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HISTORY 105, SECTION 21 – Clif Stratton – Spring 2018 History 105

RA #3

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Rapid Depletion in the Amazon Rainforest

It is nothing new to hear that the Amazon is decreasing at a rate unimaginable to most, but between the years of 2005-2012, the Amazon saw its’ most devastating depletion to its biodiverse rainforest. It has been traditionally regarded as the largest rainforest with the most extreme variety of its kind in the natural world, yet illegal logging and lack of protection from the Brazilian government has kept the quite real possibility of its extinction in place of the indigenous people residing there and to all who observe its’ complex biology [1]. Small populations on the reserve are left by themselves to defend the only land they know, the men making up the small number on average of 48, only barely armed with pistols and bows and arrows, facing many large trucks equipped with tree cutting weapons. Their forces have cause quite the commotion, however, driving off loggers and their equipment with them. Yet Brazil’s government has yet to punish any loggers for their illegal activities, only a promise to end the illegal activity by 2030. One native to the reserve states even goes to state that “in terms of the environmental crime in Brazil, the state is not fulfilling its role [2]. With the government’s clear lack of initiative to help save the beautiful land these communities call home, it raises the question of what economic decisions were made through the country or what mutual benefits were identified between multiple countries, if at all. It also raises the question of the importance of the indigenous people to Brazil’s state of affairs, as well as exactly how long this has been in occurrence. How did early policies and/or lack of government enforcement in Brazil lead to the continuation of depletion in materials from the Amazon rainforest? How has the view of indigenous people (relative to Brazil) politically and socially, shaped this aspect further? What repercussions has this allotted in our natural world today?


Possible thesis: Since the role of early Europeans and their predisposed pigmentation of importance, illegalities have continued to occur in instances such as these. The lack of enforcement in governmental positions in this developing country has also impacted the Amazon for the worse due to the patterns of this abuse in naturally occurring instances, giving a sense of entitlement amongst upper class individuals.


Paragraph #2: Economic and political decisions made from the 1950’s all through the 2000’s that exemplify economic gains Brazil has engaged in. Shows the acceptance of depletion. [3] This primary source is addressing the agreements made and lengths gone to to begin the using of resources from the Amazon. This shows the permission to begin using the Amazon’s river water from Venezuela. The article describes the importance of this ‘virgin forest’, with 18 major rivers and 200 important tributaries. It invokes the emotional appeal to the audience, leading to an almost inner protest as to how a natural environment as such could be utilized in such a destructive way [8].

Paragraph #3: Examples of early Europeans taking over developing countries, colonialism. [4]

Paragraph #4: Political, social, and economic differences and similarities in Brazil and countries related to the depleting rainforest contribution. [5]

Paragraph #5: Companies and roles who are utilizing the rainforest illegally. (list of people using them, the large chart and graph) Walt Disney, Hewlitt-Packard, Best Buy, Coach to name a few

Paragraph #6: Global effects this has had on countries more than just Brazil. [6]

Paragraph #7: Acts the people of Brazil and the Amazon rainforest are acting upon to create change for the country and in a hope to preserve their natural wonder. [7] [3] This primary source is a newspaper article published halfway through the year of 1974, encasing the importance to the audience of the already growing problem it was to be ripping resources from such natural setting. The source explains a man who resigned as a director of a nature foundation describing the terror and degree of disruption people have caused on the advanced, biodiverse ecosystem. He stated he was not against the progress of society, but was against the progress of nature and utilizing it to benefit humans. The intended audience are for those from America; the writer instills this gripping emotional turmoil because of how significantly it relates us into the equation [9]. The people being written about are regarded to as very politely, yet the American audience may automatically assume they are better due to the automatic association of a third world country.

Paragraph #8: Conclusion, wrap up and reinstatement of the overall topics, condensed.



[1] Dom Phillips, Bonnie Jo Mount, “Defending the Amazon”, The Washington Post, October 7, 2015, (accessed March 2, 2018)

[2] The Washington Post, October 7, 2015.

[3] Ana Villarroya, “Policy Development for Environmental Licensing and Biodiversity Offsets Latin America”, PLOS ONE Volume 9, Issue 9, (February, 2014): pages [1]-[67]

[4] Tomáš Evan, “Chapters of European Economic History”, (Prague: Charles University, Karolinum Press, 2014) pages 1-181

[5] Gustavo Andrey de Almeida Lopes Fernandes, “Is the Brazilian Tale of Peaceful Racial Coexistence True? Some Evidence from School Segregation and the Huge Racial Gap in the Largest Brazilian City” Science Direct, Volume 98, (October 2017) : pages 179-194

[6] American Geophysical Union, “Amazonia and Global Change”, (AGU Publications, 2013) pages 1-563

[7] Susanna B. Hecht, “From eco-catastrophe to zero deforestation? Interdisciplinaries, policies, environmentalisms, and reduced clearing in Amazonia”, Cambridge University Press, Volume 39 Issue 1, (March 2012) pp. 4-19

[8] The New York Times, “Joint Development of the Region is Aim of Talks in Brazil” November 28, 1977

[9] The New York Times, “Conservationist Stirs Furor in Brazil” May 30, 1974


Search terms: logging, brazil, illegal, histor*, environment, globalization, depletion, reforms, biodiverse, Amazon, rainforest, impacts

Geographic Focus: Brazil, America

RA #2: How does modern racism look like compared to old school racism in Britain?

