Skip to main content Skip to navigation
History 105, Section 6 – Clif Stratton – Fall 2017 History 105

British Colonial Impacts on India

Download PDF

Figure 1 London Newspaper on the subject of the Indian Rebellion in 1857

In July of 2017, the Chief Minister of Odisha India, approved a proposal recommending that the centre declare the Paika Rebellion, as the first war of Independence in Indian history. The Paika Rebellion as Patnaik calls it, began “the events that led to the Indian freedom struggle and our historic Independence from foreign rule.” In the article the Chief Minister suggest that, “the genesis of the events that led to Sepoy Mutiny and their further consequences need to be traced back to the earlier instances of organized rebellion” [1], this emphasizes his idea of the significance of the Indian revolts. This also raises the historical question of how Indian revolt against their British colonizers began, and how the impact of British colonial rule affected India’s political changes in this time?

The Sepoy Rebellion began in 1857 and ended in 1858. This revolt was a left a major impact in India’s history, especially influencing their drive for Independence. The Indian revolt of 1857 was a direct result from egocentric acts performed by the British, and the efforts of the British in changing the Indian society. British Colonization would impact Indian in a number of different ways, although some in which would not be accepting into the society by the Indians. With new changes being introduced, it would not be long before Indians would start to express their angers and frustrations on these, to their colonizers. After the Indian uprising, the British would change their ways of ruling, only to set  the Indians for their path to Independence. These problems can be further explained by analysing documents that have been published from the past, regarding event of the Sepoy    Rebellion in India.

Indian mutineers gathered, 1857

The British began to colonize India in the early nineteenth century. As time developed the relationship that Indians developed with their colonizers would grow bad. A factor of this can be that their was a cultural barrier that made it hard for each party to connect. In an article developed by the author Christina Fairchild, she explains, “This event was instigated by the introduction of Enfield rifles into the Indian army which required the use of greased cartridge for firing. Sepoy had religious obligations to using the cartilage due to rumors of unclean animals being used for the grease.” [2] The British were not showing sensitivity towards the Indians in this situation, rather they were disrespecting their religious customs. Because the British were using a source of fuel that in ways went against the Indians religious practice, they felt disrespected and this was ultimately a cause of the rebellion.

Before the uprising, the British were influencing Indian society in a number of different ways. It wasn’t until after, when the Indians would showcase their frustration with the influence their colonizers had on their society. After the revolt, the British saw the negative reactions that the Indians had from their their British influences. In an article “Remembering the Sepoy Rebellion” by Paul Nurse, Nurse explains what lessons were learned for the British from this rebellion. Nurse states, “racial divide between Indians and the British grew more pronounced in the years following the rebellion, the British has at least learned in overriding lesson that Indian traditions, must be respected and elite groups conciliated.” [3] Nurse also mentions that after this, the British colonizers would not intend to change their traditions.

In a newspaper written in 1875 by the New York Daily Time, the author writes about Indian motives regarding their uprising, stating that “these mutinies are an evidence that a hatred of British rule is widely spread in some quarters of India, and it is probable that the Sepoys have been tampered.” [4] From this we can see that British influence was clearly not positive and it was clear that the Indians were not accepting of the new changes.

The Sepoy Mutiny Attack, 1857

As a response to the uprising, the British would decide that a different form of authority would have to be put forth in order to obtain good relations. A British newspaper, reflects the same ideals. The author of this writes, “these rebels of Delhi must be made an example to all countrymen for ages to come of all consequences of such crimes; at the same time that every possible precaution is taken to do away with tall temptation or provocation to future offenses of a similar character.” [5] In a newspaper dating back to July 6, 1857, an author writes about the Sepoy Rebellion and the British efforts to control the mutineers. The author suggest, “the Briton must rule it politically and religiously, or he must be overrun by the treacherous and rebellion Indian.” [6] British mentality was the same, although shortly after the revolt had ended there was a lot of political changes being made by the British, and ultimately these changes would influence Indian efforts in gaining Independence.

One of these changes involves the abolishment of the British East India Company, and their efforts to influence India’s economic and political state. Control was now handed over to the British Parliament.The British, also at this time, alter previous policy. These efforts would showcase their willingness to cooperate with the Indians to build their relationships. The abolishment of the Doctrine of Lapse, is another example. Previously, this doctrine was a policy of annexation that, “snatched power away from the princely states which had ruled for centuries.” [7] After this Doctrine would no longer be implemented, symbolically this would give the Indians a taste of Independence or freedom.

