Skip to main content Skip to navigation
HISTORY 105 – Matthew Unangst – Spring 2018 History 105

Islamic and Egyptian Political movements By Rafael Suarez

Download PDF

Rafael Suarez History 105  Final Paper

 

Islamic and Egyptian Political Movements

 

 

The Extremist Islamic group is responsible for killing nine people in Egypt because of their discrimination towards the Islamic group over that passed years. The Egyptian Christians known as Coptic Christians have been making dissatisfaction words about the Muslim-majority over recent years. The shootout occurred outside of the Coptic orthodox church in Helwan, Cairo. The gunman was apprehended and identified as 33 years-old Ibrahim Ismail. He was injured during the event. Ibrahim was also accused of an earlier attack at an appliance store where he killed the owner two son’s. The media reports said, “there were at least two people involved, one of whom was shot dead and the other injured.”

Islam believe that there was only one god and one god only. In 42 C.E., the Egyptians were Christianized while in the country of the roman empire. The Egyptians moved out of the roman empire to establish the first patriarchates in Alexandria since it was illegal to have another religion under the roman law. The Egyptians Christianity developed dogmas and practiced their religion under the roman law. In the 4th century C.E, Christianity became an official religion of the roman empire. Coptic traditions became different from those in Rome and caused major religious conflicts. After the conflict in Rome, Egyptians moved to Alexandria where they started their religions again. The Pope, head of the church and is traditionally based in Alexandria. In 632 AD, the Muslims began a period of rapid expansion taking over empires, armies and cities. The Muslims didn’t like that Egyptians were practicing Christianity so after 647 C.E all of Egypt was under Islamic rule. Egyptians were converted to Islam and within 200 years Christianity was a minority.

The social and political movements have diverse the Muslims brotherhood and Egyptians very differently. The Egyptians Muslims believe that Islam has only one god but many Muslims say that the Egypt’s government is a political country with largely uneducated and lower-class civilians. Islamic political activism in Egypt started after world war 1 when the Islamic organization started the Muslim Brotherhood founded by Hassan Al who was the leader of the radical group who used violence to achieve its religious goals. The Muslim brotherhood were the ones who enforced all the rules. Anyone who disobeyed them was stoned to death, killed or hanged. If the governments didn’t do what they said or wanted they would be assassinated in public and they would show of their radical brotherhood flag. Egypt was defeated and loss all of its territory which was the main cause of religiously inspiring political activism.

Slavery in Egypt started after the Islamic radical group took over in 647 C.E. The Egyptians were under obligation by their masters. The masters were allowed to utilize their slaves by employing them in different ways like cooks, maids, brewers, etc. and other labor services like gardeners, stable hands, field hands. Masters were forbidden to force child slaves to do hard labor. Slaves were used for big projects such as military expeditions, mining, building pyramids and construction projects for their state. Egyptians were a peasant based economy which became a greater impact in the roman period. Selling slaves was also a big factor of the roman period, slaves were sold to private dealers and not public markets. Slaves lived under hard punishment conditions. They were able to own personal property.

Islamic government and government control is derived from Qur’an which is the Romanized central religious text of Islam that Muslims believe to be book of god. The Islamic traditions have political concepts that follow the law of duty of rulers to consultation from rebuking unjust rulers. The Islamic state is attribute to Abu A ‘la who was founder of the political party known as a Pakistani Muslim. Muslim states have declared Islam as their state religion.

Muslim society has become violence due to the causes of events in past years and still continue to grow today. The belief of only one god has been a huge issue and just because the Egyptians didn’t believe in Allah doesn’t mean he isn’t real to the Muslims. The social aspects show how the behavior causes the movement towards the Egyptians. The brutality of slavery in a society. The usage of slave was to show their power of control. The Islamic government show traditional political concepts of Sharia.

 

Books and Scholarly articles.

  1. Medhat, O., & Zavis, A. “THE WORLD; violence targets Coptic Christians; two attacks in Egypt leave at least 9 dead. Islamic state claims to be responsible.”(2017, Dec 30) Los Angeles Times Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1982079792?accountid=14902
  2. Jan Assmann, Of God and Gods: Egypt, Israel, and the Rise of Monotheism. George L. Mosse Series in Modern European Cultural and Intellectual History. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2008.
  3. Safi, Lu’ayy. “From Reform to Revolution: A Critical Reading of the Political Discourse and Actions of the Islamic Movement in Egypt.” 1995.
  4. Roger S. Bagnall, Later Roman Egypt: Society, Religion, Economy and Administration. Variorum Collected Studies series: (2003)
  5. Berger, M. (1970). Islam in Egypt today; social and political aspects of popular religion.(Princeton studies on the Near East). Cambridge [England: University Press.

 

 

Kashmir War

Download PDF

The world has witnessed many great wars and every war has a certain reason to erupt. The war between India and Pakistan is one of the biggest conflicts in which cultural differences is one of the biggest causes. Contemporaries say the war between India and Pakistan will not stop any time soon. The war began after Britain divided India into two states. This war lasted for half a century as well as other internal conflicts. To this day, India and Pakistan are fighting for independence. In 1980, the war became chaotic when both countries began nuclear attacks, increasing violence in the war which led to other wars in South Asia. There is a number of theories that suggest the impacts of this competitive war over Kashmir. Diehl and Goertz have defined the term of enduring rivalry which describes a war that lasted for two decades, involving six militarized conflict. It also describes an interstate dispute[1]. India and Pakistan fought over Kashmir since 1947, due to democratic reforms, local autonomy, demand for self-determination, as well as the mistrust between the states.

A map shows the parts of Kashmir invaded by Pakistan, India, and China

The India- Pakistan rivalry escalated within the Nationalist movement. The Indian National Congress was led by Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru who aimed to unite the country under secularism and liberal democracy[2]. Even though the vast majority of Congress party membership came from Hindu population, the party included different ethnic groups. Thus, the state did not hold up any specific religion[3]. The Muslims leaders were cautious about the rules which were virtually as same as Hindu; due to they demanded a safeguard so they can have a separate constituency. In 1906 The Muslim League was formed after pressing on colonies rulers, and it was approved by British rulers in the government of India. This policy limited the rights of the Indian population, but also helped to reunite Muslim communities and shape the idea of Pakistan[4]. In March 1940, the Muslim league declared it is objective of creating Pakistan as a distinct state for Indian Muslims.

“A ruined village in Jammu and Kashmir, India, during the war between India and Pakistan. 1965. September 9, 1965 State of Jammu and Kashmir, India”

What rushed Indian Independence process is the arrival of the Labour Party government that was directed by Clement Atlee in July 1945. The Indian Independence Act of 1947 gave Indians citizens independence from British rule[5]. Although the venture for local autonomy was successful, the option for the newly freed to choose either Indian or Pakistani citizenship was a vital factor in contributing the Hindu- Pakistani rivalry. “Three princely states decided to stay independent from both India and Pakistan: Jammu and Kashmir in the north, Hyderabad in the south, and Junagadh in the west”[6]. Pakistan’s desire for Kashmir is attributed to religious beliefs that the initial splitting of Indian during the Indian Independence Act of 1947 was weighted in the Indian Hindu majority’s favor and that Kashmir should be a part of Pakistan[7]. According to Pakistan, India took over the majority of Muslims’ states, and if Kashmir has the right to choose, it would have chosen Pakistan. Some of Kashmir population were fighting for a plebiscite to join Pakistan. On the other hand, a lot of them fought for Kashmir Independence as a whole state (a Third option).

“Prime Minister Mr. Nehru meeting some old warriors”

Each state has a point of view that was always opposed each other, Pakistan is committed to the belief that Pakistan’s sub-continent is partial and therefore Pakistan’s Islamic identity will not be complete until its territory is reunited with Kashmir[8]. On the other hand, India claimed that many democratic elections have led to permission to join in this war. Indian Muslims, who make up 12 % of the population, also think that partition on religion basis is very regrettable and ironic, further, the renunciation of Kashmir and Jammu or any part of Kashmir would result in further divisions, which would nullify India’s secular credentials[9]. In fact, India concerned about withdrawal from Kashmir will fuel gasoline in other parts of India and open doors to separatist movements that could result in violence. Thus, India would never give up Kashmir, “Extreme right-wingers in the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) would want to forcefully integrate Kashmir and even recover the portion held by Pakistan (Azad Kashmir)…while more moderate political groups would like to see a peaceful integration of Kashmir within the Indian Union”[10]. Kashmir war created a tension between the two states, that most of Indian agreed that reinstating Kashmir before 1953 Autonomy would be the greatest compromise.

“Let your plans be dark and impenetrable as night, and when you move, fall like a thunderbolt.”[11] What made it worse, some countries intervened to resolve the dispute between India and Pakistan. In 1948, the Indian government lodged a complaint to the Security Council of the United Nation against Pakistan’s hostility. As a result, Pakistan became an international matter, which increased the conflict which adduced international opinion. The United Nation provided three solutions which interposed a third party- “The wishes of people who lived in the land over which India and Pakistan were fighting”[12]. Correspondingly, the Indio- Pakistani war turned into a war that involved three parties, Including Kashmir and Jammu. In addition, The Kashmir war was a threat at the international level during the 1960’s. In October, a dispute between China and India arose over unresolved differences over China’s Himalayan border when the Chinese overran Indian stations and moved troops into the North-East Frontier Area (NEFA) and Ladakh.  In spite of the fact that the conflict between China and India has ended, after China stopped launching the attack unilaterally, Indians feel unqualified to fight with such strong opponent, as well as it creates a threat to India’s security in the long-term. Jawaharlal Nehru, who has not already acknowledged the idea of the alliance with other countries, admitted: “We were getting out of touch with reality in the modern world and we were living in an atmosphere of our own creation.”[13] China shook India’s security confidence the reason Nehru surrendered by accepting the idea of military assistance from the United States in case if China re-launched the attack.

“Jammu and Kashmir: Five Pakistani soldiers killed, several posts destroyed as India retaliates”

In 1962, both the United States and Britain sent military aid to New Delhi, explaining to the Pakistani government that the United States was an ally with Pakistan and that they had sent military assistance to India to defeat Chinese Communist. The Anglo- American took advantage of this situation to organize a convenient environment for India and Pakistan to Talk and solve their dispute, by uniting together against Chinese communist[14]. However, in that era, Pakistan was under the presidency of Ayub Khan, who rejected the idea on the grounds that it would not benefit Pakistan. Pakistanis were not just angry but they were disappointed that India who created non-alignment policy it is own had violated it by receiving weapons from the west. However, later on, Pakistan agreed to receive weapons from the west and demanded military assistance; Pakistan joined CENTO and SEATO. In return, America asked Pakistan to install surveillance in it soil which angered the Soviet Union and cut off their relation with Pakistan [15]. Although Russia cut off her relation with Pakistan, in 1965 “The Soviet Union played a mediatory role in concluding an agreement between the two states in Tashkent in 1966 which is known as Tashkent Agreement”[16].

Back to 1962, during the talks, India appeared upset, due to the negotiation between the Pakistani government and

A map shows the Line of Control, which prohibits both of India and Pakistan to stop firing in order to protect their invaded lands.

China. That was the first talk held to resolve the conflict between India and Pakistan over Kashmir and Jammu (r, 100, 101). there were six talks from 1962- 1963, India appeared weak over China, when she was asked to give up her position of Kashmir so it can be an independent state, India doubt it.  Whereas, Pakistan wished that the United States and Britain will keep sending weapons to India so she can get more advantages and power over Kashmir. “Appear weak when you are strong, and strong when you are weak.”[17] Even though Pakistan had an alliance with China, she is in the same boat as India, she cannot speak from a position of strength[18]. War after war over Kashmir in 1947- 1979, 1965, and 1971. After 1971 war, the Silma agreement was signed, which require not to attempt to stop shooting at the control line[19]After both India and Pakistan became nuclear powers, it failed to contract or use nuclear weapons to promote peace between the two countries.

An Indian air force in Kargil war 1999.

As a matter of fact, in 1999 “Kargil conflict was a grim that the open testing and declaration of nuclear weapons in 1998 did not necessarily terminate the potential for a spill-over of conventional hostilities into a nuclear exchange between India and Pakistan.”[20] There were an Air war and a combat on the rocks beside triggering nuclear weapons. According to Maroothi and Leghari, a war considered a war when the number war victims or deaths is about 1000 victims, but in this case, Kargil war exceeded the number of deaths to 1500 cases. Kargil war began when Pakistan sent Secret forces were sent to the Kargil heights and cut off the supply line from India to Kashmir. India has accused Pakistan of entering its territory, but Pakistan denied it. Pakistan also supported the Kashmiris by sending weapons and providing military training. In fact, the Kargil War was a Kashmiri retaliation for the disastrous acts left by India and Pakistan[21].

India and Pakistan have fought in three wars in 1947, 1965, and 1971, but the two states never mediated a solution over Kashmir issue. “India sees no reason why a majority Muslim state should not remain as part of India; Muslim Pakistani demands that a majority Muslim state should be included within its border”[22]. India and Pakistan perspective of Kashmir was always opposed and never got along.  As time pass by both of India and Pakistan become attached to their separate opinion and position over Kashmir. What explains lack of solutions for this issue until today, is the legacy of mistrust between the two states for fifty years which failed every bilateral solution[23]. The contemporaries agreed that the nuclear process cannot rely on to spread peace, it makes things even worse. Following the Kargil disaster, several crises have followed the world, most notably the September 11/ 2001 disaster, where terrorists targeted the most famous commercial centers and the terrorism victims were equivalent to 3,000[24]. Pakistan has been providing shelters and weapons to al Qaeda and its leader, Osama bin Laden. The reason why India has been shooting terrorists’ hideouts from its border.

For the time being, the causes of war must be studied for several reasons. In Kashmir war, in particular, Pakistan used religion for political purposes, which was to gain Kashmir, so the country will expand and become stronger. The failure to reach a compromise between the two countries and mistrust between them led to a war that started from the Indian subcontinent and became a global concern.  The most important damage to any war in which violence and brutality have been used is death, injury, and destruction of property, environmental damage and damage to infrastructure, famine, disease, scientific delay, negative psychological effects on individuals, depletion of resources (economic, primary and human) Surrendering due to conflict. This brings us to an important point, which is one of the learned lessons and morals, which is to use the theory of weakness to avoid losses and aggressiveness. The theory of weakness refers to the fact that the techniques result from actions that work by means to show more power over a power so as to bring with it more damage after another. “There are perhaps many causes worth dying for, but to me, certainly, there are none worth killing for.”  Thus, to prevent war, it must be conducted with peace, using diplomacy, dialogue, non-violation of any agreement between the two adversaries, negotiating compromises, and so forth.


[1] Paul, T. V. The India-Pakistan Conflict an Enduring Rivalry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (p.4).

[2] Paul, T. V. The India-Pakistan Conflict an Enduring Rivalry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (p.6)

[3] Paul, T. V. The India-Pakistan Conflict an Enduring Rivalry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (p.6)

[4] Paul, T. V. The India-Pakistan Conflict an Enduring Rivalry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (p.6)

[5] Paul, T. V. The India-Pakistan Conflict an Enduring Rivalry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (p.7)

[6] Paul, T. V. The India-Pakistan Conflict an Enduring Rivalry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (p.7).

[7] Paul, T. V. The India-Pakistan Conflict an Enduring Rivalry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (p.8).

[8] Paul, T. V. The India-Pakistan Conflict an Enduring Rivalry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (p.9)

[9] Paul, T. V. The India-Pakistan Conflict an Enduring Rivalry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (p.9)

[10] Paul, T. V. The India-Pakistan Conflict an Enduring Rivalry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (p.9)

[11] Sun-Tzu. Art of War Ch 7. Accessed April 26, 2018.

https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/sun-tzu/works/art-of-war/ch07.htm.

[12] Victoria, Schofield., and Rogers D. Spotswood Collection. Kashmir in Conflict : India, Pakistan and the Unfinished War. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2000. (p. xiv).

[13] Victoria, Schofield., and Rogers D. Spotswood Collection. Kashmir in Conflict : India, Pakistan and the Unfinished War. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2000. (p.99).

[14] Victoria, Schofield., and Rogers D. Spotswood Collection. Kashmir in Conflict : India, Pakistan and the Unfinished War. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2000. (p.100).

[15] Victoria, Schofield., and Rogers D. Spotswood Collection. Kashmir in Conflict : India, Pakistan and the Unfinished War. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2000. (p. 100).

[16] Leghari, Farooque Ahmed, and Ravichandran Moorthy. 2017. “NUCLEAR DETERRENCE OR DIPLOMACY: MANAGING THE INDIA-PAKISTAN CRISES.” E-BANGI Journal 12, no. 3: 1-15. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 27, 2018).

[17] James Clear. (n.d.). Book Summary: The Art of War by Sun Tzu. Retrieved from https://jamesclear.com/book-summaries/the-art-of-war

[18] Victoria, Schofield., and Rogers D. Spotswood Collection. Kashmir in Conflict : India, Pakistan and the Unfinished War. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2000. (p. 102)

[19] Shukla, Paraag. 2017. “TURNING POINT IN KARGIL.” Military History 34, no. 2: 38-47. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 27, 2018). (p. 40).

[20] Leghari, Farooque Ahmed, and Ravichandran Moorthy. 2017. “NUCLEAR DETERRENCE OR DIPLOMACY: MANAGING THE INDIA-PAKISTAN CRISES.” E-BANGI Journal 12, no. 3: 1-15. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 27, 2018). (p.7).

[21] Leghari, Farooque Ahmed, and Ravichandran Moorthy. 2017. “NUCLEAR DETERRENCE OR DIPLOMACY: MANAGING THE INDIA-PAKISTAN CRISES.” E-BANGI Journal 12, no. 3: 1-15. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 27, 2018). (p.7).

[22] Victoria, Schofield., and Rogers D. Spotswood Collection. Kashmir in Conflict : India, Pakistan and the Unfinished War. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2000. (p.225).

[23] Victoria, Schofield., and Rogers D. Spotswood Collection. Kashmir in Conflict : India, Pakistan and the Unfinished War. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2000. (p.228).

[24] Leghari, Farooque Ahmed, and Ravichandran Moorthy. 2017. “NUCLEAR DETERRENCE OR DIPLOMACY: MANAGING THE INDIA-PAKISTAN CRISES.” E-BANGI Journal 12, no. 3: 1-15. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 27, 2018). (p. 8)


Bibliography

Camus, Albert. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Albert_Camus

Clear, James. (n.d.). Book Summary: The Art of War by Sun Tzu. Retrieved from https://jamesclear.com/book-summaries/the-art-of-war

Leghari, Farooque Ahmed, and Ravichandran Moorthy. 2017. “NUCLEAR DETERRENCE OR DIPLOMACY: MANAGING THE INDIA-PAKISTAN CRISES.” E-BANGI Journal 12, no. 3: 1-15. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 27, 2018).

Schofield, Victoria., and Rogers D. Spotswood Collection. Kashmir in Conflict : India, Pakistan and the Unfinished War. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2000.

Sun-Tzu. Art of War Ch 7. Accessed April 26, 2018. https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/sun-tzu/works/art-of-war/ch07.htm.

Paul, T. V. The India-Pakistan Conflict an Enduring Rivalry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Paraag, Shukla. 2017. “TURNING POINT IN KARGIL.” Military History 34, no. 2: 38-47. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 27, 2018).

Higher Education and Economic Growth in Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad & Tobago

Download PDF

Rachel Koch

History 105-29

4/26/18

Higher Education and Economic Growth in Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad & Tobago

In the United States, higher education provides citizens with professional skills required to pursue a specific career. There are also thousands of such institutions in the U.S. for one to choose from; the National Center for Education Statistics recorded a total of 4,724 “Degree-granting institutions” in 2014 [1], combining four-year universities and two-year colleges, such as community colleges [2]. High school students often receive encouragement to pursue a post-secondary education at one of these establishments, and it is not incredibly uncommon for one to attend hold a degree from a major university in the United States.

However, in many island nations in the Caribbean island region, the availability of higher education is much more restrictive. There is only one major university in this entire region; this is the University of the West Indies. According to the school’s website, UWI has three official campuses, each on a different island nation: Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad & Tobago [3], with “The oldest UWI Campus…[being located in] Mona, Jamaica” [4]. An “Open Campus” [5] founded in 2008 offers a slew of additional campuses located on fifteen other islands, as well as the Central American country of Belize, and offers many courses online [6]. Later, in 2010, an anonymous article published in the Asia News Monitor said that at UWI, particularly, “the percentage of individuals ages 18 to 24 enrolled in higher education rose from 21 percent in 2000 to 40 percent in 2010” [7]. This provides tremendously more access to a degree from UWI for many students who cannot afford to study abroad on another island nation. Surprisingly, though, its existence does little, if anything at all, to change the cultural and social stigma regarding the concept of education in Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, and the rest of the Caribbean region as a whole.

Regarding the economies in practically every Caribbean island nation, they are currently struggling to provide sufficiently for all of their citizens. This is especially true of those that only somewhat recently gained their independence from Great Britain, such as Barbados, which did not become its own country until 1966. Another cause of the poor economic conditions of these islands is their close proximity to the hurricane belt. The hurricane belt is a region in the Eastern part of the Caribbean and Latin America that is highly prone to hurricanes, especially in the late summer [8], though, usually, “prime [Caribbean] hurricane season…falls [continuously] between June 1 and November 30” [9]. This can be detrimental to the formation of colleges and universities, as well as any sort of strong economy, as the location itself is highly dangerous to live in. Nonetheless To combat the financial issues of these countries, a liberal movement promoting regionalism has emerged. Regionalism occurs when several neighboring countries or groups within a particular region assume a common identity to achieve a shared goal. The opposing argument against regionalism claims that doing so would undermine the reasoning behind their desire for autonomy from Britain that many island nations have only recently attained [10]; meanwhile, proponents of regionalism argue that “respective economies of the Caribbean[,]…individually,…have exhibited, in recent years, the worst growth performance of any class of economy in the global arena” [11]. Much of the support for regionalism stems from the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). Founded in 1973 [12], CARICOM, which also supports the growth and development of Caribbean society as well as regionalism, modeled themselves after the European Union and the UWI cricket team [13]. This organization is also highly supportive of the university’s initiative to establish multiple campuses, each on different islands, thus becoming a sort of regionalist “common market…[and] a regional examination system for high school students” [14] throughout the Caribbean island region. Overall, though, despite the best efforts of CARICOM and other proponents of Caribbean regionalism, they are a political minority that have consistently been outweighed by those who wish to preserve the complete independence of their own island nation.

As a whole, the Caribbean Island region appears to be in a constant cycle between undermined educational standards and a slow, struggling economy. In the case of education, especially, progress is slow, but rising at an enthusiastic rate, nonetheless [15]. That being said, the state of the education system in the Caribbean Island region, specifically in Jamaica, Barbados, and Trinidad (the islands in which UWI campuses exist), is still in a state of very gradual improvement. However, the hindered development of these island nations still persists, due to their recently-attained independence, the resulting lack of current economic stability, the cultural stereotypes about their citizens, and the actual social customs and beliefs regarding education, political independence, and overall dignity of the individual; though this list of issues is long and severe, each item can be treated in part with regionalism and improvement in the region’s education system overall, especially in the case of higher education. This topic relates to inequality, particularly economic inequality, as well as diverse ways of thinking. It relates to economic inequality because the Caribbean is a much poorer region than the U.S., which reflects its lower percentage of college-educated citizens, since those with less money have less access to higher education. It also relates to diverse ways of thinking because of the cultural differences between how education is viewed in the Caribbean and in the U.S.

Long before Great Britain colonized every Caribbean island and used it as a center for slave labor and the international trading of goods found nowhere else in such a great abundance, “Many of the Caribbean islands were once populated by the indigenous people of the Americas [16]. However, following “the arrival of Christopher Columbus…and subsequent European settlers” [17], these indigenous groups began to decimate very rapidly, often because the settlers had killed them or because of a fatal, European-based disease that had never appeared in the region previously; these populations also diminished because many indigenous people had been removed from their respective societies and put to work “on the plantations established by the European settlers” [18]. Since then, most of these individual islands have gained independence from the European countries from which the settlers had originated. Though political autonomy brings with it the promise of many positive opportunities for national power and success, these nations have often struggled to organize themselves and do what is necessary of an independent nation, due to a lack of resources (such as professional skills and education) to do so.

The island nations on which the official UWI campuses are located are all former colonies of Great Britain. Jamaica, for example, became an official British colony in the year 1655 [19]. Eventually, in 1962, “The Jamaica Constitution…was drafted by a bipartisan joint committee of the Jamaican legislature [20] that included local Jamaicans Marcus Garvey, Rudolph Burke, and Sir Howard Cooke, to name a few [21]; after that, the Constitution was approved by the British Parliament, along with the Jamaica Independence Act that enforced it [22]. Barbados, which spent the longest amount of time as a colony out of the three, lasted as such from 1627 [23] until 1966 with the formation of its own constitution, approved by Queen Elizabeth II [24]. Finally, having lasted the least amount of time as a British colony (less than a century) out of the three nations and having attained its independence the longest ago, Trinidad & Tobago was a British colony between 1797-1888. However, the country did not elect its first prime minister until 1962 [25].

This first Prime Minister, Dr. Eric Williams, was already a national hero. In 1919, Oxford University offered Williams the Asquith Commission [26], which he accepted along with the Island Scholarship [27]. The former of the two awarded scholarships was offered to residents of the British colonies for an education at a university located in Great Britain, which were (rightfully, in most cases) believed to be superior to higher education in colonies of the British Commonwealth. At Oxford, Williams stayed until he eventually earned a doctorate in philosophy. He then began a career as a professor at Howard University in the United States [28]. During this time, Williams wrote “Manifest Destiny and the Caribbean,” which was published in The Journal of Negro Education in 1944. In the article, he emphasized the importance of “the fear engendered by the policy and practices of the United States” [29], stating that out of every highly-developed country in the world, the United States has the most potential to provide support for improvements on education, due to its strategic location and its status as a former British colony-turned-ally [30]. Eventually, in 1955, Williams returned to Trinidad & Tobago [31], where he propmptly began his career in politics.

The economic problems present affect the quality of education in Jamaica, Barbados, and Trinidad & Tobago. For example, there are severe deficits in the overall Caribbean region, such as technology and productivity [32], but the largest, most serious deficit is in regards to education [33]. The effects of education are also in part caused by these deficits and lack of technological resources. Thus, it is clear that in order for an institution of education to thrive, it must exist in a nation whose economy is thriving, as well; either that, or this hypothetical (yet still very real) school would require its own private finances, such as one’s personal allowance or a combination thereof from multiple individuals that would fund the maintenance of and improvements done to it.

Social norms and customs in these islands also hinder the potential for improvement of national education systems in Jamaica, Barbados, and Trinidad & Tobago. According to an article published in 2015 in the Guardian, a Trinidadian newspaper, progress in feminism and social justice in Trinidad & Tobago, a nation with a notoriously homophobic and hyper-masculine culture [34], has reached an arguably awkward social standard in which women attending college and working to provide for their families are both becoming more widely accepted concepts [35], yet men are ostracized by their neighbors if they become stay-at-home parents, or if they show too much intelligence or a desire to learn [36]. 

The website for UWI states that the school was “formally establish[ed as]…the University College of the West Indies in 1948” [37] after the Vice Chancellors of United Kingdom Universities in 1943 organized a commission whose job was to consider a strategy for initiating the accessibility and “promotion of ‘higher education, learning and research… in the colonies.’” [38]. The formation of this commission resulted in an official Royal Charter that immediately led to the establishment of UWI [39]. Since then, this institution has grown impressively in its relatively short lifetime, as far as four-year universities go. The University of the West Indies has improved its outreach across the Caribbean Island region, which, as the name of the school implies, was the whole purpose of its establishment in the first place.

  1. Returning to the ideology of regionalism in Jamaica, Barbados, and Trinidad & Tobago, education plays well into it as a solution. Regionalism is meant to benefit countries with similar issues, which is indeed the case. At UWI, students with citizenship in one of the many island nations in the Caribbean Basin will have the opportunity to come together and solve problems using teamwork and camaraderie. Hopefully, Caribbean nationals from all islands will still apply these principles after they graduate.”Fast Facts: How many educational institutions exist in the United States?” National Center for Education Statistics, accessed April 25, 2018, https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=84
  2. National Center for Education Statistics, “Fast Facts.”
  3. “UWI Campuses,” The University of the West Indies, accessed April 26, 2018, http://www.uwi.edu/campuses.asp
  4. The University of the West Indies, “UWI Campuses.”
  5. The University of the West Indies, “UWI Campuses.”
  6. The University of the West Indies, “UWI Campuses.”
  7. ”Latin America and the Caribbean: Higher Education Expanding in Latin America and the Caribbean, but Falling Short of Potential,” Asia News Monitor, May 19, 2017, https://search.proquest.com/docview/1899809526?accountid=14902
  8. Christina Vercelletto, “5 Caribbean Islands (Generally) Not Hit by Hurricanes,” ABC News, July 9, 2016, https://abcnews.go.com/International/north-koreas-kim-jong-crosses-dmz-historic-meeting/story?id=54759591
  9. Vercelletto, “Hurricanes.”
  10. Owen Arthur, “Caribbean Regionalism in the Context of Economic Challenges,” Caribbean Journal of International Relations and Diplomacy 2, no. 4, (December 2014): 151.
  11. Owen Arthur, “Caribbean Regionalism in the Context of Economic Challenges,” Caribbean Journal of International Relations and Diplomacy 2, no. 4, (December 2014): 148.
  12. Arthur, “Caribbean Regionalism,” 148.
  13. E. Nigel Harris, “Small States: Higher Education in the English-speaking Caribbean,” in Universities for a New World: Making a Global Network in Higher Education, ed. Deryck M. Schreuder (Los Angeles: Sage, the Association of Commonwealth Universities, 2013), 309.
  14. E. Nigel Harris, “Small States: Higher Education in the English-speaking Caribbean,” in Universities for a New World: Making a Global Network in Higher Education, ed. Deryck M. Schreuder (Los Angeles: Sage, the Association of Commonwealth Universities, 2013), 314.
  15. “Higher Education Expanding.”
  16. Harris, “Small States,” 309.
  17. Harris, “Small States,” 309.
  18. Harris, “Small States,” 309.
  19. “The History of Jamaica,” Jamaican History, Jamaica Information Service, accessed April 10, 2018, http://jis.gov.jm/information/jamaican-history/
  20. “The Architects of the Jamaican Constitution: 1962,” Government, Jamaica Information Service, accessed April 10, 2018, http://jis.gov.jm/government/the-constitution/
  21. Jamaica Information Service, “Jamaican Constitution.”
  22. Jamaica Information Service, “Jamaican Constitution.”
  23. Eric Herschthal, “The Original Slave Colony: Barbados and Andrea Stuart’s ‘Sugar in the Blood’,” Daily Beast, January 24, 2013, https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-original-slave-colony-barbados-and-andrea-stuarts-sugar-in-the-blood
  24. “Barbados: Constitution and Politics,” Barbados, The Commonwealth, accessed April 10, 2018, http://thecommonwealth.org/our-member-countries/barbados/constitution-politics
  25. Michael Anthony, “Dr. Eric Williams: From Oxford scholar to father of a nation,” Land of Beginnings, Trinicenter, accessed April 26, 2018, http://www.trinicenter.com/Peopleofthecentury/EricWilliams2.htm
  26. John Priest. “The Asquith Commission, 1919–1922,” The History of the University of Oxford, 8 (1994): 2, https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229742.003.0002
  27. “Dr. Eric Williams,” Race and History, accessed March 8, 2018, http://www.raceandhistory.com/Historians/eric_williams.htm
  28. Race and History, “Dr. Eric Williams.”
  29. Eric Williams, “Manifest Destiny and the Caribbean,” The Journal of Negro Education 12, no. 1 (1943): 86, http://doi.org/10.2307/2292429
  30. Williams, “Manifest Destiny and the Caribbean,” 86.
  31. Race and History, “Dr. Eric Williams.”
  32. David M. DeFerranti, Closing the Gap in Education and Technology (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2003.): 5.
  33. DeFerranti, Education and Technology, 5.
  34. “Caribbean’s Different Gender Gap: Women Rise, Men Stagnate,” Guardian, February 15, 2015, http://www.guardian.co.tt/business/2015-02-15/caribbean’s-different-gender-gap-women-rise-men-stagnate.
  35. “Gender Gap”
  36. “Gender Gap”
  37. “About The UWI,” History, The University of the West Indies, accessed April 26, 2018, http://www.uwi.edu/history.asp
  38. The University of the West Indies, “About The UWI.”
  39. The University of the West Indies, “About The UWI.”Works Cited

Arthur, Owen. “Caribbean Regionalism in the Context of Economic Challenges.” Caribbean Journal of International Relations and Diplomacy 2, no. 4 (December 2014): 147-64.

“Caribbean’s Different Gender Gap: Women Rise, Men Stagnate.” Guardian, February 15, 2015, http://www.guardian.co.tt/business/2015-02-15/caribbean’s-different-gender-gap- women-rise-men-stagnate

Chepkemoi, Joyce. “How Many Colleges are in the US?” WorldAtlas. Last modified September 29, 2017. https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/how-many-colleges-are-in-the-us.html

Constitute Project. “Jamaica’s Constitution of 1962 with Amendments through 2011.” Last modified January 17, 2018, https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/ Jamaica_2011.pdf

DeFerranti, David M. Closing the Gap in Education and Technology. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2003.

“Fast Facts: How many educational institutions exist in the United States?” National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed April 25, 2018. https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp? id=84

Grant-Woodham, Jeanette and Camille Morris. “Community Colleges Embracing Change: The Anglophone Caribbean Perspective.” In Community College Models, edited by Rosalind L. Raby and Edward J. Valeau, 299-320. Northridge: California State University Press, 2009.

Harris, E.N. “Small States: Higher Education in the English-speaking Caribbean.” In Universities for a New World: Making a Global Network in Higher Education, edited by Deryck M. Schreuder. Los Angeles: Sage, the Association of Commonwealth Universities, 2013.

“Higher Education in the Caribbean.” Nature 153, no. 134 (January 29, 1944): 134. https://doi: 10.1038/153134a0

Jamaica Information Service. “The Architects of the Jamaican Constitution: 1962.” Government. Accessed April 10, 2018. http://jis.gov.jm/government/the-constitution/

Jamaica Information Service. “The History of Jamaica.” Jamaican History. Accessed April 10, 2018. http://jis.gov.jm/information/jamaican-history

Jules, Didacus. “Rethinking Education for the Caribbean: A Radical Approach.” Comparative Education 44, no. 2 (April 24, 2008): 203-214. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/03050060802041142

“Latin America and the Caribbean: Higher Education Expanding in Latin America and the Caribbean, but Falling Short of Potential.” Asia News Monitor, May 19, 2017, https:// search.proquest.com/docview/1899809526?accountid=14902

Louisy, Pearlette. “Globalization and Comparative Education: A Caribbean Perspective.” Comparative Education 37, no. 4 (November 2001): 425-38. JSTOR.

Priest, John. “The Asquith Commission, 1919–1922.” The History of the University of Oxford 8, no. 1 (1994): 1-22. https://10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229742.001.0001

The University of the West Indies. “About The UWI.” History. Accessed April 26, 2018. http:// www.uwi.edu/history.asp

“UWI Campuses,” The University of the West Indies, accessed April 26, 2018, http:// www.uwi.edu/campuses.asp

Vercelletto, Christina. “5 Caribbean Islands (Generally) Not Hit by Hurricanes.” ABC News, July 9, 2016. https://abcnews.go.com/International/north-koreas-kim-jong-crosses-dmz- historic-meeting/story?id=54759591

Walter Rodney Foundation. “Walter Rodney & Works.” Accessed April 25, 2018. http:// www.walterrodneyfoundation.org/biography/

Williams, Eric. “Review: Manifest Destiny and the Caribbean.” Journal of Negro Education 12, no. 1 (Winter 1943): 84-87. https://doi:10.2307/2292429

“My Button is Bigger and More Powerful”:The Everlasting Tension between the United States and North Korea

Download PDF

“My Button is Bigger and More Powerful”
Every day, children in the North Korean capital of Peyongyang get walked to school by their guardians. Subtle hums throughout the city can be heard of these children singing a North Korean anti-American tune that roughly translates to “Damnd America, Capitalist Dogs, soon will come an end to you” it’s a quite playful and joyous melody. Billboards across the city are littered with anti-American propaganda, depicting American soldiers being brutally slaughtered by North Korean infantries, right next to glorious portraits of their beloved leader. For the average American, we tend to look at their hatred for us as an act of unwarranted hostility, brainwashed by a ruthless leader that does not care if his people starve, while not understanding why they resent us so much. One of the main reasons we examine our history is to make sure that we do not repeat it. Growing up in one of the most prestigious school districts in the country, I looked back on my experience realizing that I was mostly taught lessons on the mistakes that other countries have made. Meanwhile, mistakes that America has made were merely just a side note or just one section in any given chapter and were always justified by sub-par reasoning. As a citizen to this country, I never questioned it, I never thought about it, I never thought about what it was like for the other side. Our relationship with North Korea is the best example of how our beloved country has changed the narrative to its citizens. Such a narrative that consequently created a nationalized view of North Korea, a view that is nothing but every bit as hostile towards them as they are towards us. If knowledge of both sides of this never-ending story can enlighten us as a society to become less bias and impartial, then it is imperative to understand that there are many reasons why the United States and North Korea have a hostile relationship, but exactly how did it start? To what extent is the United States at fault for such a hostile relationship? Through various research of different primary and secondary sources, it is evident that the United States is mostly at fault. Comprehending why this is, it is imperative to understand the ideological differences between the two countries, the unnecessary policies the US created to protect capitalism, and the brutality of the Korean War we had no business fighting in.

Communism

Karl Marx

To fully understand the history of our relationship with North Korea, it is vital to first assess the origin of our ideological disagreements from beginning to end. One person who plays a big role in this story is German philosopher and political activist, Karl Marx. During his life, Marx had many political pieces of writing published, and as Joseph O’Mally, author of “Methodology in Karl Marx” once put it in his book, “Marx’s mature social and political theory may be traced back in his writings to his political journalism of 1842-1848”[1] . Marx wrote in response to what he believed was social and governmental injustice to its working-class citizens. For most of his life, Marx’s work was underappreciated and looked past , until his entire life’s worked culminated in one book, “The Communist Manifesto”[2]. “A spectre is haunting Europe…the spectre of communism” Marx’s explained in the very first sentences of his most famous piece of writing. He starts off by explaining how European country’s alike refused to consider the thought of implementing the communist regime into their ideology. Some countries could just simply not come to terms with the idea. Throughout his book, Marx seems to ridicule the higher class ruling power in our society, a ruling class he calls the “Bourgeois”[3] . This ruling class of “modern capitalists, owners of the means of social production and employers of wage labor” had been a massive detriment to society according Marx. He explains how the bourgeois helped create “new conditions of oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old ones”[4] . Throughout the manifesto, Marx devised a plan that would put an end to this socio-economic injustice by eliminating this ruling class, not by death or punishment, but by means of common ownership in regards production, eliminating the need for social classes and money. This means that everyone would be economically equal by giving everyone an equal job as well as housing, while producing the goods for their country in return for food and basic material needs. However, governmental powers across the world would never come to terms with Marx’s ideology during his lifetime, in other words, the rich stayed richer and the poor stayed poorer far past Marx’s death in 1883.

The Impact of the USSR
The establishment of communism would not happen until the early 20th century when Russia’s Marxist party, the Bolsheviks, lead by Vladimir Lenin, revolted against Tsar Nicholas II’s nationalist regime in the Russian civil war.[5] Although communist Russia was established in 1912, the turning point in the spread of its ideology was due to the impact of World War II. “Economically, it was the first real test of the Soviet system of central planning. Politically, it thrust the USSR into the world arena as a major world power” Susan J. Linz put it in her book “The Impact of World War II on the Soviet Union”.[6] As Soviet powers allied with the likes of Great Britain and the United States during their time in World War II, it was evident that their early decisions to invade regions in Europe were overlooked after the war. In addition to this, nations alike would start to take notice of the successful regime that the Soviets had established.
Forced Communist Ideology in North Korea
During the time when the Bolsheviks came into power in 1917, Korea had been under complete Japanese rule for the past seven years. After the Japanese invaded and took control of Korea in 1910 “the Japanese successfully eliminated the bands of patriots who resisted them”[7] . Korea was then placed under strict control, with bands over arms, political assembly, as well as press being tightly regulated. Such oppression in Korea lasted about thirty-five years until the end of World War II, when the Japanese found themselves on the losing side of the war and were forced to relinquish all of their controlled territories[8] . In Robert Scalapino’s book, “Communism in Korea”, it is apparent that both United States and Soviet forces aided the Koreans, in efforts to help establish their nation post-WWII. As time went on, it was more and more apparent that there was an ideological divide that existed between the north and south regions of Korea, the socialist Soviet lead north, and the capitalist American lead south[9] . In the North, the Soviets arrived on to the scene on August 25th, 1945 and announced that Japanese authorities would continue to carry out administrative functions as in the past, but would be maintained by joint forces of Soviet and Japanese officials[10]. However, on August 26th that same announcement was rescinded, Japanese police and authorities were disarmed, and power was given to the South Pyeongyang Preparatory Committee lead by Soviet and Korean political officials.[11] As the committee was reorganized, the Soviets ordered for a reformation of the old committee into a new one, consisting of sixteen Communist and sixteen Non-Communist officials . According to O Young-jin, a personal secretary of non-communist committee member Cho Man-sik, that was told by Cho that Soviet General and supreme Russian commander in Korea, Ivan Chistiakov, ordered him and his colleagues to take directions from the Communist Party on matters relating to provincial government. However, Cho and other non Communists refused Chistiakov’s orders and threatened to resign from the committee[12] . In response to this, Chistiakov altered the order, “suggesting” that the nationalist party should “cooperate with the Communist party.”[13] Thus, the communist party was forced into existence by soviet officials in the North and after three years of debate, the Non-communist party was eventually wiped out of the discussion in the committee, leaving communist leader Kim Ill-sung with the reigns as the first supreme leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of North Korea (DPRNK).
Americas unjust Anti-Communist Ideology
Understanding the roots of the United States Anti-Communist ideology is the key to also understanding why we do not get along with North Korea. Growing up in post-World War II America, one may have gone to a movie theater to watch an new movie that had just been released. Before the movie started, advertisements and pieces of short film propaganda would be shown. One piece of propaganda that was shown was the film “Make Mine America” produced by the Harding college. The short film starts out by depicting what “America means to different people”[14] . These examples consist of the right to own your own property, as well as the right to refuse unnecessary searches and seizures, rights that make America such a great country. The film then goes on to depict a group of unemployed people in a park complaining about capitalism and the problems that the American system has. The group is then called over by a man selling bottles of an obscure liquid for one cent that will ensure that they will be taken care of financially for the rest of their lives, from a company called “ISM” (short for communism).

“Make Mine America”

To get the bottle, they had to sign over their freedoms, as well as their descendance freedoms. Another man walks into the picture and explains to the group how that ideology does not work and gives an example of someone who made a life for himself through hard work in the capitalist system, and how important free enterprise is. The man then makes the group drink the ISM bottle and the scene transitions to depict the group of people imprisoned, confined by a ball and chain. The ISM bottle represents the communist regime, and according to the film, it is something that sounds like a perfect solution at first, but ultimately serves as a trap to the people within it. These pieces of propaganda were made to create a nationalist view of what the American government wants its citizens to believe. A view that there are not faults in the capitalist system, and free enterprise is the best way to live life as a society while mentioning nothing about its faults. On the other hand, they choose to depict communism as something that is harmful, while leaving out any of the benefits that a socialist regime has to offer. As the citizens of America started to take notice of the growing fear of the spread of communism, President Truman and the National Security Council (NSC) put into place a doctrine to fight in any wars necessary to help contain the spread of communism (NSC-68)[15] . By itself, this doctrine alone and who it was created by is self-contradicting. The spread of communism was objectively not a concern for the national security of America at this time, but rather it was an issue of the ideological security of its beloved capitalism. In addition to this, professor such as Phillip E Mosley, professor at Columbia University once wrote a letter to President Kirk, President of Columbia university, acknowledging that the “social ingenuity of the Western Hemisphere cannot be understood in isolation to massive changes that have been going on in other parts of the globe.”[16] Mosely goes on to acknowledge the fact that we are unaware of the many society’s around the world that have massively benefited from a socialist construct. “Illusions of American omniscience and omnipotence will, of course, continue to plague us in the shaping of our national policies” Mosely proclaimed. What he means by this is if America keeps thinking that their ideals are the best ideals for every country, it will continue to plague us in every national and foreign policy we choose create. NSC-68 was just one of the unjust policies we created to protect capitalism on not only a national scale but on a global scale as well.
The Korean War
The United States has proved that they would go to unnecessary lengths to protect their beloved capitalism throughout its history. June 24th 1950, North Korean forces made their way South across the 38th Parallel (the boarder between North and South Korea) and began to attack South Korean infantries in an attempt to unify Korea under one centralized government.[17] The very next day, North Korean forces consisting of tank platoons we able to maneuver their way all the way down to the capital of South Korea, Seoul. As former Secretary of State under President Truman and author of “The Korean War” Dean Acheson

“US Air Force intelligence officer, Donald Nichols ran a covert network of spies who infiltrated”

described it in his book, “South Korean arms were clearly outclassed”. In response regarding NSC-68, the United States was forced to act accordingly to prevent the spread of communism. While President Truman wanted to do everything they could do to not consequently start a war with China in efforts to push back North Korean powers into China, Douglas MacArthur, United States general “did everything he could to provoke it.”[18] Douglas’ famous words can be recognized, “There is no substitution for victory” meaning that if winning the Korean War meant starting a war with China, that is what he will do. The United States by July of 1951 were able to successful push North Korean forces back across the 38th Parallel and the nations we able to reach a peace treaty without provoking any wars with China. However, the Korean War resulted in 5 million Korean deaths, half of which were Korean citizens from the South as well as the North.
As Americans, most of us have only been exposed to one view point that our society gives us. One of the most interesting concepts in the world is that mindset of a crazy person, because crazy people do not know that they are crazy, that is what makes them crazy. As a society, if we choose to look at North Koreans as delusional individuals and continue to wonder why they hate us so much, who is to say the we are not the ones lost in delusion for wondering in the first place. North Koreans did not collectively choose to be a communist country, but rather they inherited their ideology from a tyrannical government lead by an evil man who forced his communist regime on the likes of every citizen that happened to live in that state many years before they arrived. Meanwhile, we as a nation choose to pick fights with anyone that goes against the ideals that we have as a country, and in doing so, we have become mortal enemies with a nation that ranks among the strongest military forces in the world with increasing nuclear weapon technology. The reason we learn history is, so we do not repeat it, it is time to start reflecting on the damage that we have put on this world.

[1]O’Malley, Joseph. “Methodology in Karl Marx.” The Review of Politics 32, no. 2 (1970): 219-30. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1406517.
[2]O’Mally. “methodology in marx”
[3]Marx, Karl, Friedrich Engels, and Paul M. Sweezy. The Communist Manifesto. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1964.
[4]IBID
[5]Brovkin, Vladimir. Slavic Review 48, no. 3 (1989): 495-97. doi:10.2307/2499011.
[6]Linz, Susan J. The Impact of World War II on the Soviet Union. Totowa, NJ: Roman & Allanheld Publishers, 1985
[7]Scalapino, Robert Anthony, and Chong-Sik Yi. Communism in Korea. Berkeley, Calif.: Univ. of California Press, 1972
[8]IBID
[9]IBID
[10]IBID
[11]Cho, Sung Yoon. “The Judicial System of North Korea.” Asian Survey 11, no. 12 (1971): 1167-181. doi:10.2307/2642898.
[12]IBID
[13]O Yong-jin. An Eye Witness Report, Pusan, 1952.
[14]Harding College: Make Mine America, Directed by Technicolor, 1948, YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g_DaMKUP3Og
[15]Gaddis, John Lewis, and Paul Nitze. “NSC 68 and the Soviet Threat Reconsidered.” International Security 4, no. 4 (1980): 164-76. doi:10.2307/2626672.
[16]Mosely, Philip E. “Changing Challenge of Communism: Some Implications for United States Policy.” Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science 27, no. 4 (1964): 99-120. doi:10.2307/1173314.
[17]Acheson,Dean. The Korean War. Nortan & Company, New York. 1969
[18]History.com Staff. “Korean War.” History.com. 2009. Accessed April 27, 2018. https://www.history.com/topics/korean-war.

Illustrations

Figure 1. Portait of Karl Marx in 1948 https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/7084.Karl_Marx

Figure 2 “Make Mine America” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_nX1fcpu9JM

Figure 3  “US Air Force intelligence officer, Donald Nichols ran a covert network of spies who infiltrated” https://www.pri.org/stories/2017-10-17/american-spymaster-korean-war-was-nearly-forgotten

Cuban Hot War

Download PDF

Cuban Hot War

Many wars have created mass destruction in our world without the use nuclear power, some of these wars have been for territory, some have been for power, others have just been outright stupid. The Cold War was a mix of all of these qualities, a war capable of killing every person on this earth, because of newly founded nuclear weapons. Some of the most important and crucial moments in the Cold War occurred in Cuba. Moments where the possibility for massive destruction ran dangerously close to the tipping point, almost starting a primarily nuclear world war. Cuba went through political hardship and revolution in the uprising of new Prime Minister, Fidel Castro who was creating a communist government. Castro, needed economic and political help and had turned to the Soviet Union, a force that was amidst a tense nuclear race with the United States. The Soviets agreed to support Cuba in return for large businesses, land (that had been owned by Americans and other foreigners prior to Castro’s entrance to office), and the ability to place their missiles and nuclear weapons within range of every major city in America. The Cuban Missile Crisis happens in 1962, a nuclear standoff lasting 13 days.

The course of the Cold War, and human kind, was decided in a proxy battle of ideologies and policies where two superpowers lined up tip to tip in Cuba. Without special relations within Cuba, or between Cuba and the two superpowers, the world would have ended with a nuclear bang.

In World War II the superpowers of The United States and The Soviet Union successfully fought together to bring an end to Hitler and the Nazi’s. But shortly after returning peace to the world, a new battle between the previous teammates created a situation much scarier than the holocaust. Skepticism between USSR and USA has gone on for a very long time, the basis revolves around the two nations’ conflicting ideologies and the political views of Capitalism Vs. Communism. When WWII came to an end, several key events created the early roots of the Cold War that was soon to come. Of the earliest, was USSR’s agreement of a Nonaggression Pact with Germany, on the surface the two nations agreed to take no military action against each other for 10 years, while secretly agreeing to divide Europe following the takeover [1].  It was only when Germany invaded Russia that the pact had been destroyed and the USSR joined USA with the Allies. “Hitler scrapped his pact with Stalin and sent some 3 million Nazi soldiers pouring into the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941.”[1].

When WWII ended, tensions between the Soviet Union and The United States sprouted. A large influence in the separation of the two parties resulted from America’s newest weapon, the atomic bomb. It was a powerful method of mass destruction of which only the United States had access to. This American power created a panic in the Soviet Union, a nation that could only sit on the sidelines while the US unleashed nuclear devastation in Japan. The Soviets, realizing they would be completely obliterated if they had to fight against the US nuclear forces, began the Arms Race.

Growth in the preface of the Cold War continued when the Soviets maintained possession of land they gained from events in WWII, showing their intentions of expansion. Americans did not agree with Russia’s actions and at the same time of this disapproval, stopped providing Russia with financial aid. To this action the Russians took great offense, in a period of desperation and regrowth, the United States removed support and shifted focus. It is to my belief that these actions provided the fuel to the political war between Soviet Communism and American Capitalism.

American suspicion of the Soviet Union had not only been strengthened, but solidified with the “long telegram” that was sent to Washington in February of 1946 by George Kennan. Kennan had been living in Moscow for years collecting information for the US about the Soviets and the public opinion in Moscow, his message to the Washington was clearly stated: “in the long run there can be no permanent peaceful coexistence” [2]. The Soviet opinion simplified, meant that it was either capitalism or communism, no conforming. Not only was conformation out of the question to USSR, domination was on the agenda, theoretically at all costs.

 

Figure 1: Telegram, George Kennan to George Marshall [“Long Telegram”], February 22, 1946. Harry S. Truman Administration File, Elsey Papers.

 

The Sinews of Peace, Winston Churchill, 1946

http://www.systems.wsu.edu/scripts/WSUAll.pl?https://winstonchurchill.org/resources/speeches/1946-1963-elder-statesman/the-sinews-of-peace/.

The first of major public exchanges in ideologies and policies to influence the Cold War began with Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech. In March of 1946, Churchill provided his anti-communism thoughts to Westminster College, where he explained the idea of the “Iron Curtain” around the growing Soviet territory. He highlighted the necessity of the west to be strong in dealing with this force, and explained “(there is) nothing which they (The Soviet Union) admire so much as strength, and there is nothing for which they have less respect than for military weakness.”[3]. These words generated massive attention around the world as Winston criticized the USSR for their actions while praising the US. Churchill had great intuition regarding the danger this conflict would bring, long before others realized. He feared that the last step of the war would be “shaking of the rubble” from the nuclear bombs striking the lifeless Earth.  Some historians claim this speech to be the start of the Cold War, especially the Arms Race aspect in which Churchill explicitly states “military weakness” as a prime target of the Soviet Union.

With the base of the Cold War formed, looking into the past we can see a clear theme of political rivalry repeating itself as each party makes moves to expand its influence. The battle between communism and capitalism grew more and more hostile with each new move, but neither party had strong enough reason to invade one another. The USSR released the Zhdanov Doctrine, a claim pointing the finger at the US for attempting to take over the world. The United States released their policy of “containment”, to prevent the spread of communism worldwide and stop the advancement of the Soviet Union particularly. Both sides pointed the finger, but neither side had self-reflection, instead they continued with their respective missions of expansion and fought in proxy wars to resolve conflicts. Proxy wars within the cold war were carried out in places such as Berlin, Korea and Cuba, of the hottest points in the Cold War, the Cuban Missile Crisis became the closest our world has ever been to a full-fledged Nuclear battle.

Weather he knew it or not, Fidel Castro led the Cuban Revolution at the perfect time for a multitude of reasons, and he was in for the ride of his life. The revolution had strong Cuban support in the 1950’s due to current leader, Fulgencio Batista’s growing corruption and mistreatment of citizens [4]. Batista was supported heavily by American politicians who overlooked his corruption because Cuba had remained relatively stable and provided the US economy with sugar and valuable investments [4]. When the revolution gained enough supporters to catch the interest of the United States, American leaders realized Batista was going to be overthrown and started to look for alternatives to serve as a leader to Cuba. Officials did not trust Castro, they believed that his ideologies would harm US investments in Cuba, and were unanimous in their decision to combat his revolution. Despite the efforts made to appoint a leader other than Castro or Batista, the US failed and Fidel Castro became the prime minister of Cuba.

After the successful revolution, Castro faced strong oppression from the United States. His response to oppression was to nationalize US businesses within Cuba, his actions were not taken lightly in Washington. In 1960, the United States ended diplomatic relations with Cuba, which had a much larger impact on the Cuban economy than the US economy. America was Cuba’s biggest consumer of sugar, “sugar exports to the US represented about 15 per cent of Cuba’s national income.”[6]. Now faced with a struggling economy no longer backed by the United States, Castro looked to find help any way he could. Tension continued to grow between Cuba and the United States, who at this point were amidst a much larger war with a much larger enemy in the USSR.

The Bay of Pigs is known as one of the great failed attacks on Castro, but a lesser known outcome of this battle was that it had a strong influence on forming the Soviet-Cuban relationship. “July 1962 Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev reached a secret agreement with Cuban premier Fidel Castro to place Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba to deter any future invasion attempt.”[4] within this quote it can be seen that the driver for Cuban militarization came not from Cuban need, but rather threats of an American invasion. The Soviets did not just decide one day that: “Hey let’s build some missiles sites on Cuba”, I am sure they wanted to build these years prior but did not have the opportunity. It was the opportunity presented by the U.S. that allowed the USSR, or even forced the USSR into deploying these missiles. A big justification I would have for the placement of Soviet Missiles in Cuba would be the existing presence of American warheads placed in an equally strategic location of Turkey.

In Fidel Castro’s words, “I therefore say that we did not involve ourselves in the Cold War but that it was the Cold War that became involved in the Cuban Revolution. It was the United States or the U.S. Administration that brought the Cold War to Cuba”8. While the US had suspicion of a Cuban – Soviet relationship, they practically gave Cuba no other option than to team with USSR. By the U.S. eliminating support and leading attacks on Cuba, they effectively played Cuba right into the hands of the Soviets, who had no hesitation in taking the deal. A deal that would give USSR the opportunity to place nuclear missiles within striking range of practically every major city in America, in exchange for the purchase of Cuban Sugar and protection against the United States.

In September of 1962 President Kennedy issued a public warning to Cuba regarding their introduction of offensive weapons in the land. On a routine surveillance flight, an American U-2 spy plane spotted several bomber aircraft and intermediate missile launch sites within Cuba. With furthered surveillance, on October 14th, 1962, the US gained information that Soviet Nuclear missiles were in fact placed on Cuba, this was the beginning of what we know as the Cuban missile crisis [4].

“Cuban Missile Crisis.” U.S. Department of State. Accessed April 26, 2018. https://history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/cuban-missile-crisis.

Shortly following the second sighting of devolved missile sites, President Kennedy issued a “quarantine” around the Island to eliminate further advancement of offensive weapons into Cuba. The situation the Americans had created seemed to shoot them in the foot as the Cold War was now on the brink of massive nuclear devastation. “On October 26, Kennedy told his advisors it appeared that only a U.S. attack on Cuba would remove the missiles” [7]. This was an extremely tense and critical time, had the president acted on his aggressive plan, this world may have seen the biggest devastation in the history of mankind. Instead of firing first he waited, the nations were in stalemate as the world watched, fearing for the future. As stated by President Kennedy, “It shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States, requiring a full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union.”[7].

Neither side fired, making it one of the longest battles ever, with just one single casualty. The 26th of October, Soviet leader Khrushchev sent President Kennedy a message stating that unless the two sides were ready for mass devastation through nuclear power, that they should both agree to relive the tension and make a deal [7]. This deal was made, the soviets demanded that the US not invade Cuba, and that they would remove their missiles if the US removed its missiles in Turkey.  A day after this agreement had been made, an unarmed US spy plane was shot down over Cuba. Kennedy nearly hit the launch button to strike on USSR, but his gut feeling was that it was a mistake.  Similarly, when US ships in the blockade received word that the battle was over, they dropped non-lethal depth charges onto a USSR submarine below, to alert it to surface. The crew aboard this Sub did not know the war was over and caste a vote whether or not to fire their nuclear torpedo, an event that surely would have started the nuclear war.

The future generations will look back at this war and thank the parties involved for the outcome. Nuclear war has been prevented for the future as far as we can see it. Through nuclear test ban treaties, direct hotlines to decision rooms across the globe, and careful evaluations of the Cuban Missile Crisis, we have seen the closest nuclear war scare human beings will see. If we came any closer to nuclear war there will not be anyone to look back. As new generations reflect on these events in the Cold War they will know that we were just one mans’ decision away…

 

Citations

1. History.com Staff. “German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact.” History.com. 2009.

2. “Long Telegram,” George Kennan to George Marshall, February 22, 1946.

3. Churchill, Winston. “The Sinews of Peace.” Speech. March 5, 1946

4.”Batista Forced out by Castro-led Revolution,” History.com, January 1, 2009, ,

5.Diaz-Briquets, Sergio, and Jorge Perez-López. Corruption in Cuba: Castro and beyond. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006, 76.

6 Wong, Richard. “Fidel Castro’s Rise Can Be Linked to the Sugar Trade.” South China Morning Post. December 06, 2016.

7. “Cuban Missile Crisis.” U.S. Department of State. Office of the Historian.

8. Fidel Castro, Cold War: Warnings for a Unipolar World(Melbourne, Vic.: Ocean, 2004), 10, (20-23).

Visuals

Figure 1: Telegram, George Kennan to George Marshall [“Long Telegram”], February 22, 1946. Harry S. Truman Administration File, Elsey Papers.

Figure 2: Photograph, MRBM Launch site 2, San Christobal, November 1, 1962.

Video: Churchill, Winston. “The Sinews of Peace.” Speech. March 5, 1946.

 

From the Pits to the Tardis, A Progression of Gender Roles and Wage Inequality in UK Society

Download PDF
Dying for work in the UK, 2017

In 2007, the fashion world was forced to address the problem of “skinny models” as the result of the high-profile deaths of two young women from anorexia nervosa. In an industry where one company reported that women make up 84 percent of the company’s top positions, yet median bonus pay for women was 96 percent lower than men’s, it is clear that women must do whatever they can to gain advantage, even starving themselves for a job. While Great Britain ponders the need to enact protective legislation to save these models from themselves, it is worthy to consider how the establishment of wage disparity and gendered jobs first began. It was in the UK coal fields that protective legislation was first enacted to ‘save women miners from themselves’ by removing them from higher wage jobs; a loss which continues to affect women to this day. If we trace the origins of women’s disenfranchisement back to the Victorian era between 1837 and 1901, it is arguable that the creation of the hegemonic system of patriarchy which led to modern culture’s bizarre celebration of starving, scantily clad models started with a story about some topless women miners and a peculiar Evangelical politician’s obsession with their ‘moral purity’.

The Earl of Shaftesbury: Giving women the shaft since 1840

Lord Ashley, the sixth Earl of Shaftesbury inadvertently set a standard for women’s work – not out of concern for the exploited labor or women and children, but to better prepare the nation for what he believed would be the premillennial second coming of Jesus Christ. Lord Ashley grew increasingly concerned in the disappointment his Messiah might have for a nation who would force its children, some as young as age four, to work in mines for 16 hours a day. Jesus never appeared to Lord Ashley in his lifetime, but women were surprised to find themselves banned from mining work altogether as the result of his words and subsequent legislation. In a matter of years, working-class Victorian-era women had lost their right to vote, their means to earn an honest living, and were relegated to the status of second-class citizens, suitable only for domestic work. Much has been documented on the UK women’s suffrage movement, but less is known of how women became disenfranchised in the first place. The need for women to fight for equality may have started as the result of prudery, but that legislation intended to ‘protect women from themselves’ institutionalized gender inequality on a global scale for the next 150 years.

The notion of protective legislation began in the late 1700’s as members of the wealthy class became aware of the conditions of orphaned children who were sent by parishes to work as apprentices in textile mills. The 1802 Factory Acts had less to do with humanitarian concerns than a need to address the horrible living conditions which gave rise to disease and epidemics which were indiscriminately affecting the upper class. As one physician noted, “the safety of the rich is intimately connected with the welfare of the poor”. The Health and Morals of Apprentices Act of 1802, which “limited” the working hours of children to 12 hours, also established the separation of sleeping quarters between the sexes, which was the only provision of any act to address gender. The first moral condemnation of women who worked the mines is believed to be written by author Richard Ayton following his visit to a Whitehaven mine. He worried that such work reduced the “quality that is graceful in women”, and that their work reduced them to “a set of course, licentious wretches, scorning all kinds of restraint, and yielding themselves up with shameless audacity to the most detestable sensuality”.

“Never mind the explosions, here’s the Sex Kids!

Prior to the investigations into the plight of women and children working in UK mines, mining was primarily done on a small-scale using family members as a source of labor. Men worked alongside the women with little thought. Fathers preferred using their own daughters in the mines than risk an unknown male from outside of the family. This was partly due to the fact that their own children were easier to discipline and control, male or female. As the mining industry grew, the “family mine” was no longer sustainable or profitable. Ownership of mines were increasingly handed over to strangers, who were ill-equipped to control their previously independent workers. As labor strife grew, women were found to be the most ardent strikers and advocates. They demanded higher wages and safer working conditions. “Equality” was never a demand, since job duties tended to unfold naturally. When male hewers died on the job, their wives often took their places underground as a way to keep supporting their family.

The legal distinction between men and women began with the Reform Act of 1832, which qualified the word “persons” with “male persons” for the purposes of voting. Though women technically had the right to vote in their municipalities prior to this, very few exercised these rights. Once the bill became law, women defied the spirit of the statute by registering to vote in droves, hoping to find a sympathetic judge to change this new precedent. Unfortunately, the law was upheld, and women suddenly found themselves with no rights as citizens. Ten years later, concern over the plight of women and children working the coal fields turned to public outrage as the result of an investigation by Lord Ashley, a deeply religious member of Parliament who had championed the Factory Acts, which at least noted concerns of the horrific conditions in the textile industry and established a more relaxed 12-hour workday for children. Lord Ashley also opposed the Reform Act of 1832, but only for increasing the voting rights of working-class men, not its disenfranchisement of women. Compelled by religious zeal, his investigation and findings on the conditions of Yorkshire mines, particularly his descriptions of “naked women” crawling bound to their lodes with chains, raised widespread public alarm. His motivation appears to be less about their welfare than his own pious disgust at the sight of them. He crudely noted that “The chain passing high up between the legs of two girls, had worn large holes in their trousers. Any sight more disgustingly indecent or revolting can scarcely be imagined than these girls at work. No brothel can beat it.”  Lord Ashley further produced the account of a woman named Isabell Hogg, a 53 year-old coal-bearer whose daughter had suffered a miscarriage as the result of working while pregnant. Her statement included a plea to Queen Victoria herself, urging her to “get them out of the pits, and send them to other labour.”  Lord Ashley’s obsessive fervor over conditions at the mine led to the Mining and Colliers Act of 1842. The Act did little to improve safety for workers, but it effectively banned women from higher wage underground mining jobs. Like the Factory Acts before it, there was no enforcement of safety recommendations, but it was clear that the disenfranchisement of women into gendered work roles was beginning to take form.

Dying for work in the UK, 1840

The few women who did remain were forced to do so for lesser wages out of fear of discovery. Jobs were now being defined as “too dangerous” for women, though children were not banned from the “danger”, nor were the men left behind. As one class of women was ejected from the mines, another movement began to bring upper class women into the universities. In 1856, Jessie Mario White is thought to be the first woman in the UK to request admission to medical school. Though she met the requirements, the board at London University could “not conceive themselves empowered to admit women as candidates for degrees”, and indeed women were not permitted into Convocation there until 1882. In the working class sphere, few changes were made until 1903, when the labor shortages forced a change in the law which allowed women to work at least some above-ground jobs. Women quietly reentered the workforce, but this was mostly due to the sudden shortage of labor due to the World War rather than any move towards equality. The end of the war also brought an end to disenfranchisement, as women over the age of 30 won the right to vote for the first time since 1832. 1919 saw the passage of the Sexual Disqualification Removal Act, which opened the doors for many professions, particularly law. That same year, women engineers, who had previously been invaluable to the war effort, refused to return to domestic life after the war and founded the Women’s Engineering Society. The necessity for its creation is reflected in the words of a member of the Amalgamated Society of Engineers, which refused to accept women into their ranks until 1943, when he proclaimed “if she insists upon equal pay for equal work the employer will not have her; if she offers to compete with men upon lower wage terms we will not have her.”  Prior to World War I, there were no women engineers counted in the British census. By 1933, there were only forty-six. By modern British standards – even after helping to win two World Wars, there were still ten fewer women working as engineers as there has been women portraying scientists in 54 years of Doctor Who episodes.

 

Although the global fight for women’s wage equality is likely to continue with post-industrialization and the shift from manufacturing to lower-wage service industry jobs, some progress has been made in Great Britain in terms of redefining gender roles, and through the same hegemonic publicity which created these roles in the first place. “Doctor Who”, the beloved institution which has enjoyed over a half-century on the British airwaves, announced their decision to cast a woman in the eponymous role for the first time. Though the BBC had been under fire that same month upon disclosure of the massive wage disparity between men and women amongst their highest paid employees, “13th Doctor” Jodie Whittaker dismissed the notion that her demand for equal pay was unreasonable, adding “It’s a bit of a shock that it’s a surprise to everyone that it should be supported!” While some news outlets immediately posted nude photos from Ms. Whittaker’s previous acting work under headlines such as “Doctor Nude!” and “Dalecktable”, public sentiment has largely rejected this objectification. Even Merriam Webster inadvertently invoked the spirit of Jessie Mario White when they tweeted, ‘Doctor has no gender in English’.

The part of the regeneration process where The Doctor must tell fans not to be afraid of their gender

 

But it is not enough to fight for gender equality for one class and ignore the rest. For every Jodie Whittaker, there is a model with an eating disorder. For every Margaret Thatcher, there are millions of stories of the forgotten women who lived beyond the constructs of laws and social norms; women who found themselves stripped of the means to provide for themselves because of legislation designed to ‘protect them’. It is not enough that some women are allowed a bigger piece of the pie at the expense of the working poor. The only way to counter the negative effects of history’s errors is to carefully examine the root causes of issues brought up under the guise of protective legislation. Banning women from any profession because they cannot conform to societal norms should raise the question of the validity of any norm which would normalize and institutionalize their suffering, not whether or not its victims should be further harmed.

Automotive, environmental pollution, and oil prices

Download PDF

When I was little, I often returned to my hometown in the countryside. There is no bustling traffic there, the air is exceptionally fresh, and many stars can be seen at night. When I returned to the city and the traffic developed, I could obviously feel the air becoming cloudy. Most people are already accustomed to this, and as I grew up in touch with cars, the high oil prices[1] surprised me. I am very curious about what caused the pollution of the environment and the high price of gasoline. As I learned from my investigation, the current air is much better than it was decades ago, and the price of gasoline has stabilized. All this is because of the development of new energy vehicles. In other words, this is also the development of automobiles. On 2014, Feb 24th. Tesla Motors’ CEO talk about a huge plant for electric car batteries, giant battery ‘gigafactory’[2]. This means that the increase in the output of electric vehicles, although it cannot effectively change the environment and oil prices, but it promotes the development of hybrid cars and small-displacement cars. Compared to decades ago, people have made great progress in developing large-horsepower vehicles.

 

From fuel automobile was invented in 1885 to 2018 now, people put more and more resources and attention, at the same time, more and more people have cars, in fact, by 2010, 1 billion[3] people have the car. In the past 100 years, people didn’t pay much attention to environmental pollution at first, and then people gradually realized the importance of environmental protection. Similarly, in the 100 years, the development of the automobile when people don’t realize that soaring oil prices[4], even cause the war, people are aware of the problem, to stabilize international oil market prices. Even though one in seven of the world’s population now own cars, the air pollution index[5] and gasoline prices are much better than they were a few decades ago. There are also more concerns about the development of new energy vehicles and hybrid cars. In contrast to the development of the 100 years, the progress of society and people’s demands for living environment make the development of automobile more and more rapid. So why do cars cause so much pollution after being invented, and how do people purify these pollutions? Why are oil prices soaring prices 1963 years ago, then how people stabilize oil prices?

The first is environmental pollution from 1885 to 1950, a process that could even be called the history of human suicide[6]. Cars in 1885, the first internal combustion engine was invented, human transportation become more convenient and, of course, at this time because of the car is not to promote the air pollution is not serious, but also no one care about the air becomes bad. During this 100 years, mankind has endured the first world war and the war of world war ii, which has brought great suffering to the people of the world. However, with the development of the military industry, the automobile industry has also been developed. In fact, it was a mutually reinforcing relationship, and in 1902 the British began to use armored vehicles[7], and in 1908, ford officially began to promote the use of civilian cars[8]. During this period between 1880 and 1900, it was evident that pollution increased, and in fact, due to the rise of the American industrial age, more pollution came from United Kingdom and North America[9]. In fact, from 1910 to 1950, due to the world war, air pollution was far lower than air pollution at the end of the war. However, the war was the driving force behind the development of civilian cars. When military vehicles were turned to civilian vehicles, the automobile factory provided civilian vehicles with similar automobile engines for military vehicles. This is the reason for transformation engine cost far less than the cost of research and development of new engine, businessmen to rapid accumulation of capital market and make a choice, but, military vehicles in order to adapt to all kinds of terrain during the war need more horsepower engine, a staggering number of cars will discharge of tail gas. This is one of the sources of car pollution. Even some of today’s cars still use similar engines.

From 1950 to 1980, the automotive industry began to develop rapidly. People are no longer satisfied with 60 mph cars. Faster, larger cars have been developed, including many muscle cars. Due to cultural influences, Americans prefer high-power muscle cars. In fact, carbon dioxide emissions in North America in 1960 were already similar to those in Europe. Until 1962, scientists finally realized the seriousness and harmfulness of air pollution. During this period, many scientific conferences were discussing the issue of air pollution control. Many scientists issued proposals and research reports [10], but due to most Ordinary people still do not realize the harm caused by environmental pollution. At the same time, auto manufacturers are not willing to spend more money to study small-displacement cars or electric cars. By 1980, air pollution reached the highest level in history, although this is not always the case. Due to the cause of automobile exhaust, the widespread popularity of automobiles is an important component of pollution. In fact, the carbon dioxide brought by liquid fuels reaches more than 40% of the total carbon dioxide emissions [11]. The consequence of this is the severe greenhouse effect [12]. The harmful gases such as sulfur dioxide and small particles of dust are also seriously endangering the health of humans. Many young people suffer from lung diseases. This has caused many states in the United States to issue cite to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions while car needs. Annual exhaust emissions testing[13].  At this point, humanity has finally begun to focus on the pollution caused by automobile exhaust. This is the beginning of human self-salvation. Since 1980, the air environment has changed.

From 1980 to 2010, thanks to the efforts of many scientists and governments, the world’s environment has been improved with the help of various countries’ bills, and the air pollution index has decreased significantly compared with 1980, and continues to decline, except for a few large ones. Outside the city, the air in most cities is no longer so muddy. This is commendable. However, the carbon dioxide emissions from vehicle exhaust have not been well handled. Actually, many automobile companies have noticed this. From 1980 to now, many types of hybrid cars and electric vehicles have been developed[14]. Of course, because the cost of electric vehicles is too high, hybrid cars are more popular among people. However, this is relative. Most people still buy gasoline-only cars, even if hybrid cars are cheaper[15]. There is now a period of change, and history is repeating. Before 1980, most people did not care about the emission of toxic substances in the exhaust of cars. This made the air quality worse and many people got sick. Now people are not concerned about carbon dioxide emissions from automobile exhaust. Even though many scientists have issued many research reports and predictions like in the past, people only really change themselves when they find that the greenhouse effect caused by carbon dioxide actually hurts them. This speculation seems pessimistic, but that is the truth.

The oil issue is more complex. In the beginning, oil extracts were only used as lamp oil. The price was extremely low. Later, from 1862 to 1885, the internal combustion engine was not invented. However, the internal combustion engine car was invented. The primary factor emerged. Etienne invented the original internal combustion engine in 1862. However, the price of oil remained stable. At that time, few countries around the world paid attention to the oil industry. In addition to the oil wells being hollowed out in 1864, they were looking for new the oil price surged during the wells and everything was normal. Well, this should be the first real oil crisis in history. Although at that time, oil was still not an important source of energy.

From 1885 to 1974, after the world experienced two world wars, people’s demand for cars was even higher. Since 1908, cars have begun to become civilian. By the end of the Second World War, more and more people have purchased cars. At the same time, the military industry is increasingly demanding gasoline to drive military vehicles and aircraft. During this time, the price of world crude oil has remained stable, and in 1960 the Arab countries established the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Everything is moving in a good direction, although some scientists have suggested that the world’s oil stock is limited, but this does not affect the price of oil[16]. It was not until October 1973 that many Arab countries declared war on Israel. This direct result led to the first oil crisis. At the same time, people realized the importance of petroleum, both in life and in the military. The price of oil has tripled instantaneously [17]. In some of the current speeches this is a conspiracy. In fact, it is only for the first time that people are crazy about oil. This is due to people’s dependence on cars in life because the cars are so versatile that not everyone needs to go to the plane, but each family needs at least one car to work or buy daily necessities. This indirectly leads to people’s dependence on oil.

Since the first oil crisis in 1973 to the second oil crisis in 1978, the price of oil has risen steadily from 11 US dollars per barrel to 15 dollars per barrel in the past five years. The oil crisis of the times, and the recurrence of war in Iran, the Arab region no longer sells oil within 60 days. Afterwards, the oil price once again doubled to 31 dollars per barrel. [18] People’s dependence on oil and auto manufacturers’ self-styled self-style make people take their own food. In fact, in 1913, Edison had already invented the first electric car,[19] and few people in this 60-year period continued to study large-capacity battery-related things. In 1976, Kennedy gave a speech on the energy crisis.[20] In fact, this did not play a role. The 1978 war still caused the price of oil to rise.

 

After 1978 people gradually realized the importance of oil, and finally in 2005 the United States and many other countries gradually signed the Energy Policy Act.[21] At the same time, many automobile manufacturers began to develop hybrid cars and electric cars. The oil crisis has caused most people and countries to feel a sense of crisis. This has promoted the development of automobiles. Many large-displacement cars have been eliminated and small-displacement cars have started to increase. Even in the United States, most of the roads are small-displacement cars.

Whether it is air pollution or rising oil prices, it means the development of automobiles, indicating that the development direction of automobiles is electric vehicles and hybrid cars. No one can predict the next energy crisis. However, people can choose not to let the oil issue become the next crisis. At the same time, people need to observe the history and make themselves not go. Air pollution caused by vehicle exhaust has affected a generation. The emission of carbon dioxide from automobile exhaust will lead to a greenhouse effect. It does not know that it will affect a generation. It will even cause us to lose glaciers and lose more things.

[1] Raval, Anjli. 2017. Opec faces quandary as cuts fail to prop up oil prices. FT.com (Mar 15), https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:3080/docview/1888103190?accountid=14902 (accessed April 26, 2018).

[2] Chris Woodyard, “Battery up time for Tesla: Electric car maker plans giant battery ‘gigafactory’,” Usa Today, Feb 24, 2014

https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:3080/docview/1501447919?accountid=14902

[3] Voelcker, John. “1.2 Billion Vehicles On World’s Roads Now, 2 Billion By 2035: Report.” Green Car Reports. July 29, 2014. Accessed April 26, 2018.

https://www.greencarreports.com/news/1093560_1-2-billion-vehicles-on-worlds-roads-now-2-billion-by-2035-report.

[4] Gilbert, Richard, and Perl, Anthony. Transport Revolutions : Moving People and Freight without Oil. London: Earthscan, 2007.

[5] The World Air Quality Index Project. “Air Pollution in World: Real-time Air Quality Index Visual Map.” Aqicn.org. Accessed April 26, 2018.

http://aqicn.org/map/world/

[6] “SO₂ Emissions, by World Region (in Million Tonnes).” Our World in Data. Accessed April 26, 2018. https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/so-emissions-by-world-region-in-million-tonnes.

[7] DUDKEVITCH, MARGOT. “Armored Corps Museum Unveils Replica of First Armored Vehicle.” Jerusalem Post, Dec 05, 2002. https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:3080/docview/319514880?accountid=14902.

[8] Sachs, Wolfgang, and Don Reneau. For Love of the Automobile: Looking Back into the History of Our Desires. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

[9] “CO₂ Emissions per Capita.” Our World in Data. Accessed April 26, 2018.

https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/co-emissions-per-capita?tab=chart.

[10] Haagen-Smit, A. J. “The Control of Air Pollution.” Scientific American 210, no. 1 (1964): 24-31. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24935982.

[11] “CO₂ Emissions by Source.” Our World in Data. Accessed April 27, 2018. https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/CO2-by-source.

[12] “Graphic: Global Warming from 1880 to 2017.” NASA. January 18, 2018. Accessed April 27, 2018. https://climate.nasa.gov/climate_resources/139/graphic-global-warming-from-1880-to-2017/.

[13] Brestel, W. Christopher. “The California Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Law.” California Law Review 50, no. 1 (1962): 121-30. doi:10.2307/3478886.

[14] Gilbert, Richard, and Perl, Anthony. Transport Revolutions : Moving People and Freight without Oil. London: Earthscan, 2007.

[15] “Maps and Data.” Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maps and Data. Accessed April 27, 2018. https://www.afdc.energy.gov/data/categories/vehicles.

[16] Scott, Anthony. “Policy for Crude Oil.” The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science / Revue Canadienne D’Economique Et De Science Politique 27, no. 2 (1961): 267-76. doi:10.2307/139150.

[17] Melamid, Alexander. “Satellization in Iranian Crude-Oil Production.” Geographical Review 63, no. 1 (1973): 27-43. doi:10.2307/213235.

[18] McMahon, Tim. “InflationData.com.” InflationData: Historical Oil Prices Chart. August 26, 2017. Accessed April 27, 2018. https://inflationdata.com/Inflation/Inflation_Rate/Historical_Oil_Prices_Chart.asp.

[19] “Edison After Forty.” Edison After Forty: The New Technical World: Image 22. Accessed April 27, 2018. http://americanhistory.si.edu/edison/ed_d22.htm.

[20] “Crisis of Confidence.” The Carter Center. July 14, 1976. Accessed April 27, 2018. https://www.cartercenter.org/news/editorials_speeches/crisis_of_confidence.html.

[21] “Summary of the Energy Policy Act.” EPA. February 07, 2017. Accessed April 27, 2018. https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-energy-policy-act.

The effects of the 1854 London cholera epidemic

Download PDF

Cholera is a bacterial disease with a long, dark history of causing public health catastrophes. Before the discovery and understanding of microbes, the cause of the sickness and how it spread was widely misunderstood. In the summer of 1854, London experienced a violent cholera outbreak caused by a contaminated water pump. John Snow, an anesthetist, would solve this microbial mystery by using mapping and statistical analysis. This would lead to the discovery of microorganisms which would debunk the popular miasma theory of disease transmission. Snow’s maps and statistics would pave the way for modern epidemiology and cause international sanitation reform that would shape our public health infrastructure today.

Cholera is transmitted by ingesting the fecal matter of an infected person. While this might seem to be a wholly preventable situation to modern individuals, the 19th century public sewage system of London was drastically underdeveloped in relation to its urban population, causing contamination of water sources with fecal matter. Residents used cesspools to contain their waste. While night-soil men were employed to remove the excrement, it was not always economical for the landlord or tenant to hire them. Instead they would allow the fecal matter to accumulate [1]. Water closets were increasingly popular yet unfavorable to London’s sewage issues. They contributed largely to the accumulation of human waste. This was because the water closets lacked a connection to a sewage line to dispose of the excrement. Therefore they flushed into existing cesspools that became highly likely to overflow [2].

London was the most populous city in the world at the time of the outbreak. This growth occurred in a considerably small amount of time. The city had almost doubled in size in the fifty years leading up to the outbreak. This rapid urbanization in turn increased waste production substantially. Insufficient infrastructure for the density of the population caused the detrimental buildup of human waste. Public health would suffer because of the lacking sewage system [2].

This accumulation of 

human waste and lack of sanitation measures would cause the city to smell intensely foul. The stench would be especially present in diseased areas of the city. This led to the theory that smell created and transmitted disease. While miasma was eventually disproven, it di

d acknowledge the evolutionary benefit of recognizing harmful microbes through odor. However, this erroneous theory attributed the outbreak of cholera to the air, not water. Edwin Chadwick and Florence Nightingale were two of the most influential miasmatists at the time. As a social reformer and nurse, respectively, they applied miasma to public health and medicine [3].

Though Chadwick was led by a false theory, he produced useful reform in regards to public sanitation. Considering he introduced the phrase, “all smell is disease,” he worked meticulously to rid the city of stench [4]. The correlation between adverse odor and presence of pathogens meant his removal of miasmatic materials also meant the removal of disease. However, Chadwick’s work in the 1840s and 50s would unfortunately exacerbate the issues he was attempting to remedy. Through abolishing cesspools and creating a sewage system that disposed of raw human waste directly into the Thames River, he created a system that delivered contaminated water directly to the residents of London. This pollution of the river that supplied residents with drinking water emphasizes the detrimental cost of believing disease was transmitted via odor. In the eyes of miasmatist, if all smell is disease, then ridding the city of miasmatic vapor at the cost of contaminating the water supply would be considered a viable solution [5].

Nightingale worked as a nurse and was a convinced miasmatist. She applied these beliefs to her care and prioritized treatment of patients with “pure air” above all other solutions. This method of therapy would later be recognized as ineffective with the discovery of pathogens. However, many were treated with such remedies and a significant amount would succumb to the disease [6].

Methods for treating cholera in the 1850s ranged from erroneous concepts such as Nightingale’s pure air treatment to elixirs concocted for individual economic gains. These various remedies caused confusion in regard to how the disease should be treated. Adverts for easy cholera cures were riddled in newspapers. Consuming castor oil was believed to be a viable treatment option [7]. While these ads for healthcare had little medical support, professional doctors practiced medicine that was also unsuccessful. Enemas, poultices, and various medicinal blends were created to treat the disease. While none were successful at curing the ailment, many at the least made the patient’s diseased state more bearable [8].

Fig. 1: John Snow memorial on Broadwick Street (previously Broad Street)

The irony of the mistreatment of cholera is in its simplicity. For diarrheal disease the best therapy is replacing what the body loses: water. The various elixirs and miasma beliefs distracted from the effectiveness of rehydration therapy. Prior to the 1854 outbreak, developments in fluid therapy had already become established. In 1832 Thomas Latta developed an intravenous fluid therapy. This saline solution replaced electrolytes and fluids the body desperately required when in the throes of cholera. While recovering from cholera requires substantially higher volumes of water then what Latta’s treatment offered, it provided a much more effective results then most therapies at the time. It is unfortunate that these studies were rhetorically disproven from other medical professionals. Though Latta’s treatments were relatively successful, through the 1854 outbreak many treated cholera with remedies such as opiates and calomel and did not offer any form of saline therapy [9].

The state of London in 1854 demonstrates how the lack of infrastructure, the misinformation of disease transmission, and the ineffectiveness of faulty treatments catalyzed an especially aggressive outbreak of cholera. Bearing in mind that epidemiology was an emerging science at the time of the outbreak, the means of tracking the spread of the disease would be considerably innovative for the time. This is greatly contributed to Snow’s work in the field.

The city’s primary demographer, William Farr, kept records of the births and deaths in London. He was a primary provider of data for Snow’s study of the outbreak. Snow scanned the charts for patterns and clues to the cause of the disease. Both men believed that the use of statistics was vital to solving medical conundrums. However, Farr was a firm believer in the miasma theory, attributing elevation to susceptibility to cholera. Many of his charts emphasized this data and actually found correlation between elevation and cholera deaths. (Though this was due to cleaner water at less populated higher elevations, not cleaner air) [10].

Snow took the statistical data provided by Farr and was able to identify that the the majority of deaths occurred in Soho. Broad Street housed a popular pump that provided notoriously tasty water to residents. By recognizing patterns in data, mentally mapping plausible paths to the pump, and interviewing residents Snow was able to identify the Broad Street pump as the culprit. Though the discovery of the bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, had not yet been achieved, the observation of urban society and statistical evidence allowed Snow to solve this microbial riddle. Death after death was linked to the Broad Street pump proving cholera was being t

Fig. 2: John Snow’s map

ransmitted through the water supply. By the time the pump handle was removed almost seven hundred Londoners had died in the vicinity of the Broad Street pump over a two week period. The population of the street itself had been reduced by approximately ten percent due to the deaths of its residents [11].

Snow began mapping the cholera epidemic in the fall of 1854. Previous dot maps of the outbreak created a cloud-like image over Soho. Snow constructed a map with individual deaths represented by black bars. These were clustered in relation to residence and clear markings of the pump locations. Contrasting the maps it is undeniably apparent that the disease had not spread from atmospheric transmission, because it was radiating out from the location of the water supply [12].

Snow remained dedicated to the practice of epidemiology long after the removal of the pump handle. Errors in a report published by the General Board of Health were promptly rebutted by Snow. He wrote:

“when the facts are laid before medical men, it is of the utmost importance that they should be correctly stated. Science cannot be advanced by incorrect quantities and numbers; and, in the present instance, the real facts have an important bearing on the question as to the nature of the material in the impure water which induces cholera, and the manner in which the same morbid material causes the disease in other cases, without the aid of water as a medium.” [13]

This emphasis on precision in the statistical measurements of the disease demonstrates his understanding of its link to providing conclusions in regards to how a disease is spread.

Snow’s research and analysis was vital to the development of modern epidemiology. It is argued that “the most important information to have about any communicable disease is its mode of communication.” Snow focused primarily on how cholera was transmitted, arguing that it could not be caught by exposure to foul air, but by consumption of contaminated water. Epidemiologist replicate Snow’s creative methodology by considering influences on the spread of disease such as social factors like poverty and lack of infrastructure [14].

Reform in infrastructure and sanitation can be observed following the 1854 outbreak. The International Congress of Hygiene and Demography in 1891 would address issues that contributed to the epidemic. By looking at cholera specifically it considers the three outbreaks of epidemic proportion that have previously infected London. The reform in sanitary measures is attributed to the hinderance of the disease. In this the congress demonstrates its understanding the link between sanitation and disease [15].

Fig 3. Vibrio cholerae

Projects for developing waste management systems and sanitary water supply would become of great importance for industrialized urban areas. The discovery of microbes would also greatly influence this. Though Snow did not discover the Vibrio cholerea bacterium, he disproved the miasma theory of disease transmission. This evidence along with the improvement of the microscope would replace miasma theory with the germ theory of disease [16].

With all the evidence considered it is apparent that the scientific discoveries and advancements that occurred from events that took place during the London cholera outbreak in 1854 greatly advanced the fields of epidemiology and public health. Prior to the epidemic the concept that cholera was a waterborne illness was widely unaccepted. The paradigm shift from miasma theory to germ theory is was largely influenced by this discovery of cholera transmission through a contaminated water supply. Reform in public infrastructure would transform public health standards creating new methods of disease prevention. Snow’s findings are still relevant in cholera epidemics today. These modern outbreaks are still linked with poor sanitation, poverty, and a lack of sewage infrastructure [17]. Understanding and combating cholera epidemics requires an intense study of not only how the disease functions, but in retrospect to Snow’s methodology, how the society functions.

Endnotes

[1] Steven Johnson, The Ghost Map : The Story of London’s Most Terrifying Epidemic–and How It Changed Science, Cities, and the Modern World, (New York: Riverhead Books, 2006), 11.

[2] Johnson, The Ghost Map, 12.

[3] Wietske Smeele, “Grounding Miasma, or Anticipating the Germ Theory of Disease in Victorian Cholera Satire,” The Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association 49, no. 2 (2016): 17.

[4] Sandra Hempel, The Strange Case of the Broad Street Pump : John Snow and the Mystery of Cholera, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 115.

[5] Johnson, The Ghost Map, 19-21.

[6] Hempel, The Strange Case of the Broad Street Pump, 36-7.

[7] Johnson, The Ghost Map, 46-7.

[8] Hempel, The Strange Case of the Broad Street Pump, 42.

[9] Walter J. Daly, and Herbert L. DuPont, “The Controversial and Short-Lived Early Use of Rehydration Therapy for Cholera,” Clinical Infectious Diseases 47, no. 10 (2008): 1315-319.

[10] Johnson, The Ghost Map, 100-2.

[11] Johnson, The Ghost Map, 159-61.

[12] Johnson, The Ghost Map, 193-4.

[13] John Snow, “Cholera, And The Water Supply In The South Districts Of London,” The British Medical Journal 2, no. 42 (1857): 864-65.

[14] Nigel Paneth, “Assessing the Contributions of John Snow to Epidemiology: 150 Years after Removal of the Broad Street Pump Handle,” Epidemiology 15, no. 5 (2004): 514-16.

[15] Joseph Fayer, et al.,”Seventh International Congress Of Hygiene And Demography.” The British Medical Journal 2, no. 1598 (1891): 349-87.

[16] Smeele, “Grounding Miasma,” 22.

[17] Dominique Legros, “A Roadmap to End Cholera,” Project Syndicate, (2017).

Illustrations

Figure 1. 

Figure 2.

Figure 3.

 

Final research project – Bitcoin

Download PDF

Many experts said the fourth industrial revolution has already started in today’s society. The second industrial revolution was started with electricity and mass production, the third industrial revolution was with digitals, and the fourth industrial revolution is with the internet. The bitcoin is the first signal of the beginning of the fourth industrial revolution. The bitcoin, the best-known of upstart digital currency, became very popular all over the world. In 2017, the bitcoin was always in the headlines of our media because its price went up about $20,000 per one bitcoin which was 20 times more than the original[1]. People believe the bitcoin is the money for the future and it will be an alternative to the dollar, yen, or euro. Some countries do worry about the rise of bitcoin because making new type of currency can create chaos to society and it threatens power of actual monies. However some countries already accept the bitcoin as actual currency. The bitcoin is a new material that our society has not seen or experienced before. Therefore currently we do not have enough information about it to judge whether it is right or wrong. However, I believe the bitcoin is hard to make actual currency because currently the bitcoin is filled with fraud and speculative bubbles from media, is unstable, is dangerous, and can threaten the role of currency.

Before we know about the bitcoin, we need to know what a block chain is. Block chain is created by a man name Satoshi Nakmoto in 2008 for use in cypto-currency. However no one knows who Satoshi Nakmoto is specifically[2]. Although block chain technology is considered sensational innovation, it remains full of mysteries. Block chain is technology that creates network, called ‘block’, for each person that can record lists of trading or information, and each person has complete authority over their block. When sellers initiate trade, a seller’s block will share trading information to a third party and those third party blocks prove validity of trade[3]. This means when people try to make trades through block chain, they do not need banks’ or other public facility’s approval, and trade is accomplished by the bitcoin. This is the biggest benefit of block chain and the bitcoin. The bitcoin can transfer directly person to person without going through the bank. This means fees are much lower and the person directly involved has full authority.

So what is the bitcoin and why has the bitcoin became the hot issue to our society? The bitcoin is a cryptocurrency and worldwide payment system. It is the first decentralized digital currency, as the system works without a central bank or single administrator. One bitcoin can be earned by solving one math problem, this is known as ‘mining’, and these math problems are solvable only with a super computer. The maximum amount of the bitcoin that can be published is limited to around 21 million, and  currently about 17 million are released. Each coin is worth about nine thousand dollars(April 19th standard). The bitcoin became very popular for these reasons: complete authority, ease of use, anonymity, transparency, low transaction fee, broad applications, and hedge against risk[4]. Because of these reasons, some counties started accepting the bitcoin as actual currency and people began to believe the bitcoin can be the money for the future and people started investment on the bitcoin just like age of the gold rush. In 2017, price of the bitcoin went up from $900 to around $20,000[5], and this ridiculous incident brought the whole world’s attention and more people tried to buy the bitcoin and governments started thinking about either monetizing or banning the bitcoin. Currently eight countries: the United States, Germany, Australia, India, Switzerland, Japan, Singapore, and Hong Kong allow the bitcoin and South Korea, China, Russia, and Israel to prohibit the bitcoin[6].

However, is the bitcoin truly reliable and qualified to become actual currency? In our world, we have many different kind of currency. The most typical and nationalized currency is paper money such as dollar or yen, and there are special currencies that stands for valuable material such as gold, silver, and etc. Before we can discuss reliability of the bitcoin, we need to understand the characteristics of money. To become actual money, it must be durable, divisible, convenient, consistent, possess value in itself, limited in the quantity that is available, and long history of acceptance[7]. Of course the bitcoin is durable, divisible (can divide in decimal points), convenient, possess value in itself, and limited in the quantity that is available. However the bitcoin is not consistent and does not have long history of acceptance. First, the bitcoin is not consistent. The price of the bitcoin rise because of popularity and prophecy. Therefore no one knows and there is no reasonable evidences that support true value of the bitcoin. Price of the bitcoin changes in every second by one to three percent, which is big change for a second. Also price of the bitcoin is

Figure 1. The bitcoin’s price graph

depend on media and politic. The price of the bitcoin was about $20,000 in  late December 2017. However since Republic of Korea prohibited the bitcoin in January 30th 2018 and the Facebook prohibit advertising related to the bitcoin, the price is went down to $9,000 (February 1st 2018 standard), and the price of bit still going down in today[8]. Price of the bitcoin has very inconsistent value that it is difficult to be actual currency. The bitcoin does not have any history of acceptance and its roots is also unclear. Money has been developed over millenniums. Money turned from barter to commodity currency, commodity currency to metallic currency, and metallic currency to paper money. Additionally every time money developed, we had to resolve many conflicts to approve as real money. Therefore despite money has been changed in many different form, its value is still same and has strong roots. However the bitcoin does not have any history to support its value. The bitcoin is created by a man name Satoshi Nakamoto who is unknown, and people believe one day that the bitcoin will be our money because media said so. Because the bitcoin does not have strong roots, value of the bitcoin cannot be evaluated and this is why price of the bitcoin is unstable. Currently gold is most representative approved alternative currency in world wide.

The bitcoin and gold have similarities because they both satisfy most of characteristics of money requirements even tough they are not actual money. The most important similarity between the bitcoin and gold is they both have no central bank or monetary authority to control the supply. Since gold is discovered, major gold rushes took place in the 19th century in Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Canada, South Africa and the United States[9]. Massive migration happened during the age of gold rush and golds was free for whoever find them first. As time goes by, value of gold approved by government from all over the world, and it became alternative currency. Gold became actual currency because it is heavy, shiny, soft, conductive, durable, and has history. However the bitcoin is different. The bitcoin is virtual material that can be obtain from digital world and the bitcoin can not be form in to physical material that we can touch or see the bitcoin while gold can. Secondly, gold has history to define its value. Gold was certified by official organizations to be used as trading currency in form of coin or token. However the bitcoin’s value is created by media and people’s popularity that it is difficult to define true value. Lastly, gold has stable price and official organization call London Bullion Market Association(LBMA) that mange and control price of gold[10]. But for the bitcoin, price of the bitcoin is unstable, price of the bitcoin depends on market price of that day, does not have official organization to control or manage, and currently most of countries do not approve the bitcoin as actual currency.

Figure 2. The Nixon Shock, 1971

Our society prefer to have simple currency or single united currency, because it eliminates exchange rate uncertainty and

 

costs of converting currencies, increases price transparency, efficiency, and inward investment, and easy to manage and control. In 1960s, the United States’ economy got worsen because of the Vietnam war and high oil prices. Value of dollar fell that people and countries from all over the world tried to convert their dollars in to gold and the United States did not had enough gold for exchange. In 1971, the United States president, Richard Nixon declared “Nixon Shock”, removal of gold standard to protect value of dollar[11]. Thus people will seek for alternative currency if value of actual currency fall. Therefore alternative currency can become threat to our currency system, and the bitcoin should not become our currency because it is completely disordered and unstable.

For the bitcoin trade, there is no 3rd party intervention which means only people directly involved have complete authority over trade. This is the biggest benefit of the bitcoin, but this also can be the worst weakness. The bitcoin, crypto currency in general, supports criminal endeavors. Currently, the crypto currency is used for tax evasion, money laundering, contraband transaction, and extortion[12]. Crypto currencies provide perfect condition for crime because

Figure 3. The Bitcoin’s hacking record

e it has strong anonymity and there is no appropriate law enforcement to punish those criminals. Therefore currently the bitcoin is complete disorder and a playground for criminals. Robert Mazur is the man who clean millions for the world most influential drug lord, Pablo Escobar. Robert Mazur said “Its an ideal place for one to consider laundering money. Not just because they can dispose in Macau and Hong Kong of cash in that area, but its a massive free-trade zone.” Free-trade zone (FTZ) is an area where its possible to do business under specific customs regulation and generally not subject to customs duty. Currently, the bitcoin market is similar to FTZ[13]. There is no specific regulation to manage market and additionally strong anonymity provides ideal condition for black market. Another serious problem of the bitcoin is, the bitcoin is hackable. Every processes of the bitcoin Including trade, saving, and creating (mining) are done via digital works, which means it always has a chance to be hacked. As price of the bitcoin rise, the bitcoin became main target for hackers. More than billions dollar worth of the bitcoin has been hacked since 2011. If we look over hacking record of the bitcoin, we can see how frequently and easily the bitcoin can be hacked, and most of victims could not their money back[14]. Although massive amounts of money are stolen by hackers, currently our society handles this hacking problem because we do not have an appropriate organization to control, manage, and protect the bitcoin. Therefore the bitcoin is hard to become actual currency because it can be exposed to hacking and crime in anytime and it is completely disordered.

 

Of course the bitcoin and block chain are innovative technology, and it has better benefits than the currency that we are using now. However problems that the bitcoin has is too critical that I believe that our society might not be able to resolve those problems and, it is not necessary to have another currency because we already have a perfect and stable currency which is dollars. Currently the bitcoin is filled with fraud and speculative bubbles from media. Once bubbles are removed and everyone realizes the true value of the bitcoin, people will know how much the bitcoin is non-sense and how it causes serious chaotic consequence.

 

Endnotes

[1] Shell, A. (2017, Oct 09). What’s bitcoin exactly, and should I invest in it? USA Today (Online) Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1948844448?accountid=14902

[2] Mark Hodge. (2018, February 12). CRYPTO CREATOR Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? Bitcoin creator whose identity is unknown but could be one of the richest people in the world

[3] Liu, Ming Zheng, and Zongfeng Zou. “The Application of Block Chain Technology in Spot Exchange.” Journal Of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems 34, no. 2 (2018): 985-93.

[4] Baron, Joshua, Angela O’Mahony, David Manheim, and Cynthia Dion-Schwarz. “The Current State of Virtual Currencies.” In National Security Implications of Virtual Currency: Examining the Potential for Non-state Actor Deployment, 5-22. RAND Corporation, 2015. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/j.ctt19rmd78.8.

[5] Coindesk, “Bitcoin (USD) Price” accessed April 25, 2018. https://www.coindesk.com/price/

[6] Prableen Bajpai, CFA(ICFAI). “Countries Where Bitcoin Is Legal & Illegal (DISH, OTSK).” INVESTOPEDIA, accessed April 25, 2018. https://www.investopedia.com/articles/forex/041515/countries-where-bitcoin-legal-illegal.asp

[7] Edward Castronova, WILDCAT CURRENCY: How virtual money revolution is transforming the economy, New Heaven & London, Yale University Press, 2014

[8] Shell, A. (2017, Oct 09). What’s bitcoin exactly, and should I invest in it? USA Today (Online) Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1948844448?accountid=14902

[9] Warren E. Weber. “A Bitcoin Standard Lessons from the Gold Standard.” Bank of Canada Staff Working Paper 2016-14, March 2016. Accessed April 23, 2018. https://www.bankofcanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/swp2016-14.pdf

[10] LBMA. “About Us. (n.d.).” accessed April 25, 2018. http://www.lbma.org.uk/about-us

[11] United States. Congress. House. Committee on Banking Currency, Author. Removal of Gold Cover : Hearings before the Committee on Banking and Currency, House of Representatives, Ninetieth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 14743 a Bill to Eliminate the Reserve Requirements for Federal Reserve Notes and for United States Notes and Treasury Notes of 1890. January 23, 25, 30, 31 ; February 1, 1968. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1968.

[12] How much illegal activity is financed through bitcoin? (2017, Dec 19). Targeted News Service Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1978696471?accountid=14902

[13] Connie Agius. “The man who clear millions for Pablo Escobar” ABC News, Feburary 2018. Accessed April 23, 2018. www.abc.net.au/news/2018-02-16/the-man-who-cleaned-millions-for-pablo-escobar/9423316

[14] Sudhr Khatwani. “Top 5 Biggest Bitcoin Hacks Ever” COINSTRA, November 21, 2017. Accessed April 23, 2018. https://coinsutra.com/biggest-bitcoin-hacks/

Illustrations

Figure 1. The bitcoin’s price graph. https://www.coinstoploss.com/crypto-can-not-bear-another-bad-news-fud-after-fud-effecting-bitcoin-price-and-crypto-world/

Figure 2. The Nixon Shock, 1971. https://maxboam.wordpress.com/2011/08/09/2893/

Figure 3. The Bitcoin’s hacking record. https://coinsutra.com/biggest-bitcoin-hacks/

Mexican-American War on Drugs

Download PDF

Mexican-American War on Drugs

   The Mexican-American war on drugs has been a violent and long controversy that both countries continuously try and fight. The increase in drug trafficking brings negative circumstances for both countries. To this day, officials are still recovering skulls from years past from the mass amounts of fatalities. The flow of narcotics into the United States has only increased the violence rates and addiction. Not only is the rates of violence and addiction vital to the war on drugs, the amount of time and money the US government waste to focus on solving this issue is tremendous. Since President Nixon declared the War on Drugs, the United States has spent over $1 trillion. This is what effects the United States the most. Mexico’s cultivation of the drugs and prime location is the reason it has continued to be successful. The problem between the border and drug trafficking is only becoming worse.

Historically, the process of the level of severity of drug trafficking occurred over many years. Between different cities and large cartel leaders, the process of how the war on drugs is where it is at today is interesting. The level of severity of the war on drugs and how it has affected the United States is because of the formation of cartels, drug smuggling, and money that both countries have invested.

The United States has been fighting the Mexican-American drug war for many years now and still is. The issues have led to many civilian fatalities and tax payers spending money on the war to end drug trafficking. The innocent individuals of the United States have been negatively affected by Mexico’s drug trafficking for much more than violence. Since Nixon declared the War on Drugs, United States have spent trillions of dollars. The government and taxpayer’s money goes towards treatment, prevention, providing police and judicial expenditures, drug prohibition, and correction expenditures. Many individuals have different opinions on what can help this increasing problem. For example, in the article, written by Morgan Markwood, she talks about how if Marijuana was legalized in the United States it may help resolve issues with drug cartels because it would reduce the occurrence of smuggling. Markwood states, “Shrinking markets shrinks the businesses that participate in them and thus will lessen the influence and power of the cartels”.[1] However, if all states legalized marijuana, there may be less smuggling, but more focus on harder drugs. The United States spends a lot of time and money on fighting the war on drugs.

Figure 1. President Porfirio Diaz of Mexico

The process of drug trafficking has a slow evolution. In the 1800’s Mexico had a well-functioning government and relationship with the United States. During this time, Porfirio Diaz was the president of Mexico. Diaz set up order and ran the government efficiently during his time as president. For example, Paul Ganster states “Diaz imposed law and order with an eye toward promoting economic development: “order and progress” became the motto of his thirty-four-year rule”.[2] Diaz was big in investing with foreign countries to benefit Mexico. One reason Mexico was thriving so much was because of the support from the United States. As stated by Dan Cothran, “Mexico’s economic growth was aided by huge amounts of capital and technology that flowed in from the United States”.[3] The support that United States gave to Mexico also gave support to Diaz to help him stay in the reign longer.

Figure 2. The border between the United States and Mexico

Within this time Mexico had the most economic growth that the country has ever had. One of the main reasons for the impact of economic growth was due to colonial silver mining and the gold rush. The 1800’s brought successful investment in the mining region and attracted individuals to different parts of Mexico. The next big economic boost was the first transcontinental railroad that went from Mexico to the United states. It became a success for Mexico because of the effects it had on the small towns next to the border. For instance, El Paso, Mexico became a highly populated city because the railroad created the ability to trade, mine, and livestock sectors also increased largely. The town of El Paso went from being about 800 people to doubling that amount because of bankers, merchants, real estate dealers, and miners whom all came to live by the convenient railroad. When the United States made the new act, The Volstead Act, in 1919 it caused Mexico cities to become even more populated and well off. The Volstead Act was passed and created the law that American citizens were not allowed to drink. Since Americans could not legally drink or have night life, they would cross the border into the cities of Mexico, primarily Ciudad Juarez and Tijuana. Ganster states, “Mexico boomed in an explosion of U.S tourism between the times of 1920-1933 because of prohibition”.[4] Ciudad Juarez was extremely popular for teens and other Americans to be able to drink and enjoy the night life. The tourism gave Ciudad an increase in capitalism and then they could fix things up in their city; for example, build sewages and produce electricity.

In 1910, the citizens of Mexico began a revolution because of the disagreements that they had with President Diaz. Diaz had been in presidency for thirty-one years and the people of Mexico wanted a change, they wanted to become a republic constitution. One reason for this was the citizens had no say in who the public officials were. Ganster explains how workers in Mexico were angry with their wages, as stated “In June 1906 employees of Cananea struck, their grievances based on wage demands, particularly the elimination of the system in which Mexicans received less pay than did U.S citizens”.[5] The lower class wanted an increase in minimum wage and working conditions. Individuals were not happy so the creation of labor strikes were popular during this time.

The revolution lead to a new president named Carrazana. He decided to help the citizens throughout the revolution. Carrazana wanted three things, as state by George Grayson, “creating jobs, combating poverty, and fighting crime”.[6]  Carrazana was in lead for a very short time, from 1917-1920. During his three years he did not make many changes. He tried his hardest to unit political and armed forces to try to restore the Mexico constitution.

With no help from Carrazana, Mexico was in the beginning of its downfall. “Wars have spurred the production, processing, and transport of drugs in and through Mexico” stated by Grayson.[7] Mexico’s economy has been undeveloped because of corruption in their government. This lead to drug growth in Mexico. Marijuana started as a popular drug, but then lead to harder narcotics, which included cocaine. South and central Asia is where Marijuana is native and was brought to Mexico along with opium. Columbia was also a large drug influence. James Sterba states, “The region has always been a smuggler’s paradise”.[8]  Mexico has always been a smuggling country, but now it has become more popular and dangerous. As the popularity and regulatory of smuggling drugs increases, more individuals get involved and authorities are outnumbered and cannot control the drug trafficking. The borders being so close together are the reason for economic and social problems in both nations.

With these issues, Mexico quickly became the drug lord for the United States. With the bordering cities so close together it was simple to smuggle drugs across the border. Since the 1970s, “Mexico was the principal producer of heroin and foreign marijuana for the U.S market”.  First Americans connected Marijuana with the idea that it was only used by Mexican immigrants and that “marijuana made workers lazy” Langton says.[9] Eventually Marijuana become very popular in Hollywood and finally with the rest of the U.S.  During the 1950s Marijuana arrests increased by 77 percent in the states. At this time Nixon was President he believed that if military force was used they could seal U.S. borders to stop the flow of drugs. But this costed millions of dollars and was taking many American lives. In an article written by Selwyn Raab he states, “heroin overdose deaths apparently are rising this year – a grim sing that the addict population may be increasing”.[10] Since the 1960s the problem with drug trafficking is now starting to increase again looks worse for the United States.

Figure 3. Miguel Angel Felix Gallardo

One of the first Mexican drug lords was Miguel Angel Felix Gallardo. He had grown up in Sinaloa, Mexico where he helped his family by selling chicken and sausage from his bicycle. When Gallardo was older he took over his family business which was smuggling alcohol and marijuana over the U.S. border. In the 1970s Gallardo controlled “the flow of Marijuana and heroin into the United States” Langton adds.[11] Gallardo was always thinking of different ways to smuggle drugs across the border and came up with the idea to use airplanes. To get the drugs across the border he hired Pedro Aviles Perez. Perez became Gallardo’s mentor and was his main contributor in bribing or intimidating the police or other government officials to let them smuggle drugs across the border. Perez died in a shoot out soon after he had joined Gallardo, Gallardo than controlled all the drug trade to the United States by himself. Soon after Gallardo started smuggling cocaine across the border he became noticed by the DEA. Gallardo did not want his profile to be discovered so he reduced his involvement in his business of drug cartels. In doing so he gave the Tijuana cartel route to his nephew and his second-best route that was from Ciudad Juarez to El Paso to Amado Carrillo Fuentes. Ciudad Juarez a city in Mexico is known for being a highly affected area with drug cartels. In Ciudad Juarez there is “fierce competition among Mexican drug trafficking gangs and families produced an ongoing series of drug wars in a number of border cities, producing assassinations of rival gang members and the murders of government officials, public safety officials, and reporters” Ganster includes.[12] Drug trafficking affects many communities with high violence.

After the revolution, conflict occurred with the United States and Mexico. Ganster states, “the outbreak of violence in Mexico posed a number of important problems for the United States”.[13] The citizens on the U.S. border line suffered from poverty and violence because of the problems occurring in Mexico. They suffered from poverty because the downfall of the revolution affected businesses and the social life along the border. Sterba makes a statement about the relations with Mexico stating, “Even Mexicans who have stayed just across the border are hurting American workers”.[14] The issue involves the amount of drug flow coming into the United States from the border. In 1915, Mexican-origin population decided to make a group called the Plan de San Diego, which was the plan to bring uprising to the U.S. government to gain back territory of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and California. Hundreds were killed in Texas during a raid lead by this group. Since these raids occurred in 1917, the group “reinforced existing hatreds, led to severe repression of and general discrimination against Mexican Americans” Ganster states.[15] Mexican Americans were lynched, shot, and affected by other gruesome executions. The relationship between Mexico and America has since been indecent. Mexico continues to supply drugs to the United States. As mentioned before, innocent Americans are affected in more ways than just violence.

The development of the war on drugs took place over hundreds of years and only has become worse. It has affected the United States because of the formation of cartels, drug smuggling, and money that the United States has invested. Not only is there a lot of violence affected within the cartels, drugs affect people in many other ways that have created issues. To be educated on the severity of the war on drugs and its past it is important in hopes to decrease the rate of fatalities, smuggling, US spending, and addiction.

[1]  Morgan, Markwood. “Column: Legalize Marijuana to Lessen Cartel Influence.” University Wire, Apr 24, 2016,1.

[2] Ganster, Paul., and Lorey, David E. The U.S.-Mexican Border into the Twenty-first Century. 2nd ed. Latin American Silhouettes. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008, 35.

[3] Cothran, Dan A. Political Stability and Democracy in Mexico : The “perfect Dictatorship”? Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1994.

[4] Ganster Paul., The U.S.- Mexican border, 37.

[5] Ganster Paul., The U.S.- Mexican border, 57.

[6] Grayson, George W. Mexico: Narco-violence and a Failed State? New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2010, 97.

[7] Grayson., Mexico, 19.

[8] James P. Sterba Special to The New York Times. “OPEN BORDER STRAINS U.S.-MEXICO RELATIONS.” New York Times (1923-Current File) (New York, N.Y.), April 03, 1977, 1.

[9] Langton, Jerry. Gangland : The Rise of the Mexican Drug Cartels from El Paso to Vancouver. Mississauga, Ont.: J. Wiley & Sons Canada, 2012.

[10] Selwyn Raab. “Illegal Narcotics Traffic Is Worst Here in 5 Years.” New York Times (1923-Current File) (New York, N.Y.), December 08, 1975, 1.

[11] Langton., Gangland, 61.

[12] Ganster Paul., The U.S.- Mexican border, 67.

[13] Ganster Paul., The U.S.- Mexican border, 62.

[14] Sterba James., Open Border Strains, 1.

[15] Ganster Paul., The U.S.- Mexican, 65.