: How did the first world influence second world politics?

Q2: Will China be able to maintain its influence on the rest of the world without population growth?

Research Assignment 3:

RA #3

Updated Geographic Focus: China predominantly but may also involve the U.S., Russia and others.

Update Search Terms: Chin*, populat*, grow*, Mao, polic*, family planning, birth*, work*, child*, Deng Xiaoping, economic, reform, communism.

This assignment is unclear as to what exactly I should be writing. If you need any more information please let me know and I will add it. I would also like to plan a time to meet with you to help narrow down focus for my topic as well as create a strong thesis.

My plan for this essay is to move through China’s history after it became communist and to focus on the economic policies it put in place.

For my introduction (paragraphs 1-2) I would like to integrate a revised version of my paragraph from RA 1. My introduction would also need to better outline the rest of my essay by including a thesis. My early thesis is: China’s power will lessen as time goes on because they do not have a strong effective economic policy.

For my support/middle paragraphs I would like the first few paragraphs to fill the reader in on China from 1949 to the 80s and then in the next paragraph or two I would like to briefly explain China’s history from the 80s to the present. Then I would start to discuss specific factors/ evidence that led to China’s one child policy like its inability to feed such a rapidly growing population and the effects of China trying to curb population growth and put money into its military. I would also like to talk about the effects of China’s economic reform culturally and how it impacts China’s relationships with both the outside world and with its people. The source and paragraph from RA 2 will mostly work to set up my essay and explain China’s earlier history (1970s). The book ([5] and [6]) will be very helpful in providing evidence and explaining the economic ideology of China from the 70s to the 2000s.

For the conclusion I plan to reiterate important details and evidence and to summarize the history of my topic and my essay.

[5] Dongtao, Zhou, “Reforming China”, Enrich Professional Publishing, 2010, http://site.ebrary.com/lib/wsu/detail.action?docID=10605265 (20 February 2017).

[6] Enrich Professional Publishing, 2010.

[7] Javier C Hernandez, “Weighing likely effects of ‘one child’ shift: Some experts convinced that population will not drive China’s prosperity,” International New York Times; Paris, 31 October 2015, http://search.proquest.com/docview/1728292391/F4FBB8B67AAE4282PQ/2?accountid=14902

[8] International New York Times; Paris, 31 October 2015.

[9] Julie Makinen, “BACK STORY; Population growth revisited; A look at the reasons behind China’s lifting of its one-child policy,” Los Angeles Times; Los Angeles, Calif, 30 October 2015, http://search.proquest.com/docview/1728172004/F4FBB8B67AAE4282PQ/13?accountid=14902

[10] Los Angeles Times; Los Angeles, Calif, 30 October 2015.

 

The prisoner abuse in Vietnam war

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During the Vietnam war, The G. I.’s, including William L. Calley Jr., a platoon leader, systematically murdered all the women, children and old men they could find. At least 350 civilians were slain.Less than two miles away, on the same misty morning, Bravo Company of Task Force Barker began a combat assault on My Khe 4, an often attacked hamlet that was believed to be an enemy battalion headquarters. There was no enemy there, and the officers and enlisted men of Bravo Company, as Army investigators discovered in early 1970, murdered all the women, children and old men they could find. The death toll, as estimated by G.I.’s at the scene, ranged from 60 to 155.Obviously, this kind of slaughter was pretty usual during the Vietnam war, some American even raped Vietnam women.Although these murderers were punished, but this did irreparable harm to the Vietnamese.

[1] Hersh, Seymour M. “My Lai, And its Omens”

[2]New York Times, Late Edition (East Coast); New York, N.Y. [New York, N.Y] 16 Mar 1998: 25.

Pedophilia in Afghanistan (new&improved)

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The sexual harassment/abuse of young boys in various middle eastern cultures is not new nor unheard of. Many men in the Afghani societies use their position in communities to continue this practice of molesting boys or bacha bazi [2]. Although it has been illegalized, this law is often ignored and no enforcement is taken to those who break it. This draws back to different Afghani traditions as well as pedophilia having a different connotation within different societies. Even if the U.S. military cannot take a stance against these infringements on human rights, there are actions being taken within the U.N. to stop this horrid practice and protect the youth of Afghanistan from harm [2].

abuse* OR harass* AND boy* AND afghan*

[1] Goldstein, J. (2015, Sep 22). U.S. soldiers are told to ignore afghans’ sexual abuse of boys. International New York Times Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1713975157?accountid=14902

[2] Williams, P. (2016, February 16). Fighting the Sexual Abuse of Young Afghani Boys at the United Nations. Retrieved January 28, 2017, from http://aclj.org/human-rights/fighting-the-sexual-abuse-of-young-afghani-boys-at-the-united-nations

Opium and the Golden Triangle

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Opium poppy cultivation in ‘Golden Triangle’ hits new high in 2014 UN report

The amount of opium being produced and used is unhealthy for us as a society. According to the report from the U.N. in 2014, it said that “… nearly tripling the amount harvested in 2006”. This means opium production keeps on rising and people keep using. This article mainly focuses on the “Golden Triangle” because it is the main producer of the money rich opium. 762 tons of opium leaves the “Golden Triangle” undetected. The area of the “Golden Triangle” is made of Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and Burma. Both the “Golden Triangle” and Middle east are hotbeds for terrorist activity and those groups are usually funded by the opium being sold in their areas. This has been a constant downhill battle to stop the opium usage but, it isn’t working and it is only making more money.

[1] “Opium Poppy Cultivation in ‘Golden Triangle’ Hits New High in 2014 — UN Report.” 2014.M2 Presswire, Dec 09. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1634473337?accountid=14902.

[2] “Opium Poppy Cultivation in ‘Golden Triangle’ Hits New High in 2014 — UN Report.” 2014

Animal testing ban in India

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Animal welfare in the most basic definition is the state of the animal. This can cover many things such as animal care, animal husbandry, the physical and mental condition on the animal. Just like humans, it is important that animals are in a good state physically and mentally and that’s where human intervention comes in. Humans have started putting many laws into effect protecting animals from being harmed or mistreated. For example in the past testing on animals was very abrasive and would happen without any thought about how the animal feels about the experiment. Many experiments harmed the animals to the point where they died and it was just a normal thing. Animal welfare in the past would be seen as a bit of a joke compared to today’s laws and regulations on animals testing and care. The history of animal welfare has gone from non existent because people did not care about animals, they thought they were a lesser being that did nothing more than provide food for them. As time went on people began to realize animals were not too far from humans and called for the humane treatment of animals. This brought us to what we have today which is a large set of regulations and laws protecting animals from harm.

Animal welfare has been improving as time goes on, but it didn’t happen over time. “Animals have always had welfare but what humans know of it has become modified over time”[1], the perception of animal welfare altered over time. Animal welfare in the past was more cruel than it is now, but it wasn’t seen as wrong, because people thought of animals morally differently than they do now. This is mainly because “the ways in which human and other animal brains work was a mystery” [2] until relatively recently. They had no idea the animals were on the same level as humans when it came to emotions and paint. People began to see how it was negative to the animals, and that it was wrong and slowly started to make laws to improve animal welfare by preventing them from being put in harms way purposely. This is very important because animals can feel pain just as humans can so when experiments would be performed on them that say for example involved them being injected with a large needle to measure the effects of some drug it would hurt them. Not only do they feel things physically, but they also have emotions just like humans. While in any testing facility that is unfamiliar or they know they will be harmed it causes the animal to get incredibly stressed and negatively affects them. On top of that if they are testing on an animal to see if a product will hurt humans either physically or mentally it will have the exact same affects on the animals and if humans wouldn’t want to have this product used on them neither would the animal. Laws banning animal testing in certain places, and laws giving animals more rights has been the first step taken to solve this problem.

Some people believe that animals actually do not feel the same way humans do and therefore do not have the right to be treated the same way, or have animal welfare that protects their being. A right is a moral or legal entitlement that someone has potential claim of and can be exercised against each other. Rights can only be “intelligibly defended”[3] by those who “actually do, or can, make moral claims against one another”[5] and animals cannot do this. Since animals “lack the free moral judgement” and “capacity to comprehend rules of duty”[4] they do not have the same rights as humans.

Figure 1: Mindset of Speciesism

This argument  proposes that just because animals cannot act the same way humans do they should be treated as lesser being and not have the right to laws that protect their welfare. However this argument does not work because it is a case of speciesism and says that just because animals are not humans they don’t get rights. This is wrong because despite them not being humans they still feel the “agonies no less”[6]. This can also be compared to racism, humans used to believe that just because someone looked differently they didn’t deserve to have the same right and so they were treated morally wrongly. We got rid of racism so why is it not the same thing for speciesism? Animals must be given the same rights as humans or the people who perform the experiments on animals are just as bad as people who had slaves. Figure 1 shows how speciesism works, the man a the top believes he is above all other species in the world, so they are lesser than him. Since they are lesser beings they do not receive the same treatment as him. In the picture, even the female is lower than the man, which is related to animal welfare because just like animals, women were not seen as equal and were treated poorly and given few protections. All the animals and women could do was comply with man, or protest and die. The right side is how is should be showing that ever species in nature is equal.

Figure 2: Overworked Horse

Another big reason animal welfare wasn’t always seen as something of the most importance was because seeing animals being mistreated used to be a normal everyday sight. During the early 19th century in Finland it was a normal sight to see animals in backyards with “poor living conditions”[7] and it was very easy for people to see the mistreatment of animals. They would see “herds of cattle on their way to the slaughterhouse”[8] and “chicken and stray dogs and cats all around the marketplaces[9].” The most commonly seen mistreatment was the mistreatment of work horses as people wanted to get around faster. In general mistreatment on animals was such a normal thing that everyone saw all day and grew up around that it became engraved in their mind that it was alright.Their morals had been conditioned to this style of living and saw nothing wrong with it. However even with this happening all around their were still people who formed animal rights groups and fought to end this mistreatment in Finland. Figure 2 Shows an example of how people took advantage of horses and over worked them. The horse is visible exhausted yet the man is not letting the horse off. This is also in the middle of a town so it can be inferred this was a normal sight to all who live in the town.

Animal testing is becoming more and more of an issue around the world as people are starting to care more about the health and well being of animals. In 1931, the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare has published a journal giving tips and hints on how to properly care for animals[10]. This shows they believe people do not know the correct way to care for animals, so they want to spread the awareness to people so they can learn how to care for them. India has also taken a step to stop animal testing by banning all imported cosmetics that have been testing on animals. The humane society international had a petition with “70,000 signatures” [11] supporting the ban of all cosmetics that have been testing on animals. This ban took effect 13 November 2014 making that day a historical day in the “modernization of India’s safety science”[12]. Banning the imports of cosmetics that were tested on animals shows a moral shift in the people of India’s government. They have realized that animals cannot be treated like this and are taking action to fight against the mistreatment of animals. This ban is just a small step for the entire world to come to a place where animal testing will be banned everywhere and only seen in history books.

The ban in India was conducted very recently, but this wasn’t the first time that a people saw the abuse of animals and acted to stop it. During the 1960’s in London, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty in Animals (R.S.P.C.A) wanted to bring public awareness to the government to implement “the recommendations of the Littlewood Committee”[13]. The recommendations wanted animal testing laws to cover “all experiments” and increase “inspections” to cover all the bases possible when it comes to animal welfare. The number of experiments being performed on animals has increased by “500,000”[14] showing that it is a good time to start implementing these laws so something doesn’t happen in the future. As the number of experiments continues to increase so does the chance of abuse. The R.S.P.C.A is asking their government to increase animal welfare laws so they harm of animals is reduced. This is just like the ban in India, the government saw that so many people signed the petition for the ban and so they banned the testing, this is trying to get the same affect. They want the government to see the public wants this to happen so they can increase the ban on animal testing and improve animal welfare.

Figure 3: Animal testing on dog.

Animal testing doesn’t have to completely stop, it is possible to have some experiments where the animals are not harmed and these should continue to happen. Also some times it is absolutely impossible to not kill animals, although it may be a rare occasion, if it has to be done then it should be done humanely. Major C.W. Hume, a father to animal welfare movements said its OK to kill animals as long as a “human way to kill animal pets” is found [15]. He also compares this act to war. Killing animals in a humane way is like “sending his troops into battle”[16], battle against things such as disease. the “troops are in battle to defend the nation”[17]. just like the wars humans have. War among humans isn’t the most common thing, even though there have been a good amount of wars, but it usually only happens as a last resort to a problem. This is how testing that would harm animals should be used. They should always try to find a different way to test the product first then if it is absolutely necessary the animals may be killed to better the greater population. He also says “no man has the right to inflict greater suffering than he himself would be prepared to voluntarily endure”[18]. This is also just like the wars, no one truly wants to go risk their life in battle, but when the need arises there are billions of people who take arms and defend their country. Animal welfare is just as important as human welfare and should be treated like going to war, it should only be done when it is insanely important.

Animal welfare has improved a lot through history. Today the laws protect animals from experiencing unnecessary pain just for the gain of humans and that is how it should have always been. We have learned from the past and no longer need to use grotesque procedures to test on animals to figure things out. We can now move on as a society and can find new ways to recieve these results, like digital test. The past did lay down a foundation but we are no longer at that point and we do not need to go back. Animal welfare is important because animals are not far from humans and it is a good thing we have now realized this and are starting to correct the mistakes we made. Figure 3 shows some men experimenting on a dog and seeing what happens when they do certain things. This is a good example of how things were done in the past that laid the foundation for animal laws.

End Notes

[1] Broom Donald, “A History of Animal Welfare Science” Volume 59, Issue 2, 2011, 121-137.

[2] Broom Donald, “A History of Animal Welfare Science” Volume 59, Issue 2, 2011, 121-137.

[3] David L. bender, Bruno Leone, Animal Rights: Opposing viewpoints (Greenhaven Press, inc., 1989), 23-26.

[4] David L. bender, Bruno Leone, Animal Rights: Opposing viewpoints (Greenhaven Press, inc., 1989), 23-26.

[5] David L. bender, Bruno Leone, Animal Rights: Opposing viewpoints (Greenhaven Press, inc., 1989), 23-26.

[6] David L. bender, Bruno Leone, Animal Rights: Opposing viewpoints (Greenhaven Press, inc., 1989), 23-26.

[7]Lahtinen R; Vuorisalo T, “In search for the roots of environmental concern – water management and animal welfare issues in the Finnish local press in 1890-1950” , volume 30, issue 2, 177-197

[8]Lahtinen R; Vuorisalo T, “In search for the roots of environmental concern – water management and animal welfare issues in the Finnish local press in 1890-1950” , volume 30, issue 2, 177-197

[9]Lahtinen R; Vuorisalo T, “In search for the roots of environmental concern – water management and animal welfare issues in the Finnish local press in 1890-1950” , volume 30, issue 2, 177-197

[10]Nature, “Animal Welfare”, volume 144, issue 1, 974-974

[11]India bans import of animaltested cosmetics, animal rights activists exult, DNA : Daily News & Analysis; Mumbai, Oct 15, 2014,

[12]India bans import of animaltested cosmetics, animal rights activists exult, DNA : Daily News & Analysis; Mumbai, Oct 15, 2014,

[13] A Staff Reporter. “Improvement in animal tests urged.” Times [London, England] 23 Nov. 1968: 4. The Times Digital Archive.  (accessed Web. 8 Feb. 2017.)

[14] A Staff Reporter. “Improvement in animal tests urged.” Times [London, England] 23 Nov. 1968: 4. The Times Digital Archive.  (accessed Web. 8 Feb. 2017.)

[15]Richard P. Haynes, Animal Welfare(Springer science+Business Media B.V, 2010), 3-4.

[16] A Staff Reporter. “Improvement in animal tests urged.” Times [London, England] 23 Nov. 1968: 4. The Times Digital Archive.  (accessed Web. 8 Feb. 2017.)

[17]Richard P. Haynes, Animal Welfare(Springer science+Business Media B.V, 2010), 3-4.

[18] A Staff Reporter. “Improvement in animal tests urged.” Times [London, England] 23 Nov. 1968: 4. The Times Digital Archive.  (accessed Web. 8 Feb. 2017.)

Illusions

Figure 1: Example of speciesism and how they think.  https://www.pinterest.com/capsules/end-speciesism/

Figure 2: overworked horse gasping for air,

Figure 3: Experiment on dog, oil painting 1983, http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/3/1/238/htm

Historical questions

  1.  What benefits are the government gaining by not already having the additional laws implemented on animal testing and is it worth angering the public if they don’t implement them?
  2.  The article doesn’t state specifically what experiments are not covered by the laws already in place so are these experiments that aren’t covered experiments that are abusing animals and need to be covered by laws?

Geographic focus: South Asia, Europe,

Search terms: laboratory animals, humane society, testing ban, restriction, international animal law,

RCI course theme: humans and enviornment

research date range 1940-1980

 

Roots of Racism: Australian Aborigines

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Racism in Australia has been prevalent for many decades. When Britain was in control of Australia in the late 1700s, the native Aborigines were robbed of the land that they lived on. Britain claimed that it was in their power to have the land, whether they were indigenous or not. They were not citizens, nor were they part of the white Australia. The Aborigines work was limited and they had little options for mobility for jobs. In the mid 1900s, Australia attempted to assimilate the Aborigines with the rest of the country, however many did not wish to be assimilated. Finally in 1967, Aborigines were allowed to vote and granted citizenship. Gradually, more rights were given to them. However, Aborigines still do not have the same opportunities as the rest of the country.

While Australian Aborigines are given the same rights as the rest of Australians, they are still at a disadvantage. Issues that many people see in Australia today stem back to the very beginning of Australia. Aborigines have faced numerous accounts of physical and mental torment, brutal racism, and were cut off from society completely. Before Australia was even seen or known as Australia, the Australian Aborigines were not given a chance at equality. Indigenous Australians today do not have equal access to education, live in poverty, and do not have access to appropriate health care. Their health is much poorer than the rest of Australia, and there is little hope for it to get better.  The unjust history of Australia’s racial discrimination gave rise to contemporary issues seen today.

The native Aborigines of Australia were never given a chance for equality from the beginning.  Their land was stripped away from them, and they were forced to reside in what many Australians called the bush or forest. It was seen as mysterious and dangerous, deemed only as Aboriginal territory. They were also often seen as barbaric and violent. Bruce Scates describes in his book how white Australians thought it was their right to occupy the land because it would be a wasteland without them. Aborigines’ attempt to defend their own land was interpreted as, “cruel, treacherous, criminal, and barbarous” [1]. They were seen as angry and it wasn’t their “divine right” to have this land. Ever since the British began settling in Australia, Aborigines were stripped of what was theirs. Because of the settlement, they were forced off to the sides so white settlers could be in control. They were relocated into poor conditions with almost no rights. From then on, they were seen as barbaric, mysterious people that no one wanted to interact with. Because Aborigines were not white like the rest of Australia, they were ostracized. They faced discrimination daily, even being referred to as “nungas.” In addition, there was an extremely large gap between black and white. Aboriginal women had basically no rights, almost to the point where they were practically slaves. Many people attempted to capture this inequality gap through many platforms.

In Jane Lydon’s book, A Flash of Recognition: Photography and the Emergence of Indigenous Rights, Lydon shows through photography the horrific violence and discrimination Aborigines Australians encountered.

In one of her first images, as seen in figure one, she shows a picture of two Aborigines standing with chains around their necks. Lydon further explains that this was a common practice. These images allow other people to see physically what is actually happening to the native people. Lydon explains that images bring recognition to human rights and, “bring the subject closer” [3].  The neck chained images became popular in the media as, “evidence for containing a threat” [4]. The physical images allowed people to able to see what was actually happening so they couldn’t turn a blind eye. There was no doubt that anyone seeing these horrific images could not see something wrong. In addition to neck chains, many Aborigines were forced to confess to crimes they didn’t commit, such as cattle-killing. They would be held at gunpoint until they confessed, then brutally forced into prison for many years. Many were also slaves and suffered floggings, were starved, and chained together. Instead of just  being forced into the forest, aborigines were being physically beat. Discrimination was not just based on thoughts and words, but by the actions Australians took.  These images were circulated in hopes of recognizing that

Figure 1: The Destruction of Aboriginal Society, 1970

intervention isn’t needed to save these indigenous Australians, rather recognition of human rights was needed. They were published in hopes that images would speak louder than just words.

After recognizing the injustice taking place in Australia, more people began fighting for Aboriginal human rights. Recognition of the injustice among the native peoples were being brought to attention. John Chesterman explains in his article that many people even thought about, “bringing up the situation of Australia’s Aboriginal people before the United Nations” [5]. Both indigenous and non-indigenous Australians strongly activated for Aborigines to become citizens. In 1965, a referendum was held that finally gave Aborigines peoples the citizenship they deserved. Their voices were finally being heard and more recognition of inequality was being brought forward. As a result in 1975, the Racial Discrimination Act was enacted putting an end to discrimination. However, it did not claim that all Australians should be treated equally. It stated that in certain situations, race could not be used to deny a person freedom or human rights. Many advocates for Aboriginal rights claimed that the government should be held responsible for the treatment of indigenous Australians. Many thought that the blame should be put on them and something should be done about it. Over time, the Australian government has formally apologized for the mistreatment of Aborigines as well as offered compensation. As more people realized the need for Aborigines rights, international interests began to take place.

Even after Australian Aborigines gained their right as Australian citizens in the 1960s and the Racial Discrimination Act, poverty and poor conditions still prevailed. In an article by the New York Times in 1977, the author states that, “50% are unemployed” and, “60% live either on or below the poverty line of $60 a week” [7]. Aborigines had almost the same rights as the rest of Australia, however they still were unequal. There were reasons why they were below the poverty line and barely made enough to support a family.

Figure 2: The New York Times in New York City, 2014

Very few Aborigines even had an education. Few graduated high school and even fewer went to college and graduated. After being stripped of any opportunity to be successful, they didn’t have the resources to move up the poverty line, let alone know how to accomplish that. They were exposed to poor conditions and often became sick. This resulted in chronic diseases and a poor life expectancy of 50 years. Given that the article written is an American news paper, Americans seemed to care about what was happening to indigenous Australians at this time. One can see in figure two, New York is very far from Australia. However, some Americans still felt the need to be involved. During the 1970s when this was written, change was occurring in the United States with women’s rights and African American rights. African American’s recently got the right to vote, and anti discrimination movements were taking place. The discrimination that blacks faced in the United States is similar to that in Australia. Americans cared about the conditions of Aborigines because the same thing was happening in their own country. In another New York Times article, a letter to the editor was written in regards to an article explaining how Aborigines were the most primitive human beings. The author describes that, “he has evolved a scientific conception of live that preserves the family as nothing else can do” [9]. An American is defending an Aborigines by saying that they are not inferior to whites even though they may be different. The writer explains fights for the Aborigines saying that they are intelligent, strong, and happy people that don’t deserve to be treated as savages. While the Aborigines were slowly gaining the rights they deserved, inequality still prevails.

Even today, many Aborigines Australians are struggling for equality. Donna Ah Chee explains in her article that racism is still prevalent in daily life in Australia. There has always been a large inequality gap between aboriginal Australia and the rest of Australia. Chee describes that, “three out of four indigenous Australians experience racism in their everyday lives” [11].

Figure 3: Medicare services claimed, 2013.

Three out of four indigenous Australians experiencing racism is way too much. While Australia has grown and evolved over time, lack of equality holds the country back. Many of indigenous Australians still face racial barriers while experiencing health care. Donna Ah Chee describes in her article that many of them are not getting the same treatment as others. As seen in figure three, people can notice the gap between service to indigenous Australians and non-indigenous. Australia has long ago made Aboriginal Australians citizens and attempted to treat them as equals. However, many still live in poverty and face discrimination every day. An Australian anthropologist, W.E.H. Stanner conducted research to determine if the Aborigines health was not equivalent to that of white Australians. He concluded that those living by owned cattle stations, a popular way of living among Aborigines, had a lower birth rate and high mortality rate. This way of living is how they have lived for years because they were forced into it. It would be very difficult to break that way of living and introduce them to a healthier lifestyle. The health and diet of those living in the cattle stations was extremely poor, and has been for many years [13]. They have never been exposed to proper health care or had the resources to attain better health, so the problem still remains consistent.

Racism in Australia has been prevalent for many decades. Australians couldn’t accept the fact that there is more than just a “white Australia.” The issues that Australia sees today dates back to the discrimination experienced by Australian Aborigines. Discrimination is all that people know, so it is hard for them to get rid of old ways. So many indigenous Australians live in poverty and poor health because they were never given access to better conditions.  The world is filled with many different perspectives. So many people are only solely focused on their own perspective that they can’t open their eyes to the world around them. Many people are selfish and can’t accept change or one another’s differences. By looking at examples from history other than our own, it brings forth a clearer lens to see things. One can relate the treatment of Australian Aboriginals to the treatment of African Americans in the United States. The way a country functions and treats its people affects the rest of the world. It changes the way other people view the country and the relationships they form. By looking into the roots of contemporary issues like that of Australia, one can see how hard it is for a country to be in perfect equilibrium. The issues of today may be solved, but the country will never be able to be perfect. There is always hope for change, but looking at the history can help pinpoint the issue from the beginning in hopes for putting it to an end.

Focus: Australia

Search terms: Australia AND aborigines, aborigines AND racism, inequality AND racism

Roots of contemporary issues

[1] Bruce Scates, “We are not Aboriginal. . . we are Australian: William Lane, Racism, and Construction of Aboriginality, “Labour History, no. 72. (1997): 38.

[2] Bruce Scates, “We are not Aboriginal. . . we are Australian: William Lane, Racism, and Construction of Aboriginality,” 35-49.

[3] Jane Lydon, Flash of Recognition : Photography and the Emergence of Indigenous Rights, (Sydney, US: University of New South Wales Press, 2013), 19.

[4] Jane Lydon, Flash of Recognition: Photography and the Emergence of Indigenous Rights, 39.

[5] John Chesterman, Civil Rights: How Indigenous Australians Won Formal Equality, (University of Queensland Press, 2005), 41.

[6] John Chesterman, Civil Rights: How Indigenous Australians Won Formal Equality, 371.

[7] “The Typical Aborigine: Uneducated, Jobless.” 1977. New York Times (1923-Current File),  3 June 1977, 6.

[8] New York Times, 3 June 1977.

[9] Litchfield, J. S. “Australian Aborigines.” New York Times (1923-Current File), 27 July 1947.

[10] New York Times, 27 July 1947.

[11] Donna Ah Chee, “Racism’s horrific impact,” The Centralian Advocate, 12 February 2017, Chee, D. A. (2015, Aug 07).

[12] The Centralian Advocate, 7 August 2015.

[13] Geoffrey Gray. “‘We Know the Aborigines Are Dying Out’: Aboriginal People and the Quest to Ensure Their Survival, Wave Hill Station, 1944.” Health and History 16, no. 1 (2014): 1-24.

Illustrations:

Figure 1.  Cover of  The Destruction of Aboriginal Society,  C.D. Rowley, 1970, https://www.abebooks.com/book-search/title/the-destruction-of-aboriginal-society/

Figure 2. Photo of New York Times from a Fox News article. Fox News, November 12, 2016, http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2016/11/12/new-york-times-publisher-vows-to-rededicate-itself-to-reporting-honestly.html.

Figure 3.  Indigenous Health, 2014, http://www.aihw.gov.au/australias-health/2014/indigenous-health/

 

France and Muslims (Redo)

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In November 2015, gunfire opened on a concert hall in Paris killing over 120 people. During the UEFA soccer game between France and Iceland at Stade de France a bomb went off just outside the stadium causing the game to stop and people to evacuate the stadium. It’s events like these that caused France to take measures into their own hands for security. “By 2013, a survey found that more than a quarter of French citizens thought that Islam was “incompatible with French society”. [1] Almost five million muslims live in France which has pushed this issue to higher urgency. Since the 1990s, various debates were taking place about the banning of the burqa (traditional clothing for muslim women). In 2010 the ban officially went into place for the wearing of the burqa. Still to this day many Muslims are fighting to remove this ban but many French people believe that the host nation’s values must prevail.

[1] Kenny, Mary. “Migrants must Respect our Values Or we Face Constant Civil War.”Belfast Telegraph, Jan 20 2015, pp. 29. ProQuest Newsstand, https://search.proquest.com/docview/1646560624?accountid=14902.

Geographic Focus: France, Western Europe

Search Terms: France, Muslims, Bans, Religion, Politics

RCI: I think one course topic that this topic might connect to is Roots of Inequality. This is because the ban, in my opinion, is inhumane due to the fact that this is a religion that is essentially being banned here.

Deforestation in South America

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Hook: Deforestation is a problem that not only destroys animals’ homes, but has caused and will continue to cause an increase in soil erosion, flooding, and carbon emissions. About 17 percent of the Amazon is already gone due to deforestation in the last 50 years. This is a problem because the Amazon is so vast and is able to vacuum and prevent harmful gasses from entering the atmosphere. If the destruction doesn’t stop the effects will be felt far beyond the reaches of South America. In fact, the deforestation of the Amazon may “significantly reduce rain and snowfall in the western United States, resulting in water and food shortages and a greater risk of forest fires” (1).

Thesis: The destruction of the Amazon Rainforest is not new or without historical roots. This assault on one of the most biodiverse areas in the world is to be expected from a region who’s economy depends on the resources that stem from the rainforest. The roots of this deforestation stem from the Amazonian colonization movement of the 1960s that was dominated by cattle raising and crop cultivation. The problem of deforestation in South America is a looming one and if it doesn’t stop soon, the effects will be felt by both animals and humans all over the world.

The beginnings of deforestation of the Amazon lead all the way back to before 1960. Farmers in Brazil wanted land and that meant the slashing and cutting of the forest to clear room. However, since the soils were only productive for a short period of time, it meant farmers would clear more of the forest to start anew. No one saw how big of an issue this would become because at the time, when considering how vast the Amazon was, it didn’t seem as if there’d be any repercussions. A good example of this comes from a newspaper article in The New York Times dating back to January 17th of 1966. Juan de Onis titled the article “Brazil is Rolling Back the Amazon Jungle”, and goes on to discuss Bolivia’s highway plans which involved the clearing of the forest. [1] The article was written simply to inform readers of the newspaper on the opportunities that would be provided by this highway plan such as jobs and the ability to move livestock. This was a time in which the deforestation of the Amazon had just started and no one was looking into what would happen if this went too far. They were only looking at how this highway would help their situation now and readers were just getting an inside look on the proceedings of those living in South America. It is clear that most people assumed this would be good for those in the area rather than have lasting effects on not only those nearby but all over the world.

Before the onslaught on the Amazon that began in the early 1970s, Brazil had a program of national development in place for the Amazon Basin. Then-president Getúlio Vargas suggested that “The Amazon, under the impact of our will and labor, shall cease to be a simple chapter in the history of the world, and made equivalent to other great rivers, shall become a chapter in the history of human civilization” [2]. Vargas had a national vision and several government programs followed. The Superintendency for the Economic Valorization of Amazonia (SPVEA) in 1953, the Superintendency for the Development of the Amazonia (SUDAM) in 1966, and the National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform (INCRA) in 1970 were all programs that were established in an attempt to develop the Amazon Basin.

In the 1960’s world beef prices spiked, which meant cattle ranching in the Amazon followed as a means to generate revenue as well as eliminate world hunger. Following that were road projects put in place such as the Trans-Amazon Highway in order to open up commerce. Subsidies were then established and sponsored by programs such as SUDAM which granted 50% tax exemptions for investments in agriculture and livestock in the Amazon. [3] By 1974, these subsidies had increased to 100%. Representatives of the American company, Swift Armour, optimistically predicted that the Amazon Basin “was destined to be the great meat exporting center of the world”. [4]

Throughout the 1970s INCRA established programs to take advantage of newly developed highways to translocate hundreds of thousands of Brazilian citizens from northern and eastern states westward into the Amazon. People moving to the frontier were given land practically for free so long as they showed evidence of “productive use,” which unfortunately meant clearing the forest for agriculture or pasture. These people represented mainly a class of peasant farmers who lacked the financial support of Brazil’s banks to start their own large-scale cattle or agricultural operations. Consequently, they practiced local forms of agriculture, the most popular of which has been slash-and-burn agriculture. A typical slash-and-burn program involves cutting a small patch of forest, usually 3 to 4 hectares, burning the vegetation, perhaps after selling a minor fraction of timber, and growing and harvesting 2 to 3 years worth of crops. [5] After the third year, farms are usually abandoned because of nutrient-depleted soils and the invasion of weedy species. Slash-and-burn agriculture produces about 80% of the human food supply in the Amazon as other, more intensive agriculture programs focus on crops for export.

Even with a bounty for unclaimed natural forest, peasant farmers found it difficult to coexist with cattle ranchers in the Amazon. In addition to the problems of soil fertility, land grabbing followed the appropriation of the Amazon frontier, which led to many bloody clashes between cattle owners and peasant farmers. Around 4% of the Amazon’s 4 million residents are evicted from their land each year, because, for cattle ranchers, it is cheaper to appropriate pasture by the forced removal of farmers than to clear forests. [6] This eviction and land grabbing grew worse throughout the 1970s and ’80s as land prices grew faster than Brazil’s inflationary economy. Between 1966-1975 Amazon land value skyrocketed 100% per year because of the high beef prices and newfound access to the Amazon via roads. [7] Farmers and ranchers alike were clearing land and staking claims, many of which were heavily subsidized by the government. A careful evaluation of cattle productivity in 1978 indicated that SUDAM subsidies successfully led to land clearing but were not so successful in generating beef production. In fact, cleared forests supported only 36% of the cattle that were supposed to have been put to pasture. [8] Clearly, with soaring real estate value and subsidies, ranchers were driving land speculation and hoarding instead of cattle.

In addition to agriculture and cattle ranching, the Amazon offers an abundant supply of timber, which is cut for fuelwood and industrial uses such as plywood and veneer. Of the 300 or so tree species that may be found in a single hectare of rich Amazon rainforest, only 30 to 50 are commercially attractive. [9] This low volume of commercial timber makes clearcutting a nonviable option. The Amazon has been logged mainly by selective cutting of a few desirable commercial species, such as mahogany, teak, and Gmelina. Selective cutting involves traveling across the landscape surveying and cutting valuable trees but implementing practically no forest management practices such as cutting vines to prevent damage to adjacent trees or directional felling. As with slash-and-burn agriculture in a jungle with seemingly limitless resources, there is simply no incentive to conserve when it’s cheaper to move on to the next tract of land. Consequently, for every tree cut, several trees are probably damaged or killed. Deforestation was and still is being driven by the relative cost and benefits of different land use options.

It is important to understand who is to blame for deforestation if programs want to attempt to reduce it. Strategies such as those that promote agroforestry among small farmers are likely to be ineffectual when cattle ranchers with large estates are the principal villains.

 

Conclusion: Why deforestation of the Amazon matters today and for the future (Loss of productivity, biodiversity loss, net emissions of greenhouse gases)

[1] De Onis, Juan. “Brazil is Rolling Back the Amazon Jungle,” The New York Times. 17 Jan, 1966. http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2098/hnpnewyorktimes/docview/117165003/29B5465146354D2CPQ/1?accountid=14902. 6 Feb, 2017.

[2]  Fearnside, Philip M. “Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: History, Rates, and Consequences.” Conservation Biology, vol. 19, no. 3, 2005, pp. 680–688., www.jstor.org/stable/3591054.

[3] Almeida, Anna Luíza Ozório De. The Colonization of the Amazon. Austin: U of Texas Pr., 1992. Print.

[4] Robert J. “Is this Big Parking Lot Where Brazil used to have the Amazon Region?” New York Times. Sep 15, 1975. https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:6117/docview/120613543?accountid=14902.

[5] Wood, Charles H., and Roberto Porro. Deforestation and Land Use in the Amazon. (Gainesville: University of Florida, 2002), pp.

[6] Almeida, Anna Luíza Ozório De. The Colonization of the Amazon. Austin: U of Texas Pr., 1992. Print.

[7] Almeida, Anna Luíza Ozório De. The Colonization of the Amazon. Austin: U of Texas Pr., 1992. Print.

[8] Almeida, Anna Luíza Ozório De. The Colonization of the Amazon. Austin: U of Texas Pr., 1992. Print.

[9] Robert J. “Is this Big Parking Lot Where Brazil used to have the Amazon Region?” New York Times. Sep 15, 1975. https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:6117/docview/120613543?accountid=14902.

[Conclusion] Galford, Gillian L., et al. “Historical Carbon Emissions and Uptake from the Agricultural Frontier of the Brazilian Amazon.” Ecological Applications, vol. 21, no. 3, 2011, pp. 750–763., www.jstor.org/stable/23021624.

[Conclusion] Singh, Maria. “Deforestation must stop.” University Wire23 Feb, 2016. https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:6117/docview/853250216?accountid=14902. 27 Jan, 2017.

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Geographic Focus: Brazil

Additional search terms: Log*, timber, South America, global warming, climate change, Brazil

RCI Course Theme: Humans & the Environment

Primary source database: Historical New York Times

Primary source search date limiter: Before 1980. Potential date range from 1950-present.

Historical research questions: Were the locals for or against the initial clearing of the forest for farming and expansion reasons? What was the root cause of the initial clearing and what reasons were there for the continuation until now? What effects has the deforestation had?

The Wage Gap for Women: Gender bias (Combined RAs in Sequence).

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Dane Slaybaugh                                                                                                                                                                                                                         History 105 Sec 32                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Professor Unangst                                                                                                                                                                                                                    January 20, 2017                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Research Assignment #1

        Gender differences have been an ongoing trend in our society. A main point of emphasis in this issue is the wage gap between men and women. It is strange to think that if a man and woman are equally educated and skilled for the same job the male often earns more. Women in a top 5% profession have recently had a larger wage gap than lower paid professions. But that has not always been the case, in the late 1970s women of any salary experienced unfair payment compared to the male employees around them. Across the globe women are earning less; “According to 2013 South African Revenue Service data, women on average earn 28 percent less than men“[1]. On top of the salary gap the unemployment difference is global as well. Using South Africa again as an example here, “In South Africa, however there is another problem. While earnings may be similar among men and women for most of the workforce, this is not true for the entire population when including those who do not work. In the fourth quarter of 2014, unemployment among women was 26.6 percent while among men it was only 22.4 percent”[1]. It can be a case by case thing depending on the area but there is a constant trend of male bias. This gender discrimination causes a domino effect that suppresses women impacted by it. Even with laws being placed protecting employees from this blatant gender discrimination, there are many societies that have a system made to give men more opportunities than women.

[1] Pierre Heistein, “Society Still Favors Men Over Women,”  Cape Times, May 21, 2015, http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2098/newsstand/docview/1682071865/31FFD0B8B1E0445APQ/1?accountid=14902 Date Accessed: 2-1-2017.

[2] Cape Times, May 21, 2015.

Geographic focus: In this article it had data from a few different area including South Africa, and the United States. Other articles I’ve read talked about the wage gap in Canada as well, but I would like to look into this more in Europe as well.

Search terms: wage*, gap*, gender, discrimination, salary, employment laws, (including Europe, Canada, U.S., and South Africa).

This topic hit on the RCI course theme of The Roots of Inequality because it focuses on how the gender bias against women has effected things dominantly referring to the wage gap.


 

Research Assignment #2

     Distinct salary differences between males and females in the workplace occurs across the globe. Focusing more acutely on Canada, this primary source came from a newspaper called The Globe and Mail out of Ontario, CanadaIn the late 1970s there was a lot of outrage in Canada stemming from the lack of interest in the Ontario Human Rights Commissioner on sexual discrimination; “Millions of dollars have been spent on this commission, yet it has done virtually nothing to counteract sexual discrimination in Ontario”[1].  Sexual discrimination largely in the workplace dealing with the gender wage gap. This article talks about there being a lower number women than men, and how originally the commission focused great on racism and minorities rather than the current gender bias. The target audience for this writing could have been the middle to upper class males of Ontario. That demographic would have a high sample of the population that most others, as well as their social stature provides then with more power than most regarding these social issues.

It is not only salary differences that effect women. There are other effects such as unemployment that can cause suffering. “Nowhere in Canada does the minimum wage reach even the poverty line for a couple with one child. So a couple that may have relied on two incomes before the arrival of their first child will be living below the poverty line if the wife leaves work to care for the child and the husband is earning the minimum wage”[3]. This goes along with the social constructs that women take care of the children of the family, especially during this time period of the late 70s. A woman once in the top tier of the social ladder can lose it all if widowed, “Even if a married woman has been comfortably off throughout her life, she will become a member of the poorest group in Canada when she becomes a widow. In 1975, 45 per cent of widows aged 55 to 64 were poor”[3]. Historically this source was written in an Ontario newspaper in 1979, this was around the time of a lot of women suffrage movements.

[1] Dagg, Anne, “Human Rights,” The Globe and Mail; Toronto, Ont, February 2, 1978, http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2098/newsstand/docview/387120587/2848E56AC6D34420PQ/29?accountid=14902 Date Accessed: February 5, 2017.

[2] The Globe and Mail; Toronto, Ont, February 2, 1978.

[3] Bell, Patricia, “Women Called Vulnerable to Poverty,” The Globe and Mail; Toronto, October 4, 1979, http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2098/newsstand/docview/387057223/5D6EE76E04394D89PQ/8?accountid=14902 Date Accessed: February 5, 2017.

[4] The Globe and Mail; Toronto, October 4, 1979.

Historical Research Questions: What lead to women’s suffering being less important to government of Ontario than issues with racism and minorities? Who were the main people that fought for wage equality during this time? How did the gender pay gap originate?

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Research Assignment #3

Hook: Gender biases have been ongoing in our society, the main point of emphasis in this issue is the wage gap between men and women. It is strange to think that if a man and woman are equally educated and skilled for the same job the male often earns more. Women in a top 5% profession have recently had a larger wage gap than lower paid professions. But that has not always been the case, in the late 1970s women of any salary experienced unfair payment compared to the male employees around them. Across the globe women are earning less; in Canada, there were “scores, hundreds, of women in this city whose only means of subsistence is by their needle. They are paid starvation wages, viz., 6 cents each for making shirts, 17 cents making and pressing pants, 75 cents for coat and vest, etc,” [5]. Speaking on the wages in Ontario in the early 20th century. On top of the salary gap the unemployment difference is global as well. While earnings may be similar among men and women for most of the workforce, this is not true for the entire population when including those who do not work. In the fourth quarter of 2014, unemployment among women was 26.6 percent while among men it was only 22.4 percent”[1]. It can be a case by case thing depending on the area but there is a constant trend of male bias. This gender discrimination causes a domino effect that suppresses women impacted by it. Even with laws being placed protecting employees from this blatant gender discrimination, there are many societies that have a system made to give men more opportunities than women.

Thesis: The wage gap between men and women is an issue of social bias that negatively effects women around the world because men receive higher wages for the same tasks leaving women at a huge disadvantage.

Paragraph 4: A Canadian clothing company serving extremely low wages to their female employees that were sewing the clothes.

Paragraph 5: The minimum wage in Canada being set very low in some regions to suppress women.

Paragraph 6: The gender wage gap for school teachers in Canada at the turn of the 20th century.

Conclusion: The wage gap based on gender effected how our world has developed, as well as how our societies are conducted. Men being paid more for the same services as women has negatively affected women in numerous ways from a higher chance of unemployment to getting paid so low they cannot support themselves without a male partner in the household. The women sewing clothing fir companies were being paid under 10 cents per shirt which today is equivalent to $1.28. Yet still with all this knowledge this gender wage bias still effects the women of today.

[5] Robert McIntosh, Sweated Labour: Female Needleworkers in Industrializing Canada (Canadian Committee on Labour History and Athabasca University Press, 1993).

[6] McIntosh, Sweated Labour: Female Needleworkers in Industrializing Canada.

[7] Darren Ferry, “Severing the Connections in a Complex Community”: The Grange, the Patrons of Industry and the Construction/Contestation of a Late 19th-Century Agrarian Identity in Ontario (Canadian Committee on Labour History and Athabasca University Press, 2004).

[8] Ferry, “Severing the Connections in a Complex Community”: The Grange, the Patrons of Industry and the Construction/Contestation of a Late 19th-Century Agrarian Identity in Ontario.

[9] Margaret E. McCallum, Keeping Women in Their Place: The Minimum Wage in Canada, 1910-25 (Canadian Committee on Labour History and Athabasca University Press, 1986).

[10] McCallum, Keeping Women in Their Place: The Minimum Wage in Canada, 1910-25.

[11] Eric W. Sager, Women Teachers in Canada, 1881–1901: Revisiting the ‘Feminization’ of an Occupation (The Canadian Historical Review, vol. 88 no. 2, 2007).

[12] Sager, Women Teachers in Canada, 1881–1901: Revisiting the ‘Feminization’ of an Occupation.

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Research Assignment #4

Gender biases have been prevalent in our society, the main point of emphasis in this issue is the wage gap between men and women. It is strange to think that if a man and woman are equally educated, and skilled for the same job the male often earns more. Women in a top 5% profession have recently had a larger wage gap than lower paid professions. But that has not always been the case; in the late 1970s women earning any level salary experienced unfair payment compared to the male employees around them. Across the globe women are earning less; in Canada, there were “scores, hundreds, of women in this city whose only means of subsistence is by their needle. They are paid starvation wages, 6 cents each for making shirts, 17 cents making and pressing pants, 75 cents for coat and vest, etc.,” [1], dealing with the wages for women making textiles in Ontario in the early 20th century. On top of the salary gap the unemployment difference is detected globally as well. While earnings may be similar among men and women for most of the workforce, this is not true for the entire population when including those who do not work. “In the fourth quarter of 2014, unemployment among women was 26.6% while among men it was only 22.4%”[3]. It can be a case by case thing depending on the area but there is clearly a constant trend of male bias. This gender discrimination causes a domino effect that suppresses the women impacted by it. Even with laws being placed protecting employees from this blatant gender discrimination, there are many societies that have a system constructed to give men more opportunities than women.

Thesis paragraph: The wage gap between men and women is an issue of social bias that negatively effects women around the world because men receive higher wages for the same tasks leaving women at a huge disadvantage. This is something that has been observed in the workforce as soon as women were given access to a professional career. As I mentioned the gap is greater in higher paid careers in present times but in the early to mid-20th century the lower paid female workers experienced the largest gender wage gap. That in its time caused for many women to marry for financial stability, and if they didn’t some ended up homeless because they received too little pay for their services. Today we still sew this widely throughout different job fields. In an article published in 2014 two graphs were included, one showing hourly wage between men and women in Canada based on providence, and the other showing the portion of each gender with a university degree. It showed that in every Canadian providence females were on average paid less than men, and the other showed in each providence there were larger portions of women with college degrees than men [13]. Women in Canada have a higher percentage of degree than men, yet are still paid less. Gender bias holds women back from excelling in every field. It is likely that our world would be further advanced if women had been in the workforce earlier, and treated fairly. There are several different ideas I will use to uncover different viewpoints on this issue, to show how this gender bias on wage has been carried out historically, and what has happened because of it.

It was often that women would work in the the textile industry because for much of the 20th century dangerous outdoor jobs were left to the men, paired with the better jobs being taken by men because of the job discrimination. This was the ideal environment to put extreme control over employees; large warehouses with hundreds of people doing repetitive tasks. A Canadian clothing company did just that, serving extremely low wages to their female employees that were sewing the clothes [1]. The clothing industry in Canada was new, and growing during the 19th century. The company was in Ontario, one women gave some brief insight into how it was living this lifestyle stating, “I have to work with my needle until midnight to earn the money to buy bread for tomorrow, and this was my experience every day of the week, every day of the year” [1]. This example is unique because even though there were few if any male employees, the women were still paid extremely low, and this job exhibited some of the worst working conditions faced by any worker.

In Canada, the wage for women often was different depending on the area. Some areas the minimum wage was set severely low, this meant the companies could get away with paying the absolute lowest wages, putting their female employees through enormous economic stress. The worst of it was between 1910-1925; “The economy began to call for a free-market in labor, as the social conditions led to a decline in the old paternalism involved in the master, and servant relationship” [9]. Canada input this free-market, meaning the government no longer could step into the markets, and make changes. Allowing for even more control by the corporations. This led to the terrible conditions of these workplaces, and one of the worst periods historically for women in the workplace.

The gender wage gap even reached professions that women had dominated historically. In Canada, teaching was a job affected more and more. The ratio between women and men in teaching was changing considerably during the 19th century. In Women Teachers in Canada, 1881-1901 it talks about “The hypothesis that an available pool of immigrant men delayed the feminization of teaching in parts of rural Ontario receives support at the national level” [11]. Basically, during this time more men were immigrating to Ontario, becoming teachers, and pushing out women teachers. This shows the discrimination toward women; even men from another country were valued higher in the workforce than the women from that country. This is especially striking because as a teacher you should be familiar with the history of a country, as well as the language. Women with more experience, and equal degrees were forced to find other sources of income, driving those women to work jobs with terrible working conditions, and a smaller salary.

Distinct salary differences between males and females in the workplace occurs across the globe. Focusing more acutely on Canada, this primary source came from a newspaper called The Globe and Mail out of Ontario, Canada. In the late 1970s there was a lot of outrage in Canada stemming from the lack of interest in the Ontario Human Rights Commissioner on sexual discrimination; “Millions of dollars have been spent on this commission, yet it has done virtually nothing to counteract sexual discrimination in Ontario”[3].  Sexual discrimination largely in the workplace dealing with the gender wage gap. This article talks about there being a lower number women than men, and how originally the commission focused great on racism and minorities rather than the current gender bias. The target audience for this writing could have been the middle to upper class males of Ontario. That demographic would have a high sample of the population that most others, as well as their social stature provides then with more power than most regarding these social issues.

It is not only salary differences that effect women. There are other effects such as unemployment that can cause suffering. “Nowhere in Canada does the minimum wage reach even the poverty line for a couple with one child. So, a couple that may have relied on two incomes before the arrival of their first child will be living below the poverty line if the wife leaves work to care for the child and the husband is earning the minimum wage”[5]. This goes along with the social constructs that women take care of the children of the family, especially during this period of the late 70s. A woman once in the top tier of the social ladder can lose it all if widowed, “Even if a married woman has been comfortably off throughout her life, she will become a member of the poorest group in Canada when she becomes a widow. In 1975, 45 per cent of widows aged 55 to 64 were poor”[5]. Historically this source was written in an Ontario newspaper in 1979, this was around the time of a lot of women suffrage movements.

Conclusion: The wage gap based on gender effected how our world has developed, as well as how our societies are conducted. Men being paid more for the same services as women has negatively affected women in numerous ways from a higher chance of unemployment to getting paid so low they cannot support themselves without a male partner in the household. The women sewing clothing fir companies were being paid under 10 cents per shirt which today is equivalent to $1.28. Yet still with all this knowledge this gender wage bias still effects the women of today.

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Endnotes

[1] Robert McIntosh, Sweated Labour: Female Needleworkers in Industrializing Canada (Canadian Committee on Labour History and Athabasca University Press, 1993).

[2] McIntosh, Sweated Labour: Female Needle workers in Industrializing Canada.

[3] Dagg, Anne, “Human Rights,” The Globe and Mail; Toronto, Ont, February 2, 1978, http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2098/newsstand/docview/387120587/2848E56AC6D34420PQ/29?accountid=14902 Date Accessed: February 5, 2017.

[4] Anne, “Human Rights,”, February 2, 1978.

[5] Bell, Patricia, “Women Called Vulnerable to Poverty,” The Globe and Mail; Toronto, October 4, 1979, http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2098/newsstand/docview/387057223/5D6EE76E04394D89PQ/8?accountid=14902 Date Accessed: February 5, 2017.

[6] Bell, “Women Called Vulnerable to Poverty,” October 4, 1979.

[7] Darren Ferry, “Severing the Connections in a Complex Community,” The Grange, the Patrons of Industry and the Construction/Contestation of a Late 19th-Century Agrarian Identity in Ontario (Canadian Committee on Labour History and Athabasca University Press, 2004).

[8] Ferry, “Severing the Connections in a Complex Community”: The Grange, the Patrons of Industry and the Construction/Contestation of a Late 19th-Century Agrarian Identity in Ontario.

[9] Margaret E. McCallum, Keeping Women in Their Place: The Minimum Wage in Canada, 1910-25 (Canadian Committee on Labour History and Athabasca University Press, 1986).

[10] McCallum, Keeping Women in Their Place: The Minimum Wage in Canada, 1910-25.

[11] Eric W. Sager, Women Teachers in Canada, 1881–1901: Revisiting the ‘Feminization’ of an Occupation (The Canadian Historical Review, vol. 88 no. 2, 2007).

[12] Sager, Women Teachers in Canada, 1881–1901: Revisiting the ‘Feminization’ of an Occupation.

[13] Tammy Schirle, The Gender Wage Gap in Canadian Providences, 1997-2014 (Canadian Public Policy, Vol. 41, No. 4, December 2015), 311.

[14] Schirle, The Gender Wage Gap in Canadian Providences, 1997-2014, 309-319.

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Geographic focus: In this article, it had data from a few different areas including South Africa, and the United States. Other articles I’ve read talked about the wage gap in Canada as well, but I would like to consider this more in Europe as well.

Search terms: wage*, gap*, gender, discrimination, salary, employment laws, (including Europe, Canada, U.S., and South Africa).

This topic hit on the RCI course theme of The Roots of Inequality because it focuses on how the gender bias against women has effected things dominantly referring to the wage gap.

Historical Research Questions: What lead to women’s suffering being less important to government of Ontario than issues with racism and minorities? Who were the main people that fought for wage equality during this time? How did the gender pay gap originate?