At this time, another major step that the Indians would take to their journey for Independence, was the creation of the Indian Congress. “after the rebellion was suppressed there was a need for Indians to form an organisation to coordinate the efforts of battle colonialism and this is how the Indian Congress was born” [8], this new institution would help restore power to the Indians. As stated in the education article titled “Indian National Congress”, the author agrees the impact that the influence of this new Congress would leave great impacts. In the article the author states, “the Indian National Congress became the nation’s leader in the Independence movement, with over 15 million indians involved in its organizations and over 70 million participants in it struggle against British Empire.” [9]. The author also includes the perspectives of two famous Indian influentials, he writes, “Mahatam Gandhi and Sardar Patel are said to have held the view that the Indian National Congress was formed only for achieving Independence and should have been disbanded in 1947”. [10]

The British actions that would followed the end of the Indian revolt in 1875, would allow India to hold more control for themselves. These implementations and new changes would not directly establish Independence for the Indians. But surely, it would provide a start to the a new beginning of Indian resistance, leading up to India’s Independence in 1947.


[1] “Rewrite History, Declare Paika Rebellion as First War of Independence’.” 2017.IANS English, Jul 19

[2]Fairchild, Christina Lee. 2017. “”because we were to English:” John Kaye and the 1857 Indian Rebellion.” Order No. 10254169, University of Maryland, College Park

[3] Nurse, Paul. 2007. “Remembering the Sepoy Rebellion; One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago this Month, a Group of Indian Soldiers Mutinied, Shot their British Officers and Marched on Delhi. Though Unsuccessful, the Uprising Helped Pave the Way for Independence nearly a Century Later.” National Post, May 01, A16.

[4]“The Revolt in British India.” 1857.New York Daily Times (1851-1857), Jul 15, 4.

[5]Department, Guardian Research. “30 June 1857: The Indian Mutiny.” The Guardian. May 10, 2011. Accessed December 13, 2017. 

[6]“Mutiny in the Native East Indian Army. the Bombay and Calcuta Papers,” 1857.New York Daily Times (1851-1857), Jul 06, 4.

[7]Kavya, Ram Mohan. 2016. “The Long March to Freedom.” The Hindu, Aug 17.

[8]Kavya, R. M. (2016, Aug 17). The long march to freedom. The Hindu Retrieved from

[9]“Indian National Congress.” Indian National Congress – New World Encyclopedia. Accessed December 13, 2017.

[10]“Indian National Congress.” Indian National Congress – New World Encyclopedia. Accessed December 13, 2017.



Figure 1. London Newspaper on the subject of the Indian Rebellion, 1857 

Figure 2. Illustration from the London Printing Company, capturing a group of Indian Soldiers, 1857

Figure 3. The Sepoy Attack, 1857




Great Britain’s relationship to human trafficking in Australia and surrounding South Pacific countries

Download PDF


Great Britain was in good economic and political standing during the 18th century because of its many prosperous colonies. Consequently, birth rates rose dramatically, and there was question of if enough food would be available. Though it had many trading partners, fresh produce was not often traded between nations at this time because the food would spoil before arriving at its destination. Alfred Dennis, a writer for the New York Times, states that, “The central fact of British life right now is the pressure of population upon food supply; the struggle grows more intense with the rapid population and the progressive industrialization of the people.” [1] Possible food shortage left the government to think of solutions; how could they ensure that the population would not go hungry? Their answer was to ship the petty criminals and prostitutes to Britain’s newest possession: Australia. [2] This would alleviate some of the pressure of too many people and not enough resources. The potential food crisis was the answer officials were looking for: a legitimate excuse for why they were shipping British citizens to the wilderness thousands of miles away. This particular piece by Dennis was written in 1923, decades after the last shipment of poor souls were banished to Australia. The 1920’s was a stunning decade for America socially and economically. Because of these factors, it was a time of great pride for American’s, and so reading about how Britain isn’t doing well could have only boosted their superiority complex. Throughout the article, Dennis describes the hardships Britain’s people are facing because they are not bouncing back from the first world war as easily as the United States did. It is possible that the author is portraying the Brits in a particularly bad light because he is a proud American who only wants his country to succeed. Ego can potentially lead to ignorance, and that fact is evident throughout this article. That being said, this source is still extremely helpful in analyzing root causes of human trafficking between Great Britain and Australia because it shines a new light on the reasons why Britain sent so many people to the new colony of Australia.