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TITLE: Brexit Wasn’t About Economics. It Was About Racial Hatred

Paragraph #1:  In 2016 the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union, this came as a total surprise to everyone. There were many speculations as to why that idea came about. Part of it may have been because of racism. When we think about the Brexit, one would assume I would be because of their economy but in reality, it all comes down to racism after [1]. After all the United Kingdom has a great history with racism. Unfortunately, it is still a big issue around the world. It is said to be driven by xenophobia, a fear of foreigners because the UN has specific rules about [1].  The only difference now is that it is easier to hide racism, as stated in the article, “This sort of racism, buried between the lines and hidden from view, is far more insidious than the racism of old because it is much harder to spot and much easier to defend or ignore [1].” How does modern racism look like compared to old school racism in Britain?


Paragraph #2:  Racism in Britain between 1815 and 1945 [2]


Paragraph #3: Modern racism in Britain [4] [5]


Paragraph #4: analyze difference and similarities between modern and old racism  


Paragraph #5: What has been done since to combat racism in Britain [3] [4]


Paragraph #6: recap on everything and answer the question: How does modern racism look like compared to old school racism in britain? Using all the evidence provided



[1] Omer Aziz, “Brexit Wasn’t About Economics. It Was About Racial Hatred,” Huffington Post, June 29,2016, (Jan 17 2018)

[2] Panikos Panayi, Immigration, ethnicity and racism in Britain (Manchester Univ. Press, 1994) pgs.105-127


[3]  Carl Haacke & Holly Cartner, Racist violence in the United Kingdom  ( Human Rights Watch New York, NY 1997) pgs.35-88


[4] Kurt Barling, The ‘R’ Word (Biteback Publishing London,2015) pgs.61-127


[5] Kapoor, K. “Racists attacked me in london.” Sunday Gazette, July 03 2016 ( Feb 8 2018)


Geographic Focus: United Kingdom

The Morality of Eugenics Throughout History

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Eugenics, the science of controlling a human population with the intention of increasing desirable genes in future generations, was once widely practiced internationally. Although much research has been done on the United States’ laws surrounding eugenics, its origins are found in Europe as it was a British scientist named Francis Galton who coined the term in 1883 and pioneered the movement. [1] Galton emphasized evolution as the science behind his claims that gifted people (men especially) were superior to people of lesser intelligence. The publication of Charles Darwin’s book The Origin of Species in 1859 was truly the milestone that got the ball rolling on Galton’s belief in improving the human genome. In 1907 Galton founded the Eugenics Education Society of Great Britain, an organization for British scholars to meet and collaborate on their findings of the up and coming genetic movement. [2] Mark H. Haller also addresses Galton’s beliefs when it comes to race and genetics; “He believed that in his own day the Anglo-Saxons far outranked the Negroes of Africa, who in turn outranked the Australian aborigines, who outranked nobody.” [3]

{insert 1910s primary source paragraph here} Paragraph #3 – analysis of key contributors to eugenics societies including Josef Mengele, Francis Galton, and others


This attitude was famously adopted by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party a decade after Galton’s death, this racism was also the key factor in raising public awareness for early eugenic scientific study. Before the 1920s America was the only country that had background in eugenic legislature so Germany looked to them as an example. However, during the 1920s, German “raceologists” began publishing materials available to American genetic scholars so there was more of an equal partnership between the nations when it came to learning and sharing information. [4] While the holocaust is a great place to look at the immorality of eugenics, it didn’t stop there by any means. In 1950 there were a total of 84 sterilizations performed on inmates at the Fort Wayne State School in Indiana (under Indiana state law it was legal to sterilize a person who resided in an institution should he or she be deemed mentally unfit.) [5]

Paragraph #4 – comparison of legislature surrounding eugenics in Germany vs. US including US’s attitudes during wartime

{primary source #2 here} Paragraph #5 – public/popular reaction to legislature and practice of eugenic movement (Europe vs. US?)

Paragraph #6 – analyze the wrap up of the eugenics movement and how its effects is observed today (focusing on history shaping aspects outside the US!!!!)

[1] Chloe S. Burke and Christopher J. Castaneda, “The Public and Private History of Eugenics: An Introduction,” The Public Historian, vol. 29, no. 3, (Summer 2007): pp.

[2] Deborah Barrett and Charles Kurzman, “Globalizing Social Movement Theory: The Case of Eugenics,” Theory and Society, Vol. 33, No. 5 (October, 2004), pp.

[3] Mark H. Haller, Eugenics: Hereditarian Attitudes in American Thought, (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1984), pp.

[4] Edwin Black, War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race, (New York/London: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2003), pp.

[5] Ed. Paul A. Lombardo, A Century of Eugenics in America: From the Indiana Experiment to the Human Genome Era, (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2011), pp.



RA #2

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The ongoing history of tension between the United Kingdom and Russia has hit a new high in the last few months. Boris Johnson, The Foreign Secretary for the UK, has accused Russia of attempting to destabilize the West. Johnson believes that Russia has fingerprints on an assassination attempt in Montego, committed cyber-warfare in attempts to disrupt the democratic process in the UK, and that their occupation in Crimea and the Balkans all play a part in the increased hostility between the two nations. [1] In December, the UK was forced to mobilize its navy in order to escort a Russian vessel near UK waters. The British defense minister Gavin Williamson reported that Moscow has stepped up its naval activity in the area and that the UK will “not hesitate in defending our waters or tolerate any form of aggression.” [2] Although the tension between these two nations have heightened in the past few months, the issues are deep rooted, and began in the early 1900’s. Although America and the United Kingdom stepped up efforts in Eastern European towards the end of World War II, they largely ignored Nazi war crimes in the Soviet Union throughout the first part of the 1900’s. Many in the Soviet Union believed that the complicity of the capitalist Western Allies was stemmed from a desire to see Soviet communism fall. [3] This tension bled over in the Cold War. Although the end of the Cold War should’ve marked a time for healing, it’s clear that these issues have only increased over the last few decades. In regards to this longtime feud, it can be wondered: How did the relationship between the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union change in the time between WW2 and the collapse of the Soviet Union, how does it impact current relationships?

Paragraph 1: Analyze of how the Second WW2 created tension between the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom [6]

Great Britain, Parliamentary Papers, London, 1908, Vol CXXV, Cmd. 3750.

The Anglo-Russian Entente was an uneasy peace agreement between the Empire of Russia and Great Britain. The treaty was used to settle colonial and imperial disagreements between the two nations over influence in Central Asia. The treaty was signed in 1907 as a way to avoid conflict between the Empire of Russia and Great Britain over the regions of Afghanistan, Tibet, and Persia (modern day Iran). Great Britain had dominated the South Asia region for decades and their colony of India was referred to as the jewel of their Empire. This region had produced a great amount of wealth for the British and they wanted to protect their economic interests within the region. Russia had been expanding its empire into Central Asia towards the British colonial holdings on the Indian sub-content. Afghanistan, Tibet, and Persia were seen as the buffer zone between the competing empires, and neither nation wanted the other to have full control of the region. The treaty stated that both Great Britain and the Empire of Russia would each have influence over particular parts of Persia. In addition, the Empire of Russia would recognize Great Britain’s influence over Afghanistan and would not involve themselves in Afghani affairs. Both nations also agreed to completely stay out of any affairs involving Tibet. The cause for the treaty was to avoid war with one another, and due to the fact, the countries of Germany and Austria-Hungry had made an alliance. If war broke out the Russian Empire and Great Britain would be war time allies.


Paragraph 2: Analyze of the tension started by Stalin [4]

Churchill, Sir Winston. “CHURCHILL’S IRON CURTAIN SPEECH.” Speech, The Sinews of Peace, Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri, U.S., March 5, 1946. Accessed February 26, 2018.

The Sinews of Peace speech, was delivered by Sir Winston Churchill the Prime Minster of Great Britain on March 5th, 1946 at Westminster College located in Fulton Missouri. The speech was centered around the Soviet Union’s expansion into Eastern and Central Europe in the aftermath of World War II. Churchill was explaining the danger posed to Europe and the World as the Soviet Union established communist puppet states in countries they liberated and invaded during World War II. After the fall of Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and the Allies of Great Britain and the United States disagreed on how to restructure post-war Europe. The Soviet Union saw the end of World War II as a way to expand their communist ideology and influence over many parts of Europe. Churchill warned the United States that Soviet Union would not stop unless challenged. He famously referred to the Soviet Union’s influence as the “Iron curtain” falling over Europe. This speech greatly worsened the relationship between the Soviet Union and Great Britain. This speech is seen by historians as one of the beginning events of the Cold War, which would last for decades to come.

Paragraph 3: Analyze of the cold war’s effect on the relationship between the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union [5]

Paragraph 4: The impact of WWII and it’s relationship on current countries relationships [7]

[1] Lawrence, Hannah. “Boris Johnson claims Russia’s hostility to UK and West is as bad as Cold War.” The Independent. December 17, 2017. Accessed January 22, 2018.

[2] Moore, Jack. “Russian spy ship and warship escorted away from British waters.” Newsweek. December 26, 2017. Accessed January 22, 2018.

[3] Cunningham, Finian. “The Deep History of US, Britain’s Never-Ending Cold War On Russia.” Strategic Culture Foundation. March 5, 2017. Accessed January 22, 2018.

[4] Harris, James R. The Great Fear : Stalin’s Terror of the 1930s. First ed. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2016.

[5] Haslam, Jonathan. Russia’s Cold War : From the October Revolution to the Fall of the Wall. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011.

[6] Eller, Cynthia. “Oral History as Moral Discourse: Conscientious Objectors and the Second World War.” The Oral History Review18, no. 1 (1990): 45-75.

[7] Melin, Molly M. “The Impact of State Relationships on If, When, and How Conflict Management Occurs.” International Studies Quarterly 55, no. 3 (2011): 691-715.

Geographic focus: United Kingdom, Russia

Search terms: UK, Russia, Cold War, Tension, Histor*, Soviet Union, WW2

The Effects of U.S. Policy in the Middle East on the Gaza Strip

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Arie van Veen


History 105

Dr. Stratton

The Gaza Strip is a small area located on the west coast of Israel right above Egypt, and is considered [1] “the worlds largest ghetto”. Gaza has been in an on again off again war with Israel who is backed the U.S. financially, most of the attacks that have been launched by both sides were missiles being fired into the other country. These attacks wrecked the Gaza leaving it mostly in ruins. The Gaza strip is largely controlled by a radical group called Hamas. Hamas is a radical group that has played a large part in the struggles between Palestine and Israel, but they aren’t completely to blame for the struggles that the people who inhabit the Gaza Strip face. The Israeli and Egyptian governments have placed blockades on all of the countries boarders that have cut off the flow of supplies to the citizens. These blockades were placed in 2007 but still stand today and have had a large effect on the conditions inside of Gaza. These blockades have caused many issues within Gaza like the fact that they can’t bring the necessary supplies to rebuild, or get in food and water that people need to survive. Most of the support that Gaza Strip gets is from humanitarian groups who provide the main means of survival to the people of the Gaza Strip. My question is how have the United States policies toward the middle east during the cold war era effected the Gaza Strip?

Early Hypothesis: The United States took political actions during the cold war era that prolonged and worsened the conditions in the Gaza Strip.

Paragraph #2: [5] The issues that have taken place in Gaza and how and why they occurred.  Gaza is considered the holiest places in the world by the people who follow the Christian faith. There are about 30,000 people who live in the Gaza strip and most of them are living in poverty. Not to mention that Gaza is war zone due to the tension between the radical groups who inhabit Gaza, the Israeli government, and the Egyptian government. Even when there were so-called truths or cease-fires in place the violence would never stop for long. [7] “Tension between Israel and Egypt had been rising on the Gaza frontier, truce violations ranged from theft of livestock to murder of men” reported the New York Times in March of 1955. After these acts of defiance from both sides came another small battle in the middle Gaza. Since 1948 small Firefights like this one have been a regular occurrence inside of the Gaza Strip

Paragraph #3: [6]  Show the U.S. policy towards Gaza and Israel

Paragraph #4: [4] How Actions Taken by the United States affected the Gaza Strip:  On March 15, 1957, news that an Egyptian Governor had made her way into Gaza reached the Israeli Government. The Israelis were not pleased by this news and they responded to the situation by saying [8] “This latest development strikes a grave blow at international integrity and confidence” in an official address. Later on that day the United Staes flew home Golda Meir the Israeli Foreign Minister for an emergency discussion about new developments in Gaza. They decided to send her home after an [8] “hurried conferences with Premier David Ben-Gurion” where he told her “He holds the United States primarily responsible for persuading Israel to withdraw her troops from the Gaza Strip”. Not being able to convince Israel to withdraw their troops from Gaza was not a position that the united states wanted to end up in. With the new plans for Gaza pending the exit of the Israeli troops, the United States had made a serious mistake allowing the Egyptian Governor into Gaza.

Paragraph #5: [3]Explain how U.S. policy in the middle east caused problems in the middle east

[1] Netanyahu Benjamin, “ Let Israel Manage the Palestinian Homeland”, Feb 19 2015, Garrnet Co., inc,

[2] Khamis Elessi Dr., Yousuf Elmokhallalati M.D., Ramy Abdo PhD, Osaid Asler M.D., “The Effect of a 50 day Conflict in Gaza on Children: a descriptive study” 2017,!/content/playContent/1-s2.0-S0140673617320627?returnurl=null&referrer=null (2-9-18)

[3]Naseer Hasan Aruri,“The Obstruction of Peace: United States, Israel, and the Palestinians”,1995, Common Courage Press (2-9-18)

[4]Bruce Robellet Kuniholm, Michael Rubner, “The Palestinian Problem and the united states”, 1986, Regina Books (2-9-18)

[5] John King, “Gaza: a History”, 2014, Oxford University Press (2-9-18)

[6]Gabriel Sheffer, “Dynamics of dependence: U.S.- Israel relations”, 1987, Westview Press (2-9-18)

[7] Seth S. King, “ Israel is tense” 1957, The New York Times

[8] “The world” New York Time, 1955


RA #3: Battle of Midway – World War II

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May 1942 is the preface to the war, during the battle, U.S. Navy carrier strike forces defeated an Imperial Japanese strike force that prevented them from capturing Midway Island. The Battle of Midway is an important marker in naval heritage because it is considered to have changed the course of the war in the Pacific within just a few days. The reason for the fighting was that after Pearl Harbor, Japan wanted to defeat the U.S. naval forces, but all the U.S. aircraft carriers had gone to sea. As a result, the Japanese ambitions failed and were disappointed. Therefore, the Japanese army has formulated a new plan to prepare for the U.S. military in midway and to eliminate all U.S. naval forces. Midway is a US gas station and an important supply station. It’s actually two islands in an atoll six miles in diameter. Midway has an area of two square miles, and it was discovered in 1859 by an American captain, N. C. Brooks. The United States annexed Midway in 1867. The Japanese attack was severely disrupted, so the Japanese decided to crush the U.S. troops here. Here is a very famous general, Frank Jack Fletcher. There is a big difference between the Japanese and U.S. fighting. The Japanese will not consider themselves attacked. They just think of how to fight back. However, the U.S. military will give top priority to how to remedy the attack or how to avoid being attacked. The U.S. reconnaissance plane spotted the Japanese aircraft carrier. Most U.S. pilots did not have a single fish Lightning hit the Japanese aircraft carrier, although the Japanese side sent a large number of bombers bombing Midway Island, but the United States defensive fortifications Midway done quite perfect, resulting in heavy losses of Japanese aircraft. U.S. aircraft use the safety advantage of their aircraft and use the “sachs cross” curve to fly Japanese zero Fighter fueled desperation. Immediately after the U.S. bombers approached the first bombing aircraft carrier “Kaga” of the Japanese army, the U.S. aircraft bombed the second carrier of the Japanese army, “Crane Dragon”, and instantly sank the Crane Dragon. The remaining Japanese aircraft carriers quickly evacuated. Q: What is the impact on the world after the victory of the Battle of Midway?


Paragraph #3: The history and cause of Battle of Midway.

Paragraph #4: Japanese lost the war. This primary source is an article from the New York Times newspaper that official records from Pearl Harbor make it clear that the Battle for Midway is not just a blow to the enemy’s fortunes. This is a major disaster in Japan. This heavy blow does not seem to have far-reaching consequences for the Pacific naval strategy alone, but it can also have a profound impact on the morale of a maritime country that has never lost its naval battle before this war. The audience for this article is someone who closely follows the war and even the people involved in the war. It focuses on the military aspects of Japan and the tragedies of Japan’s defeat. four Japanese plane carriers were sunk-the entire carrier complement of the greatest fleet japan ever sent out of home waters. Two of them were the largest and finest in the Japanese navy.” [7]

Paragraph #5: Analyze the differences between the United States and Japan in the strategy and the arms assembly in the Battle of Midway. This article is from The New York Times, whose main audience is aimed at naval transportation and by those who are concerned about the military strength of this war. The article is focus on how United States Navy air power, in conjunction with Army and Marine bombers, met a big Japanese fleet off Midway and gave the enemy invasion forces a surprise from which they never recovered, was related today by the commanding officer of an American carrier air group. [8] It also explains how the two sides’ maritime movements are conducted and analyzes maritime transport facilities on both sides.

Paragraph #6: Impact of the Battle of Midway on the Whole World.


[1] Targeted News Service, “70th Anniversary of The Battle of Midway Commemoration held aboard USS Midway Museum.” Targeted News Service; Washington, D.C, Jun 3, 2012.


[2] Meeks, Ann, “MIDWAY DRIVE NAMED FOR FAMED BATTLE IN WORLD WAR II.” The Commercial Appeal; Memphis, Tenn, Apr 27, 2000.


[3] Craig L. Symonds, The Battle of Midway (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), pages: 389-392.


[4] Dallas Woodbury Isom, Midway inquest : why the Japanese lost the Battle of Midway (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007), pages: 435-442.


[5] Logan, Charles J, Complexity at the Battle of Midway: Implications for Network-Centric Warfare (2001)


[6] Babbitt, Bruce E; Dalton, John, US FWS: Interior Secretary Babbitt designates Battle of Midway National Memorial (Normans Media Ltd: Coventry, 2000), page: 1.

[7] The New York Times, “Tally At Midway”, July 04, 1942, page 16.

[8] The New York Times, “Foe’s Midway Loss In Carriers Rises“,  June 13, 1942, page 3.

Polluted Areas & Diseases in New Delhi

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Polluted Areas & Diseases in India (New Delhi)

New Delhi faces an environmental pollution from indecent air to unsanitary water killing millions of people, more than war and violence combine in the world. Including several other causes that lead to deaths which are smoking, hunger, natural disasters as well as diseases that include AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined. Premature deaths have increased from the effects of unsanitary water. [1] “One out of every six premature deaths in the world in 2015 about 9 million could be attributed to disease from toxic exposure, according to a major study released Thursday in the Lancet medical journal”. The effects of this massive problem that New Delhi faces caused a vast amount of financial cost. [2] “The financial cost from pollution-related death, sickness and welfare is equally massive, the report says, costing some $4.6 trillion in annual losses or about 6.2 percent of the global economy”. Pollution has been a major obstruction in parts of the world but, has never been brought to a solution due to the fact of immeasurable resources. Other major factors have received the attention with resources given to them to be resolved, but water pollution has a different story in which they don’t get the require attention or are limited to resources. An estimate of nine million premature deaths are the effects of pollution and that is only partial, but undoubtedly it’s a higher quantified amount in which research is still in progress. New methods are being developed, but the poorest places tend to have a higher chance of getting contaminated since they have an insufficient amount of resources. Areas in Africa face indecent air but are still in monitoring systems. Since 1950, toxins have been dispersed throughout the environment with over 5,000 new chemicals that are still being ignored. Individual countries like India is at the top of the list, while Asia and Africa regions have the human population at risk. A fifth of premature deaths that are cause from the effects of pollution are effected in some parts of the countries which include Bangladesh, Pakistan, North Korea, South Sudan, and Haiti. While some parts in other countries are wealthier than others that have less extensive pollution, but are still expose in some communities. How did the initiation of pollution begin in India and what measurements were proceeded to diminish the problem affecting a quantified amount of the human population?  What effects does this factor have on climate change to the environment and the infant mortality in India?

Early Thesis: A major factor that New Delhi faces is indecent air and water quality generating diseases, to the extent that the population will not survive from limited resources residing in unsanitary areas in India.

Paragraph #3: a brief description of issues in the environmental history of South Asia as well as the environmental costs of irrigation in British India [3]

Paragraph #4: analysis of the cholera disease in India, spreading in British, Europe, and North America during the 1830s to 1860s [4]

Paragraph #5: a brief description of environmental concerns in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and India in regarding to national identity [5]

Paragraph #6: analysis of designing effective systems to improving local polluted areas to decrease the deaths and improving the well-being [6]

Paragraph #7: The Asiatic cholera is feasting causing a quantified amount of deaths in a populous country. This plague controls many parts of the country leading to the western borders of Russia, a general disease outbreak in India [7]

Paragraph #8: The wells of India are used for drinking purposes but are contaminated with kerosene oil or chemicals but are also found in tanks, canals, and other containers making the polluted water unsafe for the natives to use for drinking purposes in which they will acquire a disease [8]


[1] Katy Daigle, “Study: Pollution Kills 9 Million a Year, Costs $4.6 Trillion.” St. Louis Post – Dispatch October 21 2017, (accessed January 16, 2018).

[2] St. Louis Post, October 21, 2017.

[3] David Arnold and Ramachandra Guha. Nature, Culture, Imperialism: Essays on the Environmental History of South Asia [Oxford India Pbk. Ed.]. ed (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp.

[4] Sheldon Watts, “From Rapid Change to Stasis: Official Responses to Cholera in British-Ruled India and Egypt: 1860 to C. 1921,” Journal of World History Vol. 12, No. 2 (Fall, 2001): pp. 321-74.

[5] Gunnel Cederlof, and K. Sivaramakrishnan. Ecological Nationalisms: Nature, Livelihoods, and Identities in South Asia (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2006), pp.

[6] Michael Greenstone and Rema Hanna, “Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India,” The American Economic Review Vol. 104, No. 10 (October 2014): pp. 3038-072.

[7] The New York herald, Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress August 31, 1872, (accessed March 6, 2018).

[8] Wood County reporter, Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress November 11, 1904, (accessed March 6, 2018).

The Explosion of Atomic Bomb in Japan

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In the summer of 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs on Nagasaki, Japan. Japan surrendered completely in world war 2. The dropping of the atomic bomb caused the death of a large number of innocent Japanese civilians. But it saved the lives of thousands of American soldiers. Because they are likely to invade Japan. On the other hand, the use of nuclear weapons halted the Soviet union’s military incursion. A large number of Americans rejoiced over the victory of the war. But after a little while, there has been great condemnation of the consequences of the us nuclear weapons. Americans are no less guilty of the war than the Japanese. The use and invention of the atomic bomb made Americans feel guilty. “Truman, then US President, was a racist who hated the actions of the Japanese. The attacks were carried out for some wrong reasons. In physics, the beginning of nuclear war marks the progress of physics. This huge bomb prevented more small bombs from happening. It also reduced the casualties of war personnel. At the time of the United States is the only country with nuclear weapons in the world, and Truman made the right decision, and reduces the duration of the second world war, a large number of reducing the casualties of war country.”[1] But in this day and age, the use of nuclear weapons is an irrational decision. What effect did the advent of the nuclear weapon has on mankind?

Paragraph #2:The history of nuclear weapons’ emerging.[2]

Paragraph #3:The power of nuclear weapon in different countries. [3]

Paragraph #4:The positive and negative effects of using nuclear weapon in human’s life. [4]

Paragraph #5:The management policies and measures of nuclear weapons.[5]

Paragraph #6: In 1958, Some observers thought that those troops exposed to thermal radiation could take action to protect them from burns. A 1958 INFORMS editor wrote “A method for predicting the effectiveness of human attempting such evasion is presented.”[6] the author believes that the release of nuclear energy in three ways blast, thermal radiation and nuclear detonation. The author thinks that the operation of the entire chain analysis include these aspects. The effectiveness of exposed troops depends on the burning part of body and the degree of it. The extent of the burn depends on the speed and time of burn transfer to the skin. The site of the burn depends on the individual’s positioning of the ground zero and the effect of the avoidance action on the extent of the burn .

Paragraph #7:Some observers of China’s self-developed atomic bomb in 1964 analyzed the strategy of China’s nuclear weapons path in the future. They see China as one of the world’s leading nuclear weapons. Less than 20 years after the us dropped the bomb in Japan, China also succeeded in developing the atomic bomb and becoming a world nuclear power. Morton H. Halperin wrote: “Although the effect on Chinese economic development has probably been relatively limited thus far, the Chinese are devoting substantial resource to their nuclear programme and may be expected to have militarily effective system within this decade. The Chinese appear to be considerably further along in the development of nuclear weapon and delivery system than had been previously anticipated.”[7] The author lists the correctly after the research and development of the atomic bomb in China. in near future, the hydrogen bomb, medium range ballistic missiles, large – scale production of fissionable material and delivery system will be developed. He thinks the Chinese specific motivation is to strengthen the ability to compete with the United States; Increasing the influence of the communist world. Promoting the national liberation process and establish the status of the Asian countries.


[1]Watson, Russel, ”Age of angst” Newsweek, July 24 1995.Accessed January 17, 2018.


Website From:


[2]Sarah J. Diehl,  James Clay Moltz. “Nuclear weapons and nonproliferation : a reference handbook,” Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO. ©2002. Pages 283-336.


[3]Malcolm Templeton, “Standing upright here : New Zealand in the nuclear age 1945-1990,”
Wellington N.Z. : Victoria University Press, in association with the New Zealand Institute of International Affairs. 2006. p. 518-602.


[4]Toshi Yoshihara; James R. Holmes. “Strategy in the second nuclear age power, ambition, and the ultimate weapon,” Washington, D.C, Georgetown University Press, c2012. p257.


[5]Armed Forces Special Weapons Project (U.S.);  “Samuel Glasstone. The effects of nuclear weapons,” Washington, D.C, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1957. pages 558-560.


[6] R. A. Langevin, R. Greenstone and C. O. Elder, “Effectiveness of Troops Exposed to Thermal Radiation from Nuclear Weapons”, INFORMS, Sep. – Oct., 1958, pp. 710-722


[7] Morton H. Halperin,, “Chinese Nuclear Strategy”, Cambridge University Press, Jan. – Mar, 1965.

Geographic focus: Japan

Search term: American, Japan, Atomic bomb, War

The Panama Canal successes during the twentieth century and today

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“The Panama Canal was one of the great engineering achievements of the early 20th century. Thousands of Panamanians, Americans and French died during its construction.” [1] Without the great men who staked their lives for bettering the expansion of Panama’s economical state, today we would not have the best trade and shipping route in the northern hemisphere.  For almost 100 years the Panama Canal served as a short cut in trade and greatly impacted the United Stated economy. It also boosted the U.S in terms of military power, it opened up avenues we did not have access to before. When the United States gave control to Panama in ownership of the canal, Panama itself gave up all financial backing to support the canal. Fortunately, they were able to take the reigns and grow their economy in the process.

In the early 2000’s the Panamanian decided to expand the canal to properly accommodate new vessels and fleet to pass through their water ways. “The Panama Canal Authority began a $5.25 billion expansion project in 2007 which was completed in June [of] 2016.” [2] Without the treaty singed by President Jimmy Carter to give ownership of the canal to Panama we would not see the success and great economical strives made in that country.

Roles played by the United States in the involvement with the Panama Canal were paramount. Presidents such as Taft and Roosevelt allowed for the essential overthrow of the canals power. President Roosevelt clung to original treaties to allow U.S control and giving no power to the Panamanian people, the people who built and operated the mass canal.

Paragraph #3 Analyzing the United states involvement with the control and operation of the canal. [3] In the early stages of the scheme to create a canal in Panama the United States at first came in with a hesitance and resistance. After lack of resistance President Theodore Roosevelt essentially snatched Panama for the Colombian People. In order to have built such a marvel they depended on private contractors. “The men engaged on the canal construction are primarily Jamaican Negros.” [7] Accounting for all these men to build the canal was almost like wishing on a hope and a prayer. Not having American men doing the work had President Roosevelt unhinged, but he knew ultimately that the cost of labor and oversight would allow for big profits in the end.  They also had to account for all the deaths and unwavering health problems these men and woman faced.

Paragraph #4 Looking into U.S leaders who had involvement in control and eventually us handing over power. Looking into how that came to be and what did we politically gain and economically lose in result of that pass of power. [4]

Paragraph #5 How corruption dug its way into the treaty of the canals ownership. Looking it why the Government of Panama could allow for the U.S to take control. Why it took so long to gain power. Looking into the year of not having power and look at the before and after of the economy. Who completed this project and at what cost? [5]

Paragraph #6 How the government of Panama was able to gain independence from U.S sanctions and look into how the transition effected the economy for better or worse. Panama was able to take control and this advanced the country economically. The cause of distributional effects [6]

Paragraph #7: Many of the other unsung heroes of the canal happen to be the native Panamanian women. The New York Times in 1912 allowed to voice of Wenona Marlin to be heard globally she stated, “We women have been the main thing in “making the dirt fly” on the Panama Canal. I know you are surprised to learn this.” [8] It was rather shocking as an America to find out how much of a role women played in the digging of the canal. As American women at this time were homemakers and heavily reliant on their husbands or father to make the income for the family.

Paragraph #8: Second, Marlin claims that without the women’s help we would not have such marvels such as the Panama Canal. She recalled the despicable working conditions and the mistreatment of both men and women at these work sites. We tend not to focus on the people who actually made this happen for Panama. We look at the treaties and dealmakers that made the event possible but we need to focus on the people and who sacrificed their lives within the ten-year build. This brought up terrible turmoil once the United States choose to keep the power and control after it was completed. The Panamanian people had invested blood, sweat, and tears and it was a complete slap in the face once they control was not immediately overturned.

Conclusion: I will bring together points regarding how the canal functions today under the control on the Panamanian people. Also how we ultimately returned the keys, so to speak.

[1] Expanding opportunities. (2017, Mar 02). University Wire Retrieved from (accessed January 15, 2018)

[2] THE END OF AN ERA. (1999, Dec 14). St.Louis Post – Dispatch Retrieved from (accessed January 15, 2018)

[3] Walter laFeber, The Panama Canal; The Crisis in Historical Perspective. New York, Oxford OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS (1989). Pp

[4] Michael L. Conniff, Panama and the United States: The Force Alliance. The University of Georgia Press (1992) Athens, Georgia. 63,109, 162

[5] J. A Zumoff,  Black Caribbean Labor Radicalism in Panama, 1914–1921 Journal of Social History, Volume 47, Number 2, Winter 2013, pp. 429-457

[6] Maurizio Bussolo, Rafael E. De Hoyos, and Denis Medvedev, Distributional Effects of the Panama Canal Expansion Economía, Volume 13, Issue 1, Fall 2012, pp. 79-129

[7] DIGGING THE PANAMA CANAL. (1903, Apr 08). New York Times (1857-1922) Retrieved from

[8] By, W. M. (1912, Sep 22). WOMEN IN MAKING THE CANAL. New York Times (1857-1922) Retrieved from

Search terms: Panama Canal, United States, history, involvement, accomplishments, economy.

Nuclear Energy in Asia

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In March of 2011 an undersea earthquake caused a nuclear meltdown of the Fukushima nuclear plants’ reactors. After the accident the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum reported, ” around 15,000 terabecquerels of caesium-137 was released from reactor 1–3 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, 168.5 times that of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima.”[1] The heavy radiation emitted from all three reactors didn’t just affect Japan. Radioactive materials that came from the Fukushima plant were found all around the world as a result from the accident. The significant damage caused by one nuclear power plant failing causes, “Although nuclear accidents are rare, they produce severe damage and therefore generate a strong signal that there is an unusual risk in nuclear power generation. This signal helps to perpetuate a negative image or stigmatization of nuclear energy.” [1] This stigma causes people to turn away from nuclear energy and continue to look toward carbon energy. What ways are their to prevent this stigma from inhibiting the advancement of nuclear energy?

Paragraph #3: History of nuclear energy and its development. [2]

Paragraph #4: Origins of the negative stigma of nuclear energy. [3]

Paragraph #5: What policies have been put into place to regulate nuclear power plants due to the safety concerns generated by accidents/stigma. [4]

Paragraph #6: Current view of nuclear energy and what countries nuclear programs look like. [5]

[1] Younghwan Kim, Minki Kim, and Wonjoon Kim. “Effect of the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster on Global Public Acceptance of Nuclear Energy.(Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, Japan, 2011).” Energy Policy 61 (2013): 822-28

[2] Fradin, Dennis B. Nuclear Energy. A New True Book. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1987.

[3] Horlick-Jones, Tom, Ana Prades, and Josep Espluga. “Investigating the Degree of “stigma” Associated with Nuclear Energy Technologies: A Cross-cultural Examination of the Case of Fusion Power.” Public Understanding of Science 21, no. 5 (2012): 514-33.

[4] Elliott, David. Fukushima : Impacts and Implications. Palgrave Pivot. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

[5] Petit, Pascal. “France and Germany Nuclear Energy Policies Revisited a Veblenian Appraisal.” Panoeconomicus 60, no. 5 (2013): 687-98.

RA #3

Nuclear energy was once seen as the key to the future. One of the believes was that nuclear energy would help bring an end to poverty. With the news article targeting the general public to help invoke support for a new nuclear energy plan designed to provide resources for third world countries. The article describes a plant near Los Angeles that was able to desalt sea water at a rate of 150 gallons a day while also doing this at a price of 20 cents for every thousand gallons. The plants were also planned to produce fertilizer along with many other essential agricultural products [6]. It goes on to say that nuclear energy would give third world countries a significant agricultural boost thereby helping it rise out of poverty.

After the catastrophic failure of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant many people grew quite scared of nuclear energy. The article discusses how the Fukushima disaster will not result in the death of nuclear power. The author of this source is the head of nuclear science and engineering at MIT giving his work more credibility in the eyes of his scholarly audience. The article talks about how after the plant failed their have been numerous new researchers looking into ways to prevent the same type of meltdown from happening again.  The author describes how their is research going into ways to get the reactor to shut itself off and cool itself down without any human intervention and to better prevent reactions at higher temperatures [7]. The author compares the worries and doubts about nuclear energy to the concerns when electricity first became popular to show that nuclear energy is still relatively new and has a lot of potential.

[6] By GLADWIN HILL Special to The New,York Times. 1967. “Nuclear Energy Plan Viewed as Antipoverty Key.” New York Times (1923-Current File), May 26, 27.

[7] Lester, Richard K. 2011. “Why Fukushima Won’t Kill Nuclear Power.” Wall Street Journal, Apr 06.