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HISTORY 105, SECTION 26 – Clif Stratton – Spring 2018 History 105

Famine in Kenya, 20th Century

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Alivia Wynar  

 

Title: Famine in Kenya, 20th century   

Famine is a very prevalent issue that has been occurring for several years in many African countries. People in places like Somalia, Kenya, and Ethiopia are facing severe cases of hunger, and are in serious need of help and aid from outside sources in order to survive. Organizations, such as the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies have been called to be put into action with the hopes that their aid can tremendously help provide resolution to the many that are suffering. There are places where this issue is more sever due to food shortages as a result from drought. Livestock is being destroyed and as a result, taking away food source from many different individuals. Aid from outside sources is very necessary for these individuals to survive, but the funds needed are not all present, making it difficult for these organizations to go through with their help. Famine is incredibly severe in Kenya as well as they are facing severe drought. Kenya is one of the many East African countries that is suffering through famine and drought, but the severity of this issue is through the roof. This brings up many different questions in regard to famine all over the world, but in this case, I will specifically be discussing famine in Kenya over the course of the 20th century. A major question that arouses with this is, What role can the United States government play in relation to providing aid to Kenya? If famine is still a major concern today, and was way back in the 20th century, then why haven’t we figured out a solution to diminish it?

Figure 1: People struggling to survive due to famine published newspaper, December 23, 1984

Famine is a concerning issue that has been affecting many different countries and places worldwide since the 20th century. Kenya specifically, is being hit with it hard by drought providing an extra obstacle for the people living there. The need for aid came about around the 1960’s, when many different African countries gained independence. The United States have been providing aid to African countries since then, which has then been turned around to improved health conditions and economic development. [6]  

Famine can be examined since well before the 20th century and is still prevalent to today. The primary source used to analyze this was a historical book series. The intended audience is the general population, and anyone interested in this compelling topic of famine. With that being said, the purpose is to provide reliable information regarding the topic to the general public, so they can gain knowledge. The historical context of this source was based off of all the deaths due to famine in the 19th century and the devastation this topic has caused to many different countries worldwide. Famine is a serious controversial topic and can be examined far back in the 20th century. [7]  

Figure 2: Visual representation of people living under the realm of famine, 1991-1992

Famine and food crises was a major concern within the 1970’s and 1980’s. There were tremendous amounts of people living with starvation and not within the normal realm of life. Starvation and hunger is no way of living a normal life, and in this time period specifically, it was very severe. In the 1960’s, it was known as of the Green Revolution. This was the time for new creations of high yielding productions of basic foods, like wheat and rice. This was very impactful, for it resulted in high numbers relating to output production and high hopes for improvement. [9]   

There have been attempts made to provide aid to these countries for many years now. [2] Things like providing emergency supplies and stocks of food supplies are examples of aid attempts. The primary source relevant to this is from a historical newspaper article from the New York Times. The indented audience was the general public who would be reading this newspaper. The hope was that with a newspaper many people would see it. This is one way seen as an attempt for aid. In this time period, president Eisenhower is seen to be asking to use power in supplying aid to these countries in need of serious help. [8]  

Roughly an estimated 100,000 people living under the ideal of starvation. These people don’t have the access to the necessary water and food amounts for normal survival, and therefor are not living live at a normal level. [10] This doesn’t go unnoticed, and many different organizations have stepped in to help provide aid for these people suffering. For example, United Nations World Food Program, UNICEF, Mercy Corps, Action Against Hunger, and CARE are some of those organizations helping towards a better life for those people of great suffering [10]. These organizations have helped provide aid in the most efficient way possible, and give them the tools to give them hope for living a normal life.

Figure 3: Data emphasizing how many people are affected with famine, 1860’s

The United states has played a major role in providing aid for these people, with hopes of them being able to be successful in their lifestyles. The things that they provide include things like nutrition assistance, emergency supplies, medical care, safe drinking water, and shelter [11]. This aid being provided by the United States, gives a positive outlook not only for those suffering, but for the United States themselves. It shows their generosity and kindness to those suffering, for they want to make a change for the better. The states in which these people are living in are not in any way satisfactory, and that needs to be changed. This is a very prominent crises that has been occurring for a very long time, and is still occurring in today’s day and age. Will this suffering ever be put to rest?   

Famine is a very extensive issue that is occurring in present day and has been occurring since historical times. Starvation within Kenya specifically, is a daily norm for most of their population. Kenya has been suffering through drought, making their state of famine increasingly worse. With this being said, African countries, like Kenya, have been receiving aid from the United States since the 1960’s, after these African countries gained independence. This aid has tremendously helped these civilians, by improving both economic development and various health conditions. Major organizations that have played a role in providing aid to these African countries include Action Against Hunger, CARE, UNICEF, Mercy Corps, and the United Nations World Food Program. The United States has high hopes for success rates while providing them with aid. Starvation is no means to a normal lifestyle, and needs to be diminished. This has been an ongoing issue and there are high hopes that with the aid coming from the United States, famine can subside. 

 

 

Endnotes:

[1] Madrid, “Red Cross calls for immediate action to prevent famine in Horn of Africa: AFRICA FAMINE”, February 10, 2017, https://search.proquest.com/docview/1866538698?accountid=14902 (accessed January 15, 2018)  

[2] “US Foreign Aid to Africa: What We Give and Why.” The Borgen Project. April 20, 2014. Accessed February 07, 2018. https://borgenproject.org/us-foreign-aid-to-africa-what-we-give-and-why/ 

[3] Stanford, C. (2007). World hunger (Reference shelf ; v. 79, no. 5). Bronx, N.Y.: H.W. Wilson.  

[4] United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, International Organizations, author. (2017). East Africa’s quiet famine : Hearing before the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifteenth Congress, first session, March 28, 2017. Washington: U.S. Government Publishing Office.  

[5] “Chapter 40 Food security and food assistance programs.” ScienceDirect. March 16, 2005. Volume 2, Part B. Pages 2103-2190. Accessed February 07, 2018. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1574007202100272 

[6] De Waal, Alexander, “Famine Crimes: Politics & the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa”. February 07, 2018. https://books.google.com/books\hl=en&lr=&id=UV3XROXhn5oC&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=US+aid+to+Africa+for+famine+&ots=ZHuy2JFAuM&sig=hIT6EpZ4UqscW7rrRPUDMg4dCFo#v=onepage&q=US%20aid%20to%20Africa%20for%20famine&f=false  

[7] Davis, Mike. “Apocalypse Then: The little-known story of drought, famine and pestilence that killed millions at the turn of the last century. P BR12. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times. February 18, 2001. https://search.proquest.com/hnpnewyorktimes/docview/92109016/2E852E73DB4F4E13PQ/2?accountid=14902  

 

[8] Leviero, Anthony. “President Asks Power to Use Surplus Food for Famine Aid: EISENHOWER ASKS FAMINE AID POWER. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times. July, 1953. https://search.proquest.com/hnpnewyorktimes/docview/112788101/pageviewPDF/1AFBACAC548C4B30PQ/1?accountid=14902  

[9] “Political Economy of International Crisis”, Section IV, http://la.utexas.edu/users/hcleaver/357L/357lsect4biblio.html  

[10] Rachel Tillman, “5 Organizations Working to Fight Famine”, April 10, 2017, https://www.one.org/us/2017/04/20/6-organizations-working-to-fight-famine/  

[11] “Responding to Crises in South Sudan, Somalia, Nigeria, and Yemen”, US AID from the American People, https://www.usaid.gov/fighting-famine  

Illustrations:

Figure 1. Friedman, Josh, “1984: Famine in Africa”, Columbia Journalism School: Centennial, December 23, 1984, http://centennial.journalism.columbia.edu/1984-famine-in-africa/index.html 

Figure 2. Chigozie, Emeka, “10 Most Deadly Famines in Africa”, Answers Africa, https://answersafrica.com/starvation-and-famine-in-africa.html

Figure 3. Hasell, Joe, “Does Population Growth Lead to Hunger and Famine?”, Our World Data, April 3, 2018, https://ourworldindata.org/population-growth-and-famines

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Geographic Focus: Kenya  

Search Terms: Famine in African Countries, African Count* famine concern 

China’s Affiliation with Drugs

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China’s Flag, October 1, 1949

China, a place that was ruled by powerful families called the Dynasties, a country that holds 1.4 billion humans and an area space of 9.6 million sq. km, (3.7 million sq. miles) [1] explained by  BBC, “China Country Profile”. Some people think that Chinese people are very humble and obedient, a common stereotypical thing that people say to compare with other human beings. China’s does have flaws in their countries such as theft, murder, and illicit drugs, because of people’s decision. I’ll be focusing more on China’s history, past issues, and anything that they have encountered that involves any kind or type of illicit drugs.

 

Opium War in 1839 to 1860.

In the past, China was affiliated with opium, a reddish-brown heavy-scented addictive drug prepared from the juice of the opium poppy, the way they consumed the opium was a bit different than what they thought, Howard Abadinsky, author of “Drug Use and Abuse”, said that, “…The method of ingestion shifted from eating to smoking…” [2]. Back then in the 1800’s, China would receive opium from India and that opium would be transported by the independent British or Parsee merchants to China. However, when word got out to the China Sea that opium left Calcutta, opium had become a contraband and when that China had realized, the Honorable East India Company was able to wash its hands of all formal responsibility for the illegal drug trades. After that the first opium war happened, it started in 1839, because Chinese authorities destroyed the opium that was on foreign ships along the port city of Canton and then the Chinese Emperor had to pay an estimated $18 million to the British but ended up in debt by $2 million. Then there was a second opium war that started in 1856, where China had to face against the British and French because of a minor incident between China and Britain leading to the Chinese Emperor losing a lot, like the British and French burned the imperial summer palace and the Emperor owed 20,000 pounds of sterling to avoid a war, later in 1946 China legalized opium.

In 1991, New York Times reported that China has had a heroin increase among the young Chinese. The readers who would get word of this information would be people who are interested in drugs or if you lived in China. The narcotics were “brought to Yunnan across the long and mostly unpoliced border with Myanmar, formerly known as Burma” [3], stated by Nicholas D. Kristof, author of “Heroin Spreads Among Young in China: Abuse of Heroin Spreads in China“. New York Time’s must’ve heard about this and decided to inform people of the about the crisis or situation that China was facing. Why young Chinese people chose to use the drug known as heroin, was because “lots of my friends tried heroin because young people want to find out what it’s all about” [3], and ever since the spread of heroin in China, most countries have been using this narcotic, including Beijing, there have been 43 people who have died from overdose usage. As China’s government received word of the heroin issue, they took ruthless measures by forcing addicts to quit and resulting in gangs moved to using needles. When gangs resorted to using needles, there was another reporting of 410 Chinese people having AIDS and later leads to marijuana, which Chinese people did not know that it could be smoked, because of that they just decided to ignore it. The writer seems to be comparing the people in America compared to the people in China because of their drug problem. Things that the writer failed to give in the newspaper was, how did the Chinese acquire these drugs exactly.

China has used many different types of drugs and the type of people that do drugs are called “money boys”. These money boys live in Hunan Province, China, they are males around the age of 16 and their organization is hidden and not easily accessible to the population. The MB’s organization pays them money if they can recruit more people they’re given 0.160$ per person, they have about 380,000 members and these money boys or MB is quite notorious for doing drugs, researchers, G.L. Yang, A.D. Zhang, Y. Yu, H. Liu, F.Y. Long and J. Yan, authors of “Drug use and its associated factors among money boys in Hunan Province, China said, “Fifteen MBs’ steady sexual partners were drug users, and 4.9% of MBs had offered sex to clients for drugs. Rush popper (36.6%) and methamphetamine (12.7%) were used most commonly, and other drugs used were ecstasy (7.8%), ketamine (5.9%), marijuana (2.4%), morphine (1.5%), heroin (1.0%) and cocaine (0.5%)” [4], there has been 39% of the MB’s that have been reported that they’ve been affiliated with drugs and 13.7% of them was reported of using more than two types of drugs. China has an issue with teenagers getting involved with drugs and this organization is one of the reasons on why people get involved or want to get affiliated with drugs.

In 2014, New York Time’s wrote about China’s athletes having the use of drugs for the Olympics. When New York Time’s published this information, the readers that must’ve read this article would be nationwide because the Olympics being a big event across the world. There have been reported seven athletes out of the 40 athletes that have been caught tied to drugs, representing China. The seven athletes were rowers and from what the article states by Longman, Jere author of, “40 China Athletes Out of Olympics; 7 Tied to Drugs: OLYMPICS 40 Chinese Withdraw: 7 Are Tied to Drugs”… illicitly trying to increase their oxygen-carrying capacity.”[5], this showing that athletes that tend to cheat have a great lung capacity. The authorities for the Olympics have been getting stricter on their rules with cheating and the vice president of IOC, Dick Pound said, “… nobody wants to send athletes to the Games that are going to get caught and disgraced”[5]. The writer for this newspaper compared the athlete players to China’s players because of what the athletes did in the Olympics. Something that I feel the writer didn’t include in the paper was, how many times has the authorities caught a cheater in the Olympics.

In January 2017, China is asking their residents to take a vote on whether to temporarily prohibit recreational marijuana in China. Recreational marijuana was passed on November 8th with over 4,000 citizen votes, the law was named “Question 1 Referendum”. The rules of the referendum stated that you must be 21 years or older, can only grow 2.5 ounces of marijuana, and 10 percent sales tax for any company or stores selling marijuana. When that law was released, China’s residents have been against the Question 1 Referendum. From writer MADELINE ST AMOUR, the residents decided that they will “temporarily prohibit people from starting recreational marijuana establishments, which could include retail stores, manufacturing facilities, cultivation facilities and social clubs, for up to 60 days and could be extended by the select board if necessary.” [6], this meaning that most people in China are against the idea of pot shops.

Residents of China voted against the Question 1 Referendum, MADELINE ST AMOUR said, “the moratorium is necessary to ensure the safety of the town, especially the children” [7]. The people are most likely going to instantiate moratorium on the use of recreational marijuana. The people China doesn’t want other people to get involved with marijuana or any types of drugs and living in a residential area. The people took in the consideration of the children and didn’t want to risk their health, so people can have marijuana shops. This will help decrease the odds of people getting associated with marijuana and keep the kids live in a clean healthy area.

China was accused of not giving people who use illicit drugs, personalized treatments for their addiction and other diseases that they could be prevented or treated. Joe Amon, a director of the health and human right division has said they would treat the following people, but Joe Amon has said that “Instead of putting in place effective drug dependency treatment, the new Chinese law subjects suspected drug users to arbitrary detention and inhumane treatment”[8]. Now because of their new law, they are putting drug users in drug detention centers because if they stay in there, they will receive the necessary treatments, but due to the incarceration, they are increasing the spread of HIV transmission throughout the whole community. Ever since China has realized that they have a noticeable number of illicit drug users, this is their way of telling people to stop and change.

 

The only legal use of drugs in China, in the form of medical pills.

The only exception that China allows the use of marijuana is for medical use only, due to China facing chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart diseases, and cancer that they faced in the past. This has had a potential negative health impact that can affect 1.3 billion people and China acted by spending $558 billion dollars between the year 2005 to 2015, almost one percent of their GDP was used to buy medicine for the people. What China tried to do, was to get estimated 4,600 drug companies to focus on manufacturing generic drugs to help solve the medical issue they had. One thing about their plan that they didn’t account for was the IP protection law, the prohibits people to make/produce and market any kind of generic medicine. The impact on China was catastrophic and due to that, Palgrave Macmillan said: “China has a large market for generic drugs and lacks adequate basic health services for the poor”, [9] they’ve been left with no other option but to take matters into their own hands and manufacture generic drugs to help their people.

 

China’s population is quite a problem and if something were to happen that would cause a great change it could affect the world. Due to the big number of people living in China, some people are bound to get involved in such illicit drugs leading to possible gangs. Lin Lu and Xi Wang, say that “people who got involved in these drugs weren’t getting treated” [10] when they were sick or if they needed their medication then they wouldn’t receive it because of their background in drugs. Drugs are affecting China and not in a good way, they are making more laws that affect innocent people in a negative way. People need to stop the increase in drug use or being affiliated with drugs.

Citation:

[1] BBC, “China Country Profile”, April 4, 2018

[2] Howard Abadinsky, “Drug Use and Abuse” page 198

[3] Nicholas D. Kristof, “Heroin Spreads Among Young in China: Abuse of Heroin Spreads in China“, New York Times, 21 March 1991

[4] G.L. Yang, A.D. Zhang, Y. Yu, H. Liu, F.Y. Long and J. YanDrug use and its associated factors among money boys in Hunan Province, China / Public Health, 2016-11-01, Volume 140, Page 213, Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health (article)

[5] Longman, Jere, “40 China Athletes Out of Olympics; 7 Tied to Drugs: OLYMPICS 40 Chinese Withdraw: 7 Are Tied to Drugs”, New York Times, 06, September 2000

[6] MADELINE ST AMOURMorning Sentinel; Waterville, Me. [Waterville, Me]02 Jan 2017: 2.B. (journal article)

[7] MADELINE ST AMOURKennebec Journal; Augusta, Me. [Augusta, Me]02 Jan 2017: 2.B. (journal article)

[8] Joe Amon, BMJ (British Medical Journal) / China is accused of denying treatment to illicit drug users: Drug use and its associated factors among money boys in Hunan Province, China Vol. 340, No. 7738 (16 January 2010), pp. 124 (journal article)

[9] Palgrave Macmillan Journals / TRIPS-plus and access to medicines in ChinaVol. 34, No. 2 (May 2013), pp. 236

[10] Lin Lu and Xi Wang, “Drug Addiction in China”, National Institute on Drug Dependence, Peking University, Beijing, China, 2008 New York Academy of Sciences

 

Pictures:

(Pills picture)

http://s1.ibtimes.com/sites/www.ibtimes.com/files/styles/tablet/public/2016/10/21/find-out-street-names-some-most-commonly-used-drugs-united-states.png

(China flag)

https://img.etimg.com/thumb/msid-60056064,width-300,imgsize-76826,resizemode-4/trade-war-looming-between-india-china-chinese-state-media.jpg

(Opium War)

https://www.livemint.com/rf/Image-621×414/LiveMint/Period1/2015/05/30/Photos/painting-krIH–621×414@LiveMint.png

Geographic Focus: China

Search Terms: China, Marijuana, Opium, Drugs

Famine in Kenya, 20th Century

Download PDF

Alivia Wynar 

 

Title: Famine in Kenya, 20th century  

Famine is a very prevalent issue that is currently occurring, and has been occurring for several years, in many African countries. People in places like Somalia, Kenya, and Ethiopia are facing severe cases of hunger and are in serious need of help and aid from outside sources in order to survive. Organizations, such as the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies have been called to be put into action with the hopes that their aid can tremendously help provide resolution to the many that are suffering. There are places where this issue is more sever due to food shortages as a result from drought. Livestock is being destroyed and as a result, taking away food source from many different individuals. Aid from outside sources is very necessary for these individuals to survive, but the funds needed are not all present, making it difficult for these organizations to go through with their help. Famine is incredibly severe in Kenya as well as they are facing severe drought. Kenya is one of the many East African countries that is suffering through famine and drought, but the severity of this issue is through the roof. This brings up many different questions in regard to famine all over the world, but in this case, I will specifically be discussing famine in Kenya over the course of the 20th century. A major question that arouses with this is What role can the United States government play in relation to providing aid to Kenya? If famine is still a major concern today, and was way back in the 20th century, then why haven’t we figured out a solution to diminish it?  

Famine is a concerning issue that has been affecting many different countries and places worldwide since the 20th century. Kenya specifically, is being hit with it hard by drought providing an extra obstacle for the people living there. the need for aid came about around the 1960’s, when many different African countries gained independence. The United States have been providing aid to African countries since then, which has then been turned around to improved health conditions and economic development. [6] 

Famine can be examined since well before the 20th century and is still prevalent to today. The primary source used to analyze this was a historical book series. The intended audience is the general population, and anyone interested in this compelling topic of famine. With that being said, the purpose is to provide reliable information regarding the topic to the general public, so they can gain knowledge. The historical context of this source was based off of all the deaths due to famine in the 19th century and the devastation this topic has caused to many different countries worldwide. Famine is a serious controversial topic and can be examined far back in the 20th century. [7] 

Famine and food crises was a major concern within the 1970’s and 1980’s. There were tremendous amounts of people living with starvation and not within the normal realm of life. Starvation and hunger is no way of living a normal life, and in this time period specifically, it was very severe. In the 1960’s, it was known as of the Green Revolution. This was the time for new creations of high yielding productions of basic foods, like wheat and rice. This was very impactful, for it resulted in high numbers relating to output production and high hopes for improvement. [9]  

There has been attempts made to provide aid to these countries for many years now. Things like providing emergency supplies and stocks of food supplies are examples of aid attempts. The primary source relevant to this is from a historical newspaper article from the New York Times. The indented audience was the general public who would be reading this newspaper. The hope was that with a newspaper many people would see it. This is one way seen as an attempt for aid. In this time period, president Eisenhower is seen to be asking to use power in supplying aid to these countries in need of serious help. [8] 

Roughly an estimated 100,000 people living under the ideal of starvation. These people don’t have the access to the necessary water and food amounts for normal survival, and therefor are not living live at a normal level. [10] This doesn’t go unnoticed, and many different organizations have stepped in to help provide aid for these people suffering. For example, United Nations World Food Program, UNICEF, Mercy Corps, Action Against Hunger, and CARE are some of those organizations helping towards a better life for those people of great suffering [10]. These organizations have helped provide aid in the most efficient way possible, and give them the tools to give them hope for living a normal life.  

The United states has played a major role in providing aid for these people, with hopes of them being able to be successful in their lifestyles. The things that they provide include things like nutrition assistance, emergency supplies, medical care, safe drinking water, and shelter [11]. This aid being provided by the United States, gives a positive outlook not only for those suffering, but for the United States themselves. It shows their generosity and kindness to those suffering, for they want to make a change for the better. The states in which these people are living in are not in any way satisfactory, and that needs to be changed. This is a very prominent crises that has been occurring for a very long time, and is still occurring in today’s day and age. Will this suffering ever be put to rest?  

Paragraph 8: Conclusion. Revisit central question and argument. Wrap up the paper. 

 

 

 

[1] Madrid, “Red Cross calls for immediate action to prevent famine in Horn of Africa: AFRICA FAMINE”, February 10, 2017, https://search.proquest.com/docview/1866538698?accountid=14902 (accessed January 15, 2018) 

[2] “US Foreign Aid to Africa: What We Give and Why.” The Borgen Project. April 20, 2014. Accessed February 07, 2018. https://borgenproject.org/us-foreign-aid-to-africa-what-we-give-and-why/. 

[3] Stanford, C. (2007). World hunger (Reference shelf ; v. 79, no. 5). Bronx, N.Y.: H.W. Wilson. 

[4] United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, International Organizations, author. (2017). East Africa’s quiet famine : Hearing before the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifteenth Congress, first session, March 28, 2017. Washington: U.S. Government Publishing Office. 

[5] “Chapter 40 Food security and food assistance programs.” ScienceDirect. March 16, 2005. Volume 2, Part B. Pages 2103-2190. Accessed February 07, 2018. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1574007202100272. 

[6] De Waal, Alexander, “Famine Crimes: Politics & the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa”. February 07, 2018. https://books.google.com/books\hl=en&lr=&id=UV3XROXhn5oC&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=US+aid+to+Africa+for+famine+&ots=ZHuy2JFAuM&sig=hIT6EpZ4UqscW7rrRPUDMg4dCFo#v=onepage&q=US%20aid%20to%20Africa%20for%20famine&f=false 

[7] Davis, Mike. “Apocalypse Then: The little-known story of drought, famine and pestilence that killed millions at the turn of the last century. P BR12. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times. February 18, 2001. https://search.proquest.com/hnpnewyorktimes/docview/92109016/2E852E73DB4F4E13PQ/2?accountid=14902 

 

[8] Leviero, Anthony. “President Asks Power to Use Surplus Food for Famine Aid: EISENHOWER ASKS FAMINE AID POWER. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times. July, 1953. https://search.proquest.com/hnpnewyorktimes/docview/112788101/pageviewPDF/1AFBACAC548C4B30PQ/1?accountid=14902 

[9] “Political Economy of International Crisis”, Section IV, http://la.utexas.edu/users/hcleaver/357L/357lsect4biblio.html 

[10] Rachel Tillman, “5 Organizations Working to Fight Famine”, April 10, 2017, https://www.one.org/us/2017/04/20/6-organizations-working-to-fight-famine/ 

[11] “Responding to Crises in South Sudan, Somalia, Nigeria, and Yemen”, US AID from the American People, https://www.usaid.gov/fighting-famine 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Geographic Focus: Kenya 

Search Terms: Famine in African Countries, African Count* famine concern 

Famine in Kenya 20th century

Download PDF

Alivia Wynar 

 

Title: Famine in Kenya 20th century  

Famine is a very prevalent issue that is currently occurring, and has been occurring for several years, in many African countries. People in places like Somalia, Kenya, and Ethiopia are facing severe cases of hunger and are in serious need of help and aid from outside sources in order to survive. Organizations, such as the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies have been called to be put into action with the hopes that their aid can tremendously help provide resolution to the many that are suffering. There are places where this issue is more sever due to food shortages as a result from drought. Livestock is being destroyed and as a result, taking away food source from many different individuals. Aid from outside sources is very necessary for these individuals to survive, but the funds needed are not all present, making it difficult for these organizations to go through with their help. Famine is incredibly severe in Kenya as well as they are facing severe drought. Kenya is one of the many East African countries that is suffering through famine and drought, but the severity of this issue is through the roof. This brings up many different questions in regard to famine all over the world, but in this case, I will specifically be discussing famine in Kenya over the course of the 20th century. A major question that arouses with this is What role can the United States government play in relation to providing aid to Kenya? If famine is still a major concern today, and was way back in the 20th century, then why haven’t we figured out a solution to diminish it?  

Early Thesis: Famine is a concerning issue that has been affecting many different countries and places worldwide since the 20th century. Kenya specifically, is being hit with it hard by drought providing an extra obstacle for the people living there. the need for aid came about around the 1960’s, when many different African countries gained independence. The United States have been providing aid to African countries since then, which has then been turned around to improved health conditions and economic development. [6] 

Paragraph 3: Introduction to famine in the 20th century.  

Famine can be examined since well before the 20th century and is still prevalent to today. The primary source used to analyze this was a historical book series. The intended audience is the general population, and anyone interested in this compelling topic of famine. With that being said, the purpose is to provide reliable information regarding the topic to the general public, so they can gain knowledge. The historical context of this source was based off of all the deaths due to famine in the 19th century and the devastation this topic has caused to many different countries worldwide. Famine is a serious controversial topic and can be examined far back in the 20th century. [7] 

Paragraph 4: Analysis of 1960’s when aid started coming from the US [2] 

Paragraph 5: General analysis of how aid is being put into place for help regarding famine.  

There has been attempts made to provide aid to these countries for many years now. Things like providing emergency supplies and stocks of food supplies are examples of aid attempts. The primary source relevant to this is from a historical newspaper article from the New York Times. The indented audience was the general public who would be reading this newspaper. The hope was that with a newspaper many people would see it. This is one way seen as an attempt for aid. In this time period, president Eisenhower is seen to be asking to use power in supplying aid to these countries in need of serious help. [8] 

Paragraph 6: Analysis regarding how the aid coming from the United Stated has improved health conditions [3] 

Paragraph 7: Analysis regarding how the aid coming from the United States have helped to improve economic development [6] 

Paragraph 8: Conclusion. Revisit central question and argument. Wrap up the paper. 

 

 

 

[1] Madrid, “Red Cross calls for immediate action to prevent famine in Horn of Africa: AFRICA FAMINE”, February 10, 2017, https://search.proquest.com/docview/1866538698?accountid=14902 (accessed January 15, 2018) 

[2] “US Foreign Aid to Africa: What We Give and Why.” The Borgen Project. April 20, 2014. Accessed February 07, 2018. https://borgenproject.org/us-foreign-aid-to-africa-what-we-give-and-why/. 

[3] Stanford, C. (2007). World hunger (Reference shelf ; v. 79, no. 5). Bronx, N.Y.: H.W. Wilson. 

[4] United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, International Organizations, author. (2017). East Africa’s quiet famine : Hearing before the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifteenth Congress, first session, March 28, 2017. Washington: U.S. Government Publishing Office. 

[5] “Chapter 40 Food security and food assistance programs.” ScienceDirect. March 16, 2005. Volume 2, Part B. Pages 2103-2190. Accessed February 07, 2018. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1574007202100272. 

[6] De Waal, Alexander, “Famine Crimes: Politics & the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa”. February 07, 2018. https://books.google.com/books\hl=en&lr=&id=UV3XROXhn5oC&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=US+aid+to+Africa+for+famine+&ots=ZHuy2JFAuM&sig=hIT6EpZ4UqscW7rrRPUDMg4dCFo#v=onepage&q=US%20aid%20to%20Africa%20for%20famine&f=false 

[7] Davis, Mike. “Apocalypse Then: The little-known story of drought, famine and pestilence that killed millions at the turn of the last century. P BR12. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times. February 18, 2001. https://search.proquest.com/hnpnewyorktimes/docview/92109016/2E852E73DB4F4E13PQ/2?accountid=14902 

 

[8] Leviero, Anthony. “President Asks Power to Use Surplus Food for Famine Aid: EISENHOWER ASKS FAMINE AID POWER. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times. July, 1953. https://search.proquest.com/hnpnewyorktimes/docview/112788101/pageviewPDF/1AFBACAC548C4B30PQ/1?accountid=14902 

Brexit RA 3 Logan Kovalenko

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1.In the last couple of years, one thing that all of Europe talked about was Brexit. This change has many future consequence other than economic turmoil such as loss of a major part of the work force. With Britain exiting the EU, immigrants from other EU countries who hold low-skilled jobs will be deported. The only immigrants that will be able to stay are the ones who hold high-skill level jobs. In order to work in Britain, immigrants will need to make at minimum 35,000 Pounds ($46,550) a year which is 8,000 pounds more than the average income of a person who works in Britain. Russia has tried this idea in the past and what they noticed was that things were more dirty and simply did not run as smooth because these are the jobs that no one wants.

 

  1. Will Britain be able to come up with a way to make up for the lack of immigrants? Is there a way to make a deal so they come out ahead over the other European countries? Will prices of things have to increase in order to make up for what maybe lost? Will Britain be able to find a way to get more companies to come and start businesses after Brexit?

 

  1. With the idea of Britain leaving the EU they will be making a leap of faith into the unknown. No one really knows the exact outcome at this point but what people do have are ideas of what could happen. The things that have been brought up so far are not in favor of anyone or at least that what people are making it sound like. It sounds like more people will be getting hurt from this that actually having a positive outcome.

One of the biggest worries for Brexit is all the smaller areas around Britain like Wales and Yorkshire. Wales Uses them for 67% of their trade and Yorkshire is very similar. Which out the trading happening they will have to resort to world trade which will be a lot more difficult due to them being smaller. But this also affects Britain in a big way as well. Wales is one of Britain’s biggest exporters of goods. So not only will all the smaller areas around Britain be struggling from them backing out and losing a lot of their resources, Britain will also have to create ways for them to export their own good and other ways to make up for the losses that will happen if they do in fact back out of the EU.

 

 

 

(Brexit Britain)

 

 

, With Brexit Triggered. “With Brexit Triggered, Britain and EU Make Leap into the Unknown.” Proqest, 0AD, search.proquest.com/docview/1882229992?accountid=14902&rfr_id=info%3Axri%2Fsid%3Aprimo.

Roberts, Dan. “’No-Deal’ Brexit Would Be Worst Outcome Possible for UK, Lords Warn.” ‘No-Deal’ Brexit Would Be Worst Outcome Possible for UK, Lords Warn, 7 Dec. 2017, search.proquest.com/docview/1973661428?OpenUrlRefId=info:xri/sid:primo&accountid=14902.

Roberts, Dan. “Parts of UK That Voted for Brexit May Be Hardest Hit, Study Finds.” Proquest, 27 Mar. 2017, search.proquest.com/docview/1881323670?OpenUrlRefId=info:xri/sid:primo&accountid=14902.

Roberts, Dan. “Brexit Migration Rules Could Harm City’s Lead in Financial Services Technology.” Proquest, 15 Dec. 2016, search.proquest.com/docview/1849055833?OpenUrlRefId=info:xri/sid:primo&accountid=14902.

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Bershidsky, Leonid. “BREXIT.” Sunday Gazette – Mail, Aug 07, 2016, US Newsstream, https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:3080/docview/1809752542?accountid=14902.

What has been Britain’s rerelationship with immigrant workers in the past?

https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:3080/usnews/docview/1809752542/C5E4161E8E7E43E8PQ/2?accountid=14902

Immigration*

Britain*

Jobs*

Workings class*

Geographic scope: United Kingdom

The Persecution Of Christians in Egypt

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Final Project

Image result for coptic christians egypt
Figure 1: After an attack by the Islamic state in may of 2017 Coptic Christians take to the streets in a peaceful protest.

On April 9th, 2017 Saint George church and Mark’s Cathedral in Egypt were both bombed killing 45 people and injuring many more. The Islamic state immediately claimed responsibility for these two bombings. These church bombings are now becoming a more common event in countries such as Egypt.  This persecution is nothing new for Christians in these countries, for over 2,000 years now Christians have been targeted and discriminated against. A great example of this persecution is,  “Back in the 1950’s, an Egyptian named Sayyid Qutb, a Muslim Brotherhood member, demanded that Christians effectively be driven underground and made invisible, without the right to worship openly.” [1]This statement comes up after the bombings because it is believed that a Muslim extremist group is behind the bombings, similar to the group that tried to run them out in the 1950’s. Coptic Christians in Egypt are now faced with fear daily wondering if their church will be next. How bad is the persecution of this religious group? Last year the state department declared that Christians are facing genocide in Syria, Iraq and Egypt [2].  With these attacks becoming more frequent and obvious that the Coptic Christians are the target is raises the question of what historical events or racial motivations are fueling this group of extreme nationalist who are looking to rid their country of this religion?

While these attacks are currently getting massive amounts of news coverage these conflicts between Muslims and Christians are nothing new. Over the past 2,000 years in which the original Coptic Christians came to Egypt there has been continuous periods of cooperation and conflict between not only the Religion of Islam and Christianity but also between Christianity and the government. These conflicts and tensions are the outcomes of several key events that have taken place beginning with the Egyptian revolution in 1919. Other contributing factors were that Government officials were Muslim or pro Muslim so that created bias, secondly the Copts were a minority group in Egypt so their voices were often ignored. On and off throughout history there have been peaceful times and times of terror. As time goes on the Egyptian government realizes while there is only approximately 12% of the population is Christian they are voting and government officials like to stay in power and when they see this group turning out to vote they begin to try and appease this group to win votes. During the mid 1960’s Nasser realizes this and you see his treatment of Christians greatly improve. Another factor that helped the Copts gain government support was the pressure being put on the government by western cultures. By the 1980’s the government had begun enforcing actual protections for these minorities even to the extent of placing armed guards outside of churches during services. The backing of the government was a key start however even up to the present day there remains this conflict between the extremist groups of Muslims and the Christians.

Egypt was ruled by the colonial power Great Britain from 1882 until 1922. Under British rule those in charge saw “Egyptian society [as] being part of [the] great imperial machine”[3]. The Egyptian people were simply cogs in the machine of the British agenda and they were treated as such. The raw materials being extracted from the Egyptian land rarely went to improving the standard of living for the natives the majority of the supplies were being shipped off for trade or production of goods elsewhere. Another problem was that the British put restrictions on religion, they did not ban or outlaw any religions however the did not allow certain rituals to continue to be performed such as the miserable kill-joy policy. Another restriction was that employers refused to give the people time off to perform their Friday prayers. The British additionally were not properly educating the children, and were not training the Egyptian workers to be valued as skillful. The reasoning behind this was to keep the people poor and unintelligent in order to secure the high paying jobs for British workers. They also limited education to attempt to keep the people reliant on British rule. As Egyptians saw their jobs given away to foreigners who had specialized skills, tensions began to rise. While tensions were already high the tipping point came in 1919 when not only the price of housing rose significantly but when the price of food rose, “went from 109 piastres a month in 1914 to 305 piastresin 1919″[4]. This was considered one of the final blows shortly after as people became desperate violence broke out in the streets as rioters and mass protest took place. during the protest British soldiers attempting to halt the protest fired shots into the crowd killing 6 people. This event led to the formation of the Wafd an Egyptian political group formed by the Egyptian elite. They were extremely popular and had the backing of every Egyptian class. They were the leaders of organizing peaceful protest against British rule and the number one advocates for independence. The party represented all who called Egypt home regardless of class one of their biggest accomplishments was that “it attracted both Muslims and Copts into its ranks” [5]. This revolution and this political party was successful in uniting two very different religions who have a past of persecution and violence between each other. This was a dire time of cooperation needed by all Egyptian peoples and it brought the two religions together. Finally after 3 years of negotiation the British agreed to grant partial independence not quite ready to fully give up the colony but also fearing of another revolution. They remained in control of parts of the government the military and the banks however in 1923 the Egyptians with the approval of the British published their own constitution.

From 1923-1940 there was a bleak period of constitutional improvement and push for independence it was until the 1950’s that things began to happen. There was a stagnant period due to the fact that the Wafd had begun to be run by corruption and was no longer a reliable party there were also other parties beginning to form but none gained substantial support. At one point the hopes were that the Muslim brotherhood would gain political control but after the loss of the Palestinian war they were in shambles. It wasn’t until the party of the free officers came to power that things began to happen. Led by a group of all military officers from WW2. The Free officers devised a plan then to overthrow King Faruq and rid the government of the corupt elite and once and for all completely drive out British colonialism. After the plan was carried out and the King was banished the last of the British influence was banished with him. “On July 23, 1952, The free officers came to power in a bloodless Coup d’etat, directed at the various elements of a corrupt and manipulating ruling class”[6] After this victory Gamal Abdul Nasser the leader of the party was elected president of Egypt In 1956. What did this mean for the Coptic Christians who were enjoying a time of unity during this struggle? “The Nasir regime perused a moderate policy of secularism. Polices were always justified as being consistent with Islam“[7]. Nasser himself was Muslim and at one point is believed to have been part of the Muslim brotherhood in the early 1940’s. With the president being a Muslim and the majority of the population being Muslim they were favored. While the government did not persecute Christians directly by no means did they make any effort to protect them.

Figure 2: President Gamal Abdel Nasser and Coptic Pope Kyrillos VI at the dedication of the new Cathedral of St. Mark in Abbasiyya in 1968

Since obtaining power in 1956, Egypt’s President Gamal Nasser had never set foot in a Christian church, spoken or listened to Christian leadership, he even early in his presidency opposed the Coptic Christians and their beliefs. This all however, was about to change, “July 24th 1965 President Gamal Abel Nasser in an effort to reduce friction between Egyptian Christians and Muslims made an official appearance at a Christian church ceremony today, his first since taking power”[8]. Nasser made an official appearance in Cairo at the Coptic Christian orthodox church to acknowledge the past conflicts due to the friction between religious fanatics. His message was that there would be equality among religion, “in law, in opportunity and equal treatment of all from now on in his Arab socialist regime”[9]. He goes on to talk about how the Copts and Muslims fought side by side in the Palestine war in 1948 and how they all suffered in 1956 during the British-French-Israeli attack on Egypt. Toward the end of his speech he says that they are all Egyptians and religious favoritism will no longer be allowed in his government. On top of the appearance and his statements, Nasser donated $230,000 to the Coptic Christians of Egypt to go towards the construction of a new Coptic Cathedral. This was Nasser’s peace offering after years of Muslim favoritism. This is extremely interesting that after 9 years of strong opposition to Christianity in Egypt that Nasser decided to endorse the Copts. This story is significant because it is an important turning point in the history and the struggle of the Coptic Christians in Egypt, they now have government support. It also demonstrates how leaders change over time. Politicians like to stay in power as long as they can therefore they are willing to adapt. Nasser was motivated by several factors to change his stance on Christianity. Nasser realized that while Christians were a minority the majority of them were voting and he wanted them voting for him. The other reason for the change was the  political pressure from Christian dominated countries such as Britain and the US to provide protections for the Coptic Christians. It doesn’t look good if you are allowing a minority in your country to be persecuted and even killed. Also as Nasser got older and matured as a leader the fiery Muslim dominated nationalism started to die down and he became more reasonable with age. There is once again the beginnings of a new unity of Egyptian people. The new cooperation beginning between the Coptic Church of Egypt and the government. It was meant to show other nations that Egypt was not going to stand by and watch the persecution of their people. The goal of this Christian acceptance campaign was to potentially gain economic and military support and backing from nations such as the United States. Regardless of the motives it was progress being made for a people who were being physically and verbally assaulted daily.

Image result for Coptic christian church bombing
Figure 3: Aftermath of a church bombing that took place in the Nile Delta City of Tanta on palm Sunday April 9th, 2017

While the government began preaching for equality and acknowledged the persecution of Christianity there was no major action to stop these persecutions. Consequentially the discrimination and conflicts among the citizens did not change. After waiting for far to long action was taken, on March 31st 1980, The Synod, who is the leader of the Coptic Christian church of Egypt, is of the highest authority, announced “all of the churches 7 million members should refrain from celebrating any religious practices or holidays during the Easter holiday”[10]. Thus protesting the widespread Muslim extremist harassment Christians across Egypt have been experiencing. The message was to be delivered to all the Coptic churches on Palm Sunday.  Attempting to contain the crisis, the Egyptian Interior minister went to the Parliament to report the violent clashes between the Christian minority and Muslims. The Minister also was carrying a message that stated Egyptian unity must be a priority. While the government tried to assure Christian leaders that there will no longer be violence, the protest comes in response to continual complaints from Copts across Egypt. The complaints consist of “attacks and bombings of churches, abduction of young Christian girls, insults, accusations and assaults on individuals lives”[11]. All of these especially the church bombings are an increasing problem in today’s world. There are even reports of death and churches being burned to the ground, it is believed that all of these attacks and persecutions have been conducted by a Muslim extremist group. A Christian man tired of living in fear stated that he wants to see “measures of security put in place to end this campaign of violence, the governments word is no longer enough”[12]. In addition to the protest Christian priest and pastors said they will not accept the traditional congratulations from visiting government officials when they come to be part of the annual Easter service. The government is attempting to cooperate and trying to protect these Christians because they want all the support they can get. The problem that they are facing is that Egypt is a majority of Muslims so the government is not to take great action when it would be against the majority. The government is torn between helping this valued minority of Christians and appeasing the majority of their country.

The continual struggle between Christians and Muslims dates backs thousands of years. The conflicts and cooperation’s have peaked and dropped all throughout history. Depending on the leader of the country at the time the christian problem in Egypt has either been ignored, promoted, or tolerated. There have also been attempts to solve the problem and make peace among the people. The Coptic Christians were only truly considered Egyptian in times of struggle and war. Otherwise, they were just an easy minority to pick on. Gamal Nasser initially in his early presidency promoted a Islamic nationality and supremacy because that’s what the people wanted to hear, at least what the majority wanted to hear. However, as time went on the government began to slowly accept the Copts, government officials began recognizing Christian events and holidays, Nasser attended a christian service, there was money given to go towards a new cathedral, and in the 1980’s the government even came out to condemn the attacks on churches and Copts. Even in today’s world the government now fully supports the safety of this minority who makes up only 10% of the population living in Egypt. As recently as 2017 the government displayed its support by sending armed guards to protect a christian service. On December 25th 2017 “At the Heliopolis Basilica, a Catholic cathedral in northeastern Cairo, security forces had set up metal detectors at the main doors and police vehicles were stationed outside ahead of masses” [13]. Even with the full support now and armed guards there continues to be conflict. This is not a conflict of Christians and the government this is a conflict of religions between Islam and Christianity and their conflicting ideals.

Endnotes 

[1] Williams, Daniel “Palm Sunday bombings: Christians are under chronic threat in the Middle East,” The Washington Post, April 10, 2017, https://search.proquest.com/globalnews/docview/1886199143/CB4428D359264BECPQ/4?accountid=14902# (January 15th, 2018).

[2] The Washington Post, April 10, 2017

[3] W.J. Berridge, “The rationalities and irrationalities of urban struggle during the Egyptian Revolution of 1919,”  Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History Volume 12, Number 3, Winter 2011

[4]W.J. Berridge, “The rationalities and irrationalities of urban struggle during the Egyptian Revolution of 1919”

[5]Selma Botman, “Egypt From Independence to Revolution,” 1919-1952″ (Syracuse University Press 1991), pp. 31

[6] Selma Botman, “Egypt From Independence Revoltion,” 1919-1952″ pp.54

[7] Glen E. Perry, “The History Of Egypt,” (Greenwood Press published 2004), pp. 103

[8] “Nasser, Attending Coptic Ceremony, Pledges Equality”, New York Times,  July 25, 1965.

[9] “Nasser, Attending Coptic Ceremony, Pledges Equality”, New York Times,  July 25, 1965.

[10] Youssef M. Ibrahim, “Egyptian Copts Protest Alleged Moslems’ Harassment: Reasons for the Protest”, New York Times, published March 31, 1980

[11] Youssef M. Ibrahim, “Egyptian Copts Protest Alleged Moslems’ Harassment: Reasons for the Protest”

[12] Youssef M. Ibrahim, “Egyptian Copts Protest Alleged Moslems’ Harassment: Reasons for the Protest”

[13] Gul Yousafzai, “Armed guards posted at Christmas church services in majority Muslim countries” , Independent News, published December 24th, 2017.  https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/christmas-church-service-security-pakistan-middle-east-muslim-islamic-state-isis-a8126961.html

 

Illustrations

Figure 1. After an attack by the Islamic state in may of 2017 Coptic Christians take to the streets in a peaceful protest. http://www.breitbart.com/jerusalem/2017/05/26/egypt-gunmen-massacre-christians-killing-least-23/

Figure 2. President Gamal Abdel Nasser and Coptic Pope Kyrillos VI at the dedication of the new Cathedral of St. Mark in Abbasiyya in 1968.  http://mideasti.blogspot.com/2011/10/different-time-in-state-coptic.html

Figure 3. Aftermath of a church bombing that took place in the Nile Delta City of Tanta on palm Sunday April 9th, 2017 (VOA news). https://www.voanews.com/a/church-bombing-egypt/3802684.html

 

Unit 731: Japans Ugly history strains Asian relations

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The setting is 1941, a global tug of war between Allies and Axis nations is raging each member nation of these alliances trying to one up the other to secure a final victory for their side, for Allies more so then the Axis. With this global struggle it should come as no surprise that each nation is willing to do everything in its power to claim victory. More specifically the Empire of Japan a surprising contender at the time simply for being an oriental nation. Japan who had made advancements in preventative medicine was willing to throw away all morality in the pursuit of advanced biological warfare: “The original bacteriological aims of Japan where soon to be warped in the direction of causing, rather than preventing and curing, disease.”[1].

Japans biological warfare (BW) capabilities where spearheaded by Dr. Shiro Ishii, a microbiologist serving under the Kwantung army and supervising Unit 731. Under Dr. Shiro’s command horrifying experiments where conducted on the neighboring Chinese villages near Unit 731s Pingfan facility. Experiments conducted where done in order to observe the effect and spread of certain pathogens when released in both controlled and open environments, meaning what would happen if we introduce x bacteria into an unsuspecting village vs prison camps. Once tests where concluded using certain pathogens such as cholera, it was then asked, “how can we utilize this in war”: It is certain that Ishii’s Unit 731 had achieved, by carious horrifying means, the capability of waging germ warfare.”[2].

To provide a more explicit example of one of these infamous experiments, was the Anda an outside testing ground where subjects where crucified and place into a circle. These circles where varied in size and number of subjects called maruta meaning log in Japanese, was done in order to test the area of effect of projectile pathogens: “Tests involved an element of trial and error, and comparing results obtained from different sized circles enabled researchers to determine ranges of effectiveness at various distances from the points where projectiles struck or infected insects were released.”[3].

With this knowledge of Unit 731s experiments comes the bitter taste of realizing that Dr. Shiro did not have to face any repercussions for his atrocities nor any one of the researchers involved in the Unit. Dr. Shiro did not have to face justice due to the United States governments interest in his research and data, offering him amnesty for his compliance. As the US government believed that the Russians obtained some of the data collected in Manchuria it was seen as more beneficial to obtain Dr. Shiro’s “valuable BW information”: “The research was kept secret after the end of World War II, in part because the U.S. Army granted immunity from war crimes prosecution to the doctors in exchange for their research data.”[4].

This secrecy is welcome by the current Japanese government as this means for them there is little internal pressure for compensation for the families of the victims or the Chinese government. The crimes of Unit 731 where so heinous their where no surviving subjects ever found, most information gathered is from the members of Unit 731. Who have willingly shared their story to seek redemption for their crimes against those they experimented on, they also believe their stories must be shared in order to prevent such crimes from ever occurring again. All this information and secrecy regarding Unit 731 strains the already cutthroat relations between China and Japan in regard to Japans war past. As Unit 731 is just one very significant part of a laundry list of Japans war crimes that are acknowledge by the government yet provide a lukewarm apology towards the nations effected by the pain caused by the IJA and it is this apathy that Japan has towards its war atrocities that strains its relations with its neighboring Asian countries.: “It has been pointed out that unless Japan faces historical facts and takes full responsibility, it will not become a trusted neighbor of the peoples of Asia.”[5].

Though we can fault Japan as the main perpetrator of this crime the Allies role mainly U.S should not be overlooked, as Allied intelligence was fully aware the experiments conducted by Unit 731 yet did not fully believe the report. Come 1944 as the war with Japan was getting closer to the archipelago soldiers where instructed to look for any mention of biological warfare. With all this knowledge of Unit 731 and incriminating evidence for all members to stand trial, justice was not served in order to retrieve information on BW in order to one up the Russians: “That January (1944), America’s Intelligence chiefs began briefing field officers on how to spot signs of BW.”[6].

It must therefore be asked should the U.S be also scrutinized for such secrecy of Unit 731, should there be shared responsibility between Japan and the U.S for not only the injustice done to the China but also the justice not served to Unit 731. If we ask this, we must be prepared to ask how valuable was Ishii’s research and was it even science by modern scientific standards. Such questions should and must be asked by both nations Japan cannot move forward in the world without facing and acknowledging its past as the U.S maintain its integrity towards its moral values if they are unwilling to reflect on past actions. It’s a long road for both nations to say the least, it is my hope that positive outcome will come soon.

 

[1] Hal Gold, “Unit 731 Testimony” (Tokyo: Yenbooks, 1996), Pg.(23)

[2] Williams & Wallace, “Unit 731 The Japanese Army’s Secret of Secret’s” (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1989), Pg.(63)

[3] Hal Gold, “Unit 731 Testimony”, Pg(23)

[4] Nicholas D. Kristof, “Secret War Experiments By Japan Come To Light: [Metro Final Edition],” New York Times, Mar 17, 2018. https://search.proquest.com/docview/246111435 (accessed January 16, 2018)

[5] “Unit 731 Atrocities,” Korean Times, Monthly English ed,: Los Angeles, Calif, Sep 16 1997, https://search.proquest.com/docview/367797983/#center (accessed January 16, 2018).

 

[6] Williams & Wallace, “Unit 731 The Japanese Army’s Secret of Secret’s”, Pg(103)

Geographic location: East Asia

Search terms: Unit 731, Shiro Ishii, Japan, WW2, experiments, China, Germ warfare, Biological warfare, Relations.

Gender Stereotypes in Britain

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Title: Gender Stereotypes in Britain

Around July 2017, a report by Iliana Magra was found that Britain has been producing ads with gender stereotypes. For example, Britain came out with an ad for baby formula and they viewed a little girl that was growing up to be a ballerina and a little boy growing up to be mathematician.  While this only one ad, they made many others that people viewed as gender stereotyping. Britain Advertising Regulator saw these ads and announced that new rules will be developed to ban ads that show gender stereotyping. Further on, The Committee of Advertising Practice has built new standards and others will enforce these rules. Gender inequality has been an issue for a long time all around the world and for Britain to see that they still promote these kind of stereotypes is not okay in today’s society.  This also led to people being more angry and open about the pay gap. Where did the idea of gender stereotyping come from? Where did it start? [1]

A sample of how gender stereotyping started in the U.K. and why how it became a big thing. A study by McArthur and Resko in 1975 on sex-role stereotypes in American and the U.K. of television advertisements have used coding and other ways to get around and not get called out for stereotyping, but didn’t last long when this study showed that and compared and contrast 14 different types of stereotypes in T.V. advertisements. Researchers have been interested in the portrayal of men and women in T.V. commercials for the past 25 years as well as sex-cues in children’s commercials have been studied as well.  One of the first content-analytic studies of the portrayal of men and women in television commercials was published by McArthur and Resko. [2] To go deeper into stereotyping, there has always been an issue with the pay gap. Gerda Wekerle wrote a journal in 1974 about women in an urban environment and wrote her first review on Women, Planning, and Change, in 1974 and it all went back how women were portrayed in early 1970s. This primary is a journal from 1974 and her intended audience were people who were in the work field and women that wanted to a show people of what they can do. The purpose behind this source is to hopefully show people that women deserve more respect and they aren’t just stay-at-homes. The author’s gender compared to who she is writing about is her standing up for her gender and she is using a platform of hers to get the word across. Lastly, the unspoken assumptions that source contain is that women are so worried about what people think about them and they worry so much that they could be working instead of complaining or trying to get a word out. [3]

Gender Roles in England

Over the past 25 years, gender pay differences have been always an issue. Especially since now women are entering men occupations, it’s been obvious with the pay gap. It’s not only the amount that women get paid compared to men, but the amount of hours of women get as well. Women will receive fewer hours, days, and weeks then men which already throws them behind with receiving a good paycheck. In 1978, women would only receive 61% of mens earning then in 1999 it became 76.5%, which is still not okay. Apparently, the gender age ratio tends to decline within age, but as we grow up women expect to get a better job and make more money, but how is that going to be possible if our earnings will never reach the potential of mens? With this being said, it can cause women to drop out of the labor force and go towards small occupations for females or just stay at home and take care of their home and family. [5]

 

War and Gender

Gender stereotypes impacts changes in work and sexuality, within the period they witnessed a growing complexity of femininity, and increased the number of working women or the spread of family limitation. Contemporary literature on working women promoted the idea that this was helping reshape the public and private working class life. At the same time, during the 1950s sociologists changes in masculinity and marriage. Discussions suggested that gender ideology had become more complex within the working classes. This occurred at a moment when it was also assumed that affluence and prosperity were changing working class identity, breaking down traditional ideas and loyalties. This article also argued that gender was both perceived as a crucial aspect of that transformation and became as expressing changes in class identity in postwar Britain. [6]

The Woman Reader

Gender stereotyping in the narratives of imperial history and the lack of attention paid to the domestic culture of imperialism in which the 19th century middle-class British feminism came onto its own. This then led to the beginnings of the organized British women’s movement at midcentury coincided with the apogee of British imperial superiority. In meeting to discuss the “disabilities of the female sex” and by the 1860s to generate suffrage petitions to the House of Commons. As Greater Britain became a formal empire, British women’s movement achieved many of their goals: university education for women, municipal suffrage, and marriage-law reform. British feminists noted the chance and exploited it in order to advance their argument for what many believed to be the most right: women’s suffrage. [7]

Britain has tried their very best to help the women feel like they are not being stereotyped even after all the recent actions from advertising to the pay gap in working. It’s awful that women in the 1950s had to fight so hard to help us be as equal as men, but till this day after all the articles on stereotyping especially on women they still struggle with ideology and not getting the same treatment that men do. According to the History of Burdenwoman that weren’t even feminists tried to fight to achieve their goals. These goals did help women immensely with that we could have jobs, we can vote, and we can do a lot of things that was never achieved in the 1900s. Will gender stereotyping ever be put to rest?

Conclusion. Revisits the central question and argument. Finishes the paper.

(1) MAGRA, ILIANA. “Britain Cracking Down on Gender Stereotypes in Ads.” New York Times Company, last modified Jul 18. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1919695194/68666FD65F304F6FPQ/4?accountid=14902 (Accessed January 17, 2018)

[2] Adrian Furnham, “Sex-Role Stereotyping in Television Commercials: A Review and Comparison of Fourteen Studies Done on Five Continents Over 25 Years,” EBSCOhost, September 1,1999, http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=d4656a90-5ef4-43e1-bd1c-71eaa3d8b2f3%40sessionmgr4007

[3] Adrian Furnham, “The portrayal of men and women in television advertisement,” EBSCOhost, June 1,1999, http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=583dfeba-ee48-4fac-850e-58dca8d163f3%40sessionmgr4007

[4] Gerda R. Wekerle, “Women in Urban Environment,” University of Chicago Press, 1980, https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdfplus/10.1086/495719

[5] Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn, “Gender Differences in Pay,” The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Autumn, 2000, http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2135/stable/2647076

[6] Brooke, Stephen. “Gender and Working Class Identity in Britain during the 1950s.” Journal of Social History, Oxford University Press, 1 June 2001, muse.jhu.edu/article/17900/summary.

[7] Burton, Antoinette M. “Burdens of History.” Google Books, books.google.com/books?hl=en.

[8] Hayes, Bernadette C., and Pauline Prior. Gender and Health Care in the United Kingdom Exploring the Stereotypes. Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Illustrations:

Hill, Trey. Gender Roles in England. 1940.

Goldstein, Joshua S. War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System. 1940.

Flint, Kate. The Woman Reader. 1835.

Geographic Focus:  Britain

Search terms: (Gender stereotypes in Britain), Britain*, Stereotypes, Gender, Advertisements*, Pay gap, United Kingdom, History*

Communist China and the Effects of Politics in Media

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China has long been known to be a country that is heavy with its censorship in the web and general content. The nation will censor many things like certain parts of history that the government does not believe is agreeable to show to the public (a supposedly common occurrence with countries as explained by Oliveira is to hide shameful pasts) and other inappropriate, sexual subjects. [1] A new set of rules was released to “discipline” the web. [2] What limitations of knowledge, whether of history or the current world does this affect the public? Are their limitations significant? What roles has this censoring played in politics? Every nation has had some kind of deal with censorship, so what makes China different? What events in China’s past has led to a steady increase in the amount of censorships? What types of media were used back in the days, and were there any significant headlines made from the government’s strict actions? How did China change as a country while under the rule of Mao Zedong? How did propaganda effect the media and what were the ideas that Mao wanted to establish?

Today, we see an abundance of news about China and restrictive media; at this point it is common knowledge. Tracing back to China’s communist history will reveal within the events and ideals the root for what paved the way to today’s censorship. The manipulation of the media requires an understanding of the risks and stakes that the political world took. We will focus specifically on the time period around Mao Zedong’s rule. Mao’s paranoia during his rule impacted the media’s output as well as the social behavior of China.

Mao Zedong, or Chairman Mao, leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) used slogans and general propaganda to use people at will. The Great Leap Forward was introduced by Mao. It was a plan set to transform China economically over the

Figure 1: “Destroy the old world; build a new world” government poster of a Red Guard destroying a crucifix, a Buddha statuette and traditional books with his hammer, 1966.

course of five years, in an attempt to match Western countries. This is one of the most well known set out by Mao Zedong, this being the second one. The first one lasted from 1953 to 1957. The second plan started in 1958 but only lasted two years. It’s understandable how after seeing the United States’s evolution into a powerhouse after the second World War as an example, Mao would look at this and believe that China would be capable of doing the same. “Dare to think, dare to act” was the slogan Mao used to influence peasants. [3] However, the strain to gather populations and farmers into communes in an attempt to utilize manpower for an agricultural revolution failed drastically.

Mao’s paranoia during his rule impacted the media as well as the social behavior of China. The failure of the Great Leap Forward set the stage for the Cultural Revolution. During the later years from 1966 to 1976, Mao came back into the spotlight. He acted against his power struggle by persuading civilians that China must go under a radical reform. [4] He used the slogan “Smash the four olds” to sum up the ridding of anything considered bourgeois or intellectual. This included old customs, ideas, culture, and habits. [5] This created serious unrest and greatly impacted the society, reversing roles and putting China in chaos. The Red Guards were the ones who radically enforced their own ideals while following Mao thought and praising Mao

Figure 2: Poster titled “Chairman Mao is the reddest, reddest sun in our heart” showing Mao in center with civilians cheering and holding his “little red book”, 1967.

to be some enlightened, perfect being. The revolution targeted anyone thought to be “counterrevolutionaries” and caused an unknown number of casualties. [6]

Words spoken out to the public could be traps for eliminating enemies. In 1957, Mao Zedong gives his famous speech, On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People at the eleventh session of the Supreme State Conference. [7] Mao used the

Figure 3: Mao Zedong during his “On the Correct Handling of Contradictions among the People” speech, 1957.

phrase “Let a hundred flowers bloom; let a hundred schools of thought contend”. [8] This speech encouraged the criticisms of the party, and it successfully received many opinions. However, this speech has been suspected to be a well planned trap to directly find those that spoke out and oust them. [9]

Over time, media platforms became easier and faster in spreading news. This became more dangerous for those in power, but could also harm those that learned from these news. We can recount the tragedy of the Tiananmen Square Massacre. In the year 1989, students and civilians gathered and held democratic protests in Beijing from the months April to June. In an attempt to quiet the protests, the government issued troops and tanks. The forces were completely unnecessary and overpowered, suppressing the protesters on June 4th. The number of deaths is estimated to be around 10,000 people. China today tries to sweep its shameful past under the rug, this event being one of them. [10]

It was assumed that with the coming of the internet, China would eventually become more democratic. Yet because of the continual presence of the government, any sort of media is strained and lacking in truth. [11] Censorship is not the only act. China’s government has been known to use tactics of purposeful deception on social media with fake people giving their opinions and praising the government. [12] Media slowly becomes more progressive and free, but it still hits some points that show the underlying obsession of the government. [13]

Yes, comparing the communist time to today’s China after reform, there is a significant difference in what is allowed to be put forth. Still, China has not achieved total transparency like many, and continues to have trouble in shaking off corruption. [14] And, as innocent as the government would like to seem with its reform, it’s still up to no good. Last year, many journalists and news outlets covered the recent China case about the “50-cent party”, a group of promoters working for the government posting fake comments on social media, posing as real people and earning fifty cents per post, hence the name. The Chinese government responded to the crackdown and confirmed that they were enacting “public opinion guidance”. In other words, the government had been secretly conducting “information control” as explained by Gary King, a Weatherhead University Professor and the director of Harvard’s Institute for Quantitative Social Science. [15] Overall, reform has led to the possibility for China to change politically and as a society. The media is no longer so strict that the news outlets would be censored because there are just so many the government would have to look after. However, that does not mean that there are not regulations that would censor most subjects that the Western world would deem appropriate. We can say that China’s on the right track to complete reform. It just needs a little help.


Citation:

[1] Oliveira, Alex. 2017. “CUP and the Censorship of Historical Truth.” University Wire, Sep 12.
[2] Steven, Lee Myers and Amy Cheng. 2017. “China Expands its Internal Web of Online Censors and Forbidden Topics.” New York Times, Sep 25.

[3] Wright, David. 2018. “Party Slogans.” Chinese Political Slogans. Society for Anglo-Chinese Understanding. Accessed March 30. http://www.sacu.org/slogans.html.

[4] Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, Joyce Chow, Lenore Hietkamp, Kevin Jensen, Robin Lin, Helen Schneider, Cyndie-Lee Wang, Kim Wishart, Cong Zhang, and Lan Zhang. 2018. “Cultural Revolution.” A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization. Accessed March 30. https://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/graph/9wenge.htm.

[5] Wright, David. 2018. “Party Slogans.” Chinese Political Slogans. Society for Anglo-Chinese Understanding. Accessed March 30. http://www.sacu.org/slogans.html.

[6] Xiangzhen, Yu. 2016. “China: Confessions of a Red Guard.” CNN. Cable News Network. May 15. https://www.cnn.com/2016/05/15/asia/china-cultural-revolution-red-guard-confession/index.html.

[7] Mao, Zedong. On the Correct Handling of Contradictions among the People. 6th Ed.]. ed. Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1964.

[8] Wright, David. 2018. “Party Slogans.” Chinese Political Slogans. Society for Anglo-Chinese Understanding. Accessed March 30. http://www.sacu.org/slogans.html.

[9] Mao, Zedong, MacFarquhar, Roderick, Cheek, Timothy, Wu, Eugene, Goldman, Merle, and Schwartz, Benjamin I. The Secret Speeches of Chairman Mao : From the Hundred Flowers to the Great Leap Forward. Harvard Contemporary China Series ; 6. Cambridge, Mass.: Council on East Asian Studies/Harvard University : Distributed by Harvard University Press, 1989.

[10] Schell, O. (2018). China’s Cover-Up: When Communists Rewrite History. Foreign Affairs, 97(1), 22-27.

[11] Tang, W., & Iyengar, Shanto. (2012). Political communication in China : Convergence or divergence between the media and political system?London ; New York: Routledge.

[12] King, G., Pan, J., & Roberts, M. (2017). How the Chinese Government Fabricates Social Media Posts for Strategic Distraction, Not Engaged Argument. 111(3), 484-501.

[13] Kuhn, R. (2010). How China’s leaders think : The inside story of China’s reform and what this means for the future. Singapore ; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

[14] Kuhn, R. (2010). How China’s leaders think : The inside story of China’s reform and what this means for the future. Singapore ; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

[15] Gibson, Lydialyle. “China’s Social-Media Smoke Screen.” Harvard Magazine, April 14, 2017. https://harvardmagazine.com/2017/05/chinas-social-media-smoke-screen.


Illustrations

Figure 1. “Destroy the old world; build a new world” government poster of a Red Guard destroying a crucifix, a Buddha statuette and traditional books with his hammer, 1966, http://www.johndclare.net/China9.htm

Figure 2. Poster titled “Chairman Mao is the reddest, reddest sun in our heart” showing Mao in center with civilians cheering and holding his “little red book”, 1967, https://www.loc.gov/item/95501883/.

Figure 3. Mao Zedong during his “On the Correct Handling of Contradictions among the People” speech, 1957, https://www.gettyimages.ca/detail/news-photo/chinese-leader-mao-zedong-during-speach-on-the-correct-news-photo/163399705#/chinese-leader-mao-zedong-during-speach-on-the-correct-handling-of-picture-id163399705

China’s Opium Wars

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The Opium Wars were a direct result of the clash amongst the Qing Dynasty and the British. The first Opium War, also known as the Anglo-Chinese War, began in 1839 and ended in 1842. This war was between the strong forces of Europe and the Qing Dynasty. The second war, also known as the Arrow War, occurred about twenty years after the first war and lasted from 1856-1860. The second Opium War involved not only Britain, but included an allie, France, who helped fight against China. Britain’s main desire was to trade in a high profitable deal that distributed opium to the Chinese people. This would allow the British to gain additional territorial powers, but the Chinese government refused to let this happen. Opium was the most essential matter for Chinese officials during the 19th century; however, they were not convinced by the British to accomplish what they had in mind. It was believed by most that the British would lose the war against China. Instead, the British warships ended up dominating China making them deprived of tens of millions of dollars, including the country’s financial and governmental independence. Ironically, the Chinese purchased, sold, and utilized opium long before the British even arrived. Opium trafficking created a high profit for China in the 1940s. How do the Opium Wars from the past still have an effect on China? As a result of the wars, is there still opium dependency in China today? If so, how? [1]

There is no question that the Opium Wars between China and Britain had a forever lasting effect on the country. These wars damaged the country in a multitude of ways. These wars harshly affected the people of China and caused the economy to struggle tremendously with inflation as one example. Although there were Chinese people who used opium before the wars, Britain and China could have easily avoided the conflict and each country would not have hurt their countries in any way more than before. Ever since the Opium Wars, the Chinese have still battled with addiction and the use of drugs, including the use of opium to this day.

Figure 1: Photo of Chinese opium smokers.

According to China ‘s War On Opium, published by the New York Times on August 31, 1913, opium sent General Chang of the National Opium Association of China to London to stop the British government from opium trafficking. This situation led General Chang to state, “as long as Shanghai stocks of opium continue to come into China this strained relation between the two countries and people will continue to exist [14]. The original net opium price in 1892-1893 had almost tripled in cost twenty years later in 1910-1911 [13]. While Americans should take notice, the author was trying to create an image of the context of details, and also the result from General Chang’s goal of preventing the British opium trade. Personally, I do not believe this helped China in any specific way, even though they attempted to stop the British pursuit of opium trade. Clearly, it did not work nor avert the continuous war from going on. [6]

Figure 2: Photo of General Li Hung Chang Sitting in his own house in 1872.

Jacques M. Downs, a Professor of History at Saint Francis College, explained the book he used contained credible information gathered from four witnesses that were all a different race [15]. Opium played a major role in the war, but it was the British east company that started the conflict which resulted in the wars. The Opium Wars can be looked at and criticized from both sides. The Chinese who did not want to be involved in a trade with Britain knowing it would ruin the lives of Chinese people and the economy. But also, Britain’s greed of money and power. As a result, both countries were naive at the time and caused problems that were avoidable. In conclusion, Britain was far more advanced than China in regards to industrialism and their military. [7]

John K. Fairbank, a professor of history at Harvard University, explained in the newspaper published by the New York Times in 1976 the beginning causes of the Opium Wars and also what the wars generated. Opium reshaped the lives of countless people in China and Europe. A man named Peter Ward Fay conducted a study on the first Opium War. The study was based on first hand western records of the time period between 1839-1842 and he gathered information in western languages from the Chinese. He found that money described their main motive, he identified strategic plans of the British including how the Opium War was overlooked by the British media due to the Indian Empire and Afghan War, and confirmed that opium was an issue in Europe as well [12]. The insight provided painted a very clear picture of the Opium Wars and the devastation they caused. It appears that the leading cause of the war was caused by Britain’s avarice. The war could have been avoidable; however, it triggered opium addiction and a broken Chinese economy. This briefly addresses the idea of imperialism. [5]

Harry Gelber wrote a book, published by Palgrave Macmillan in 2004, about the first Opium War and what happened after the war. The British’ political view did not think the cause of the war was because of opium, but rather a problem stemming from their community. Britain went to war against China, a much less powerful and unprincipled country. However, they fought the war in order for Britain to maintain their superiority and help keep the people of Europe protected [8]. There are claims that not a soul in Britain believed opium was the problem, instead it was the Chinese that felt the need to restrain their country from it. Overall, this information appears to represent a Europeans point of view; however, it does explain more in depth the British’s’ side of what they might feel happened during the war and their reasoning for why the wars occurred. [2]

The clash between China and Britain in both of the Opium Wars was a result of conflicting beliefs between both countries. In 1964 Edgar Holt wrote a review in a book titled the Pacific Affairs, which explained the use of opium in China during the mid 1800s, the outbreak of Anglo-Chinese warfare and the key events that happened between the two wars resulting from people who use opium. Many civilians did not want to fight for what China’s government required so some people actually attempted to flee the country [9]. There is no clear explanation for Britain’s importation of opium and there was nothing said about the drug’s significance. This information is for people, like myself, who are learning about the opium wars and for people who want to understand the reasons behind Britain and China’s conflicts from a different perspective. The context provided about the opium wars was to give an idea of Britain’s superiority in the 1830s because of their enhanced technology and nationalism. [3]

Figure 3: British infantry attacking Chinese troops during the first Opium War.

John King Fairbank, who studies modern Chinese at Harvard, explained China’s opium trade as “the most long-continued and systematic international crime of modern times” [11]. At first, Britain purchased tea from China and in return they brought opium from India to China resulting in drug addiction for the Chinese people. This led to a battle between the two countries; however, China was not prepared for Britain’s military. China’s army was simply overpowered. For example, the soldiers were being poorly fed and not treated well, so that resulted in soldiers leaving the country instead of strengthening their defense to fight the battle [10]. China’s biggest mistake during the wars was their inability to communicate. This led to a worse affiliation with Britain later exposing all of China’s weaknesses. The Opium Wars sparked humiliation of China because they let Britain ruin their country and made them struggle due to a simple drug addiction. [4]

The Opium Wars have and will seem to continue to have an impact on China in the future. Even though opium use was an issue before the wars, there is no taking away that these wars made opium addiction worse amongst Chinese people. It also assisted in ruining China’s economy. Both Opium Wars could have been prevented and saved thousands of lives from both sides. But there is no doubt that opium addiction and the wars between Britain and China resulted more so negatively than beneficial.

[1] William, O’Connor. “We’Re Still Fighting the Opium Wars.” The Daily Beast, Aug 28 2014. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1649023380?accountid=14902.

[2] Harry Gregor, Gelber. “Opium, Soldiers and Evangelicals : Britain’s 1840-42 War with China, and Its Aftermath.” New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

[3] James Parsons, “THE OPIUM WARS IN CHINA, by Edgar Holt (Book Review).” Pacific Affairs 39, no. 3 (1966): 393.

[4] Frank Dikotter, “Clash of the Empires; Britain’s Vicious Opium Trade War with China Still Casts a Long Shadow.(Features).” Sunday Times (London, England), September 04, 2011.

[5] John K. Fairbank, “Imperialism Began in a Pipe Dream,” New York Times (1923-Current File), Jan. 11, 1976: pg. BR2

[6] “CHINA’S WAR ON OPIUM,” New York Times (1857-1922), Aug. 31, 1913

[7] Downs, Jacques M. “The Business History Review 51, no. 3 (1977): 385-87.” http://www.jstor.org/stable/3113644.

[8] Harry Gregor, Gelber. “Opium, Soldiers and Evangelicals : Britain’s 1840-42 War with China, and Its Aftermath.” New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

[9] James Parsons, “THE OPIUM WARS IN CHINA, by Edgar Holt (Book Review).” Pacific Affairs 39, no. 3 (1966): 393.

[10] Frank Dikotter, “Clash of the Empires; Britain’s Vicious Opium Trade War with China Still Casts a Long Shadow.(Features).” Sunday Times (London, England), September 04, 2011.

[11] Frank Dikotter, “Clash of the Empires; Britain’s Vicious Opium Trade War with China Still Casts a Long Shadow.(Features).” Sunday Times (London, England), September 04, 2011.

[12] John K. Fairbank, “Imperialism Began in a Pipe Dream,” New York Times (1923-Current File), Jan. 11, 1976: pg. BR2

[13] “CHINA’S WAR ON OPIUM,” New York Times (1857-1922), Aug. 31, 1913

[14] “CHINA’S WAR ON OPIUM,” New York Times (1857-1922), Aug. 31, 1913

[15] Downs, Jacques M. “The Business History Review 51, no. 3 (1977): 385-87.” http://www.jstor.org/stable/3113644.

Geographic Focus: China, Europe

Search Terms: opium, wars, China, Britain, conflict, drug trafficking, international trade, imperialism

Illustrations

Figure 1: History of opium in China. (2018, May 01). Retrieved from https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_opium_in_China

Figure 2: Vulich, N. (1970, January 01). Li Hung Chang Chinese Statesman. Retrieved from http://www.digitalhistoryproject.com/2011/09/li-hung-chang-chinese-statesman.html

Figure 3: Whitworth, M. (2015, September 02). Military Art. Retrieved from https://www.pinterest.com/pin/497929302529995810/