Figure 1. British convicts on a ship bound for colonial Australia.

The story of Australia’s beginnings is a messy one. The colony was overcrowded and underfunded with poor leadership. According to A.G.L Shaw, author of The Story of Australia”, it was a breeding pool for “prostitution to prosper”. [3] There were so many more men than women that the population steadily grew because of the “need” for able bodied girls to take part in the already institutionalized brothels. This set the stage for future human traffickers to establish their territory. This particular source tells a narrative of how Australia became what it is today, and the factors that led to its creation. It’s laid out like a novel, with a table of contents organizing the topics of how Australia came to be. A couple pages are devoted to the infamous “floating brothel”. This particular phenomenon is what makes Australia’s founding as a struggling colony so interesting.  Written in 1850, Shaw speaks about how this phenomenon became an integral part of Australia’s identity, and how it unfortunately led to the formation of so many human trafficking rings in the South Pacific. Shaw was a college professor, so it is accurate to say that what he was writing was methodically researched and peer reviewed, leading the information to be trustworthy. Australia’s founding and it’s connection to Great Britain and the subsequent flourishing human trafficking agenda can be confusing, but this book sections everything off and uses concise, scholarly language to make it more clear for the reader to understand.

Human trafficking is the illegal trading of human beings. It has been an issue in Australia for hundreds of years. Beginning around the eighteenth century, “ladies of the night” have been put on ships and sent to Australia to relieve the all-male prison colony of its sexual tensions. As a result, human trafficking took a strong hold on the continent and is now a major problem that is continually getting more and more complicated. According to Tanya Plibersek, minister for housing and the status of women, “Trafficking is our modern equivalent of slavery.” [4] Unfortunately, Australia is regarded as a hot spot for trafficked people in the Asia Pacific. Hundreds of young women from Thailand, China, and Singapore are being smuggled into the country under the cover of work visas. Though the situation is dire, Australia does have a key advantage in this situation: their natural barrier that isolates them. Plibersek comments upon this fact, saying that, “unlike the situation that exists in North America or Europe, for example, where their borders are porous and much easier to access, the Australian government has the unique ability to provide authorities with ample screening opportunities of new arrivals at airports around the country.” [5] Government officials are confident that rigorous monitoring of suspicious people traveling in and out of the country frequently will reduce the number of victims. By interrupting the trafficking of people, authorities hope that with the combined loss of profits and successful prosecution of those behind the operation, perpetrators will be deterred. The black market for sex slaves has been a scourge on Australia’s resources and people for too long, and it all links back to colonial times, when Great Britain shipped European women to Australia for the first time and the disease of human trafficking took its roots. What were the underlying conditions during the 17th century that led to the South Pacific, specifically Australia, to become so heavily involved with the modern human trafficking industry? Why are countries/islands located in the South Pacific targeted?

Australia’s colonization in the early 18th century by the British was plagued with incompetent, greedy leaders who misguided the colony and led it to become a barbaric state. As a result, prostitution was commonplace and with little to no regulation, it quickly spiraled out of control. Human trafficking took root and has consequently wreaked havoc on some of these countries, hindering them from achieving what they are capable of. The answer to why Australia and the surrounding South Pacific countries are suffering so greatly from this problem lies in its founding fathers; the British.

Figure 2. This is a depiction of convict women in colonial Australia baring their backsides as a form of protest against their treatment.

According to the United States State Department’s 2013 Trafficking in Persons list, four of the seven independent South Pacific countries that are evaluated are categorized as ‘Tier 3’, the worst ranking. The State department evaluates 189 countries annually and their report identifies issues specific to that country. This year’s report on the Marshall Islands, for example, said: “The Republic of the Marshall Island is a destination country for women from East Asia subjected to sex trafficking…. The government made no efforts to prevent trafficking during the year. It did not conduct any public campaigns or take other steps to raise public awareness about the dangers of trafficking.” [6] The unfortunate reality for most of these countries is that they cannot devote any resources to this issue; food security and fresh water access is the main priority. Along with financial instability, acceptance is another issue: generally people view human trafficking as only a problem in Asia and Africa. In fact, the opposite is true. Due to high unemployment rates in most urban centers in these the regions, the non-productive members of the family are sometimes ejected from their homes and end up homeless on the street. Severe lack of opportunities for young people and increasing poverty in urban centers makes a fertile environment for the sex trade to expand. [7] A good place to start is simply changing legislation to reflect human trafficking as a real problem, with severe consequences put into place to enforce the new policies.

Figure 3. This map depicts countries that are compliant with organizations focused on stopping human trafficking.

Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the South Pacific, with nearly one-third of the population living under the poverty line. It is estimated that every day, approximately 54 girls are trafficked out of Nepal and into India to enter a life of sex slavery. [8] If this were to be the case in the United States, there would be instant outcry, but because this is happening in a developing country, these girls are forgotten about. Although many of these girls are kidnapped from their small villages, some are sold outright by their own families for money. These families are lead to believe that they are marrying their daughter off to a prosperous man in India, yet the opposite is true. Gang rapes and physical violence is extremely common. Girls live in cages and are only let out when the men desire them. Most of these innocent girls are forced to have sex with up to 40 clients a day. Clearly this is a disgusting phenomenon, yet due to the country’s political instability, little is being done in the government to help protect these girls from further abuse. A member of Australia’s legislature, during a session about ways and strategies to reduce human trafficking in Australia and the surrounding countries, said this, “It simply is not enough that we identify this as a growing problem. We have known it is a problem for decades; the next step must be allocating money to campaign and raise awareness. These women need a voice.” [9] Nepal is a hot spot for human trafficking, specifically because of an incompetent government, fragile family system, and no media attention.

Human trafficking is the fastest growing criminal industry in the world, generating around 198 billion dollars every year. One non-profit, Australia21, or A21, is aiming to stop slavery. They are an organization run by people who, with the power of radical hope, believe that one day human beings everywhere will be rescued from bondage and their freedom will be completely restored. [10] Human trafficking, or slavery, is real, hidden in plain sight, and tearing at the social fabric of every nation it infects. The people of A21 call themselves 21st-century abolitionists, and their goal is to reach out to the public before they become victims, recuse those in captivity and set them free, and restore survivors so they can live independent, successful lives. [11] One of its most recent success stories lies in the tale of Lucy Taylor. She was living in Sydney, Australia, at the time and she had responded to an online job advertisement as a nanny for a family. She was excited to leave Australia and start a new adventure, but a few weeks before she was supposed to leave, an A21 team member contacted Taylor and told her that the adults from the ad were suspected traffickers. These people saved her from a life of bondage and abuse. Non-profit organizations are vital for raising awareness and educating people about this topic. It is the hope that with these organizations, human trafficking will significantly reduce and become an obsolete memory.

British colonial interests in Australia in the 18th century led to a tumultuous relationship between the two countries. From the day the first English ships docked in Sydney, New South Wales, Great Britain had a strong hold on Australia’s political and economic interests, and this led to Australia overlooking their personal complications such as the high rates of prostitution, which were becoming obscene. Their ignorance of the problem when it first began is a direct reason for why human trafficking took root and spread so effectively. Human trafficking in Australia and the surrounding South Pacific countries is a direct result of Great Britain’s poor maintenance of Australia during its colonial times.


[1] Alfred Pearce Dennis, “Britain Come To Grip With Economic Crisis”, The New York Times Volume #17 Issue #5 (May 1923):pp. (as

[2] De Tarczynski, Stephen. “Tackling the Scourge of Human Trafficking in Australia.” NoticiasFinancieras. August/September, 2013. Accessed September/October, 2017.

[3] A.G.L, Shaw. “The Story of Australia.” Digital India Press. September, October, 1850.,%20October%202017)

[4] Tony Rennel, “The founding fathers of Australia: The story of convicts shipped to the new world”, The Daily Mail Volume #47 Issue #2 (July, 2014): pp.

[5] Tony Rennel, “The founding fathers of Australia: The story of convicts shipped to the new world”, The Daily Mail Volume #47 Issue #2 (July, 2014): pp.

[6] Giff Johnson, “Human trafficking a growing problem”, The Pacific Institute of Public Policy Volume #15 Issue #4 (August, 2015): pp.

[7] Giff Johnson, “Human trafficking a growing problem”, The Pacific Institute of Public Policy Volume #15 Issue #4 (August, 2015): pp.

[8] Mary Crawford, International Sex Trafficking; Telling Maya’s Story (New York: New York University , 2016), pp.

[9] Kathleen Maltzahn, Trafficked (Sydney: University of NSW press, 2013), pp.

[10] Sean Lewiston, “A21”, A21 Human Trafficking” 2017.

[11] Sean Lewiston, “A21”, A21 Human Trafficking” 2017.


Figure 1. British convicts on a ship bound for colonial Australia, 1846.

Figure 2. This is a depiction of convict women in colonial Australia baring their backsides as a form of protest against their treatment, 1866.

Figure 3.  This map depicts countries that are compliant with organizations focused on stopping human trafficking.




Indira Gandhi

Download PDF

Being a woman in our society now in America is tough, let alone being a woman in the past in and a completely different country is even worse. Woman have always been second to man and classified as unable to do what men do. Although that is the unfortunate situation women are often put in, Indira Gandhi was changing the game. She was the first and only to this day woman to be prime minister of India. [2] She was first prime minister from 1966 to 1977 and was again after 1980 to the point of her assassination. [1] Because she was a woman, many people disagreed with her election; she was elected after her fathers death and the death of another runner for prime minister. The people of India were unsure about what the upcoming years would look like with Indira Gandhi being prime minister, they thought she was weak and wanted to use her being elected as a puppet to get what they wanted. How did the affect of the society’s thoughts on women and their ability to do things affect her time as prime minister, was that her motivation?

Figure 1: Prime minister Indira Gandhi of India at the national press club, Washington DC

Indira Gandhi was an only child, born November 19, 1979 and attended many different schools in India, Switzerland, England, and Somerville College, Oxford. she later joined the Congress Party’s working committee in 1955, and about four years later she was then elected that party’s president. [6] After her fathers death and a new prime minister was elected, she moved up from the party’s president to become named minister of information and broadcasting. Soon after she was appointed a new position the newest prime minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri, died and Indira was next in line but she served just as a replacement until the next elections were held. She ended up winning, surprising everyone in becoming the first woman ever elected to lead a democracy.

[7] Indira lead India to war with Pakistan on December 3, 1971 to December 16, 1971; only lasting 13 days, being one of the shortest wars still to this day. [8] East Pakistan was sending million of refugees to India, and at that point Indira called a state of emergency across the country which limited the personal freedom of Indians. Pakistan made the next move by bombing India first, giving Indira the drive to go to war but the general did not agree, it was after she refused to let him say no and she guaranteed India the win, that he finally agreed and they began preparing. Only 13 days after India had defeated Pakistan and roughly 93 thousand Pakistan soldiers surrendered.

Remaining bodies on the ground from the war against Pakistan

A newspaper article titled “Ruler of 600 million and alone: Indira Gandhi is unmaking a democracy ‘to save it’ and looking to exchange moral authority for bread. Indira Gandhi” by Claire Sterling; tells about how even though at first many had unsure feeling about Indira as a woman being prime minister, was amazing and did amazing things during her time. [3] India had nearly 600 million people and she never stepped down, but instead she succeeded in her role. In 1971 she was re-elected and won by her campaign at the time which was “abolishing poverty”. She indeed made a positive impact on India during her first period of being prime minister and was elected again to continue her lead. [6]  However unfortunately Indira was found guilty of the violation of the election laws and was then later voted over ruled. Sometime went on and she had limited the freedom of her country, which did not make people happy with her, leading them to soon vote her out of office. A couple years later she was elected again back into office and with not much time after that she was assassinated by her bodyguards.

Indira Gandhi scooping rice into container to be distributed to children in a food distribution center, Calcutta, India.

Women are often always put into the mindset that they cannot do all that a man can, even in today’s time. When women were given something to do or be responsible of something other than their children or house they were automatically assumed they were going to fail and create a mess; but unlike other situations Indira Gandhi was given the biggest task for a women anyone had seen in India. She was prime minister, by some default, but she managed and changed the way many saw what a women was “supposed” to be. She left a lasting legacy that still today impacts the country of India, even if she didn’t completely do it with grace, she managed to still make her point and continue the journey of those who came before her.




[1]: Clark, Blaise. Los Angeles Times (pre-1997 Fulltext); Los Angeles, Calif. [Los Angeles, Calif]26 Apr 1992: 1.

[2]: REVIEWED BY, JYOTSNA SANZGIRI. San Francisco Chronicle (pre-1997 Fulltext); San Francisco, Calif. [San Francisco, Calif]05 May 1991: 5..

[3]: By, Claire Sterling. 1975. Ruler of 600 million and alone. New York Times (1923-Current file), Aug 10, 1975. (accessed October 9, 2017).

[4]: By SYDNEY H SCHANBERGSpecial to The New,York Times. 1971. Mrs. gandhi is defiant. New York Times (1923-Current file), Dec 03, 1971. (accessed October 9, 2017).

[5]: Staff. “Indira Gandhi.” 2009. Accessed November 03, 2017.

[6]: Indira Gandhi. Accessed November 03, 2017.

[7]: Mkdehara1. “Indira Gandhi’s interview on India Pakistan War in 1971.” YouTube. June 29, 2013. Accessed November 03, 2017.

[8]: “Indira Gandhi – War With Pakistan.” February 22, 2017. Accessed November 03, 2017.

Search terms: Indira Gandhi, prime minister, India

Racism in Britain

Download PDF
In what ways did the British dealing with Racism help us clarify the problems we face in today’s world?
Racism is part of human nature; we all judge the environment and people living in it under a personal lens. Therefore, our opinions on people are shaped by our views and values, which naturally leads to preferences to some over others. For sure you have been seeing news and stories about racism. This is one human attribute that seems to get bigger and bigger as the world becomes smaller and smaller. But what is racism ? This is an act of deliberately discriminating people based on social status, color of skin, traditions, social behavior and even attitude. You will experience racism when someone is telling you that you cannot do something or if you are being insulted because of your physical attributes or the country where you came from.
Due to there being racial problems along with violence. The ways they dealt with it was to start becoming independent. They needed to start cracking down on immigrants and along with immigrants who weren’t getting jobs. Immigration started to become a big cause, which lead to having economic and financial problems. Which has lead us to have problems with
immigration in the US and they have their own strict rules. in the 1960’s Britain was having trouble with having the Irish and colored people immigrating to them, there was also rumor of there being overcrowding due to the newcomers.
As it states in the article [1] ” It was well known that immigrants settle in expanding prosperous areas and not in the depressed regions”. Immigrants were also threat to a lot unemployment, because the were working more secure jobs and weren’t a problem to pay. At first immigration was a big problem, then due to all the workers they were receiving, it started to become a good thing after all. Year after year, numbers started to double of the amount of immigrants, and housing started to double a well.
[3] Stop immigration in britain
The united states, or as in Drew Young, had to apologize to Britain for calling them chicken on having a problem with racism. Britain isn’t the only place dealing with the problem of racism, they may have the biggest problem, but they aren’t the only people. he states the [2]“Britain had invented racism” and that they were not longer to be trusted. Young had to write them a letter and apologize for being so harsh and wasn’t aware, he said also that they “had to back bone to  support racism.
As Claudia Jones states in her section about “The Caribbean community in Britain. In the mid 1960s, they had a majority of
[1] Claudia Jones
West Indians settling over in Britain. Which cause them to have a growing economic frustration. Due to all of the issues they were having with the economic frustration, they were forced to move some of the people from the west indies due to the imperialist dominance over them, which had them decide to become independent, which happened in 1962. With the
movement of the people in the west Indian nation, they were forcing individuals to leave their home, and find their own ways to survive. But before the war happened in Britain, there was a incident happening, [3] “Britain, experiencing a brief economic boom, a full employment, needed over seas, and cheap labor” which cause more problems for the economic boom.
Growing up in Britain for certain people was phenomenal during the 1970’s, some people were told to [4] “go back home” and called a “wog”. People tried to apply labels to other individuals and called them “half caste”, “half breed”, “half pint”. Individuals in Britain were constantly told to go back where they came and that they don’t belong. 1970s racism was deeply enshrined, That act was a consequence of the fight against racism which dominated much of the 1970s and early 1980s. The question of whether black people were here to stay in Britain had not been fully answered, and Britain changed from a country with a labor shortage to one with mass unemployment.
In 1979, Britain was having a race problem, with their ‘spiritual illness’ , along side with refugees and violent crimes.As these crimes and  issues were happening, nobody wanted to pay attention to them. They wanted to imagine everything was okay, and that even a britain housewife would be safe outside. In reality there was racial tensions
[2] Race struggles
with black ex colonials out and about. In later years, things started to become more violent, there was a [5]” government report on racism as the focus for the worst violence ever witnessed in this country between the police and black people”. Millions of people were affected and they had to have undercover cops out and about and dressed as everyday people.
The Political cartoon shows a representation of what individuals had to battle against and try to keep going even if they have been stuck and were being held back, especially on discrimination.
[1] Christopher Sweeney. “Racism ‘worst among those not affected’.” Times [London, England] 11 Sept. 1972: 2. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 8 Oct. 2017
[2] By KATHLEEN TELTSCH Special to The New York Times. New York Times (1923-Current file); New York, N.Y. [ New York, N.Y]08 Apr 1977: 41
[3] Claudia Jones, The Caribbean Community in Britain, 1964, voices of decolonization

[4] Solomos, J. (1993). Theories of Race and Racism. Race and Racism in Britain, 13-37. doi:10.1007/978-1-349-22911-6_2

Discussing the 1970’s

[5] Britain’s spiritual illness reflected in new dramas, The globe, Toronto, December,1 ,1979


[1] Claudia Jones, communist, march 1st 2010

[2] Race and America, Adam Zyglis, The Buffalo News

[3] Britain immigration, stop immigration, Contributions by migrants to Britain’s economy are “modest” compared to their long term costs,

Search terms: Racism, Britain

North Korea and its Nuclear Weapons

Download PDF

Over the years, North Korea has been working hard on developing their missiles, and they are improving at an alarming rate. What is also alarming is… where they are aiming at: Japan. Nearly every single missile that has been launched by North Korea heads over to Japan, and every so often lands into the sea that separates the two countries. In April 2016, North Korea held its first successful test of a submarine-fired missile, a weapon that is hard to spot before launch. [1] Japan’s ministry has made requests for funds that will improve existing radar systems and the potential creation of new ones to detect the newly advanced missiles and other potentially dangerous weapons. During the Korean War, there were discussions about possibilities that could potentially be utilized to stem communism, and an idea of using a nuclear weapon on North Korea was mentioned. North Korea’s current action lead to an important question: Did the possible threat of a nuclear attack spark North Korea’s obsession with nuclear weapons?

Paragraph #3: Brief History and Background of the Korean War [3]

Paragraph #4: Korea’s Relationship with the west during the war [4]

Paragraph #5: The Battle of Chosin

November, 1950: over twelve thousand men from the First Marine Division and Army were stranded and trapped on a mountain in North Korea, by the Chosin reservoir. They were surprised by the sudden emergence of the People’s Republic of China, whom had them outnumbered and encircled, putting the American troops at a fear of being annihilated. Manert Kennedy, a U.S. Marine Corps, stated that “you were not only physically frozen you were emotionally frozen”, because they were all uncertain about how much more they can put up with, while also having the will to survive. Watson Crumbie, another U.S. Marine Corps, specified that the hardest thing that he had to do in his life was “pick up the frozen bodies of the Marines that had been killed and their arms and legs were bent in the position in which they had been killed”. The only way out of the mountains would be to march through Hagaru, Koto-ri and then head to the Sea of Japan – with the Chinese soldiers waiting by the high grounds that are directly above the only road out. The men eventually made it down safely and reached Koto-ri where the Chinese  didn’t have the ability to inflict any serious attacks, and waited there (Koto-ri) for three days for a makeshift bridge to be put in place (it was destroyed by Red China. When they reached the plateau by the sea coast, they managed to rescue 90,000 North Korean civilians, without any threats form the Chinese.

Paragraph #5: The Truman Administration and MacArthur [2]

Paragraph #6: There were proposals of evacuating Korea and then attacking China – because of its (China’s) intervention with the war, and the worry of the Soviet Union joining in. MacArthur had wanted to force the Chinese back up to the Yalu river, which in his words “will certainly stop the slaughter of our men on the ground”. In his testimony, MacArthur states that “if we don’t go in, I believe we will go under”. He was referring to protecting and not giving up on the people in what is now present day South Korea; he felt that if the United States didn’t offer them protection then they will be exterminated in the hands of the communists in the North or even in the hands of the Chinese. Later on in the testimony, it was revealed that MacArthur had proposed the opportunity of planning a bomb attack to scare China into withdrawing from the war, because China “had no air”; he was also aware that would cost many Korean lives if the plan was taken into action. MacArthur then went on to add that he had also suggested dropping leaflets along with the bomb to let the people know that the attacks will stop, if the fighting against Korea stopped. [6]

Paragraph #7: Consequences and the aftermath of the war [5]

Conclusion: Will explain how Truman and Eisenhower did consider the option of a nuclear attack on Korea, which could lead to the explanation of North Korea’s current day obsession with advancement of their nuclear weapons [8]

[1] Gail Alistair, “World News: Japan Debates Improving Defenses.” Wall Street Journals,
September 1, 2017.

[2] Dennis D. Wainstock, Truman, MacArthur, and the Korean War (Green Press, 1999).

[3] James L. Stokesbury, A Short History of the Korean War (New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. 1988).

[4] Brian Bridges, Korea and the West (Royal Institute of international Affairs, 1986).

[5] Dean Acheson, The Korean War (Doubleday and Company, New York. 1967).

[6] Testimony of General Douglas MacArthur (1951).

[7] The Battle of Chosin, (PBS, 2016).

[8] Lester H. Brune, Robin Higham, The Korean War – Handbook of the Literature and Research (Green Press, 1966).

Geographic Focus: North Korea, Japan
Search Terms: North Korea*, Japan*, missile*, defense*, North Korea missile

French Colonization in Vietnam

Download PDF

French Colonization in Vietnam, known as the “French Indochina” was when the French got involved with Vietnam around the 19th century as “French colonialist worked tirelessly to gain control of the Vietnamese people and their land.” [pg 2] The French wanted the abundant natural resources Vietnam had (such as zinc, tin, coal, and etc) and what started French Colonialism in Vietnam was in the early 17th century, where a French Catholic priest named Pierre Pigneau de Behaine was part of the French Catholic missionary, the goal being missionaries to “Introduce Catholicism to the Vietnamese.”[Pg 3]  Pierre Pigneau de behaine being a part of the “Société des Missions Étrangères de Paris.”meaning in english “The Society of Foreign Missions of Paris”[3] As the “Society of foreign missions”  is a Roman Catholic missionary organization, the main objective the missionaries wanted (Guys like Pierre Pigneau de behaine) was successfully infiltrated religion into Vietnam, the Roman Catholic Missionary Organization was able to successfully infiltrate religion into Vietnam, creating a foothold and clearly destroying the economic and social conditions the Vietnamese had already little of, while the French mostly focused on the valuable resources Vietnam had, which lead to the economic and social conditions of living in Vietnam, more so living in hell due to French Colonization beginning.

Native priests that are part of the “Paris Foreign Missions Society” association.

The initial foundation of the French being able to colonize in Vietnam was the influence of religion and pride the French had, which in the Vietnamese people’s perspective back in the 17th century hoped to become more of a developed country and show to the other countries that Vietnam is an independent country, Faced instead the French mostly focused on the resources Vietnam had in store. The first eventful step of French colonialism involved a start of an alliance between France and Vietnam, a single French catholic priest, Pierre Pigneau de Behaine, convinced the French government to help aid future emperor of Vietnam, Nguyễn Ánh, to retake his throne in Saigon after his family was slaughtered in the Tay son revolt.

The Tay son revolt involved 3 peasant rebellion brothers whose purpose is built around “The chief principle and main slogan of the Tay Son was “seize the property of the rich and distribute it to the poor.” In each village the Tay Son controlled, oppressive landlords and scholar-officials were punished and their property redistributed.”[3], With this mentality the Tay son revolt were able to overthrow Nguyen’s army and ended up killing the blood royal family members in the Nguyen dynasty,  Nguyen Anh was able to escape as the last descendant of the throne, with Anh being powerless, but Pierre having the influence of the French government for his missionary duties was able to get the reinforcements needed to retake his throne in Saigon. Pierre gather military volunteers to aid Nguyen Anh, and after overcoming the Tay Son (Peasant Rebellions) Nguyen was able to retake his throne and thus the alliance of the french and Vietnamese was official after the king of France, Louis XVI and Prince Nguyen Anh signed the treaty of versailles in 1787. This ending up a bloody show, which the French saw the opportunity to take advantage, resulting in civil war and terror.


As the years past, the French policies were hard on the people as it “Transformed Vietnam’s economic and social system into an urban proletariat and middle class, exploiting peasants and denying them the right to own land.” [1] As these policies keep pushing the limit of Vietnamese people, it’s also led to an uprising in radical activities, individuals would go against these policies, of these policies resulted in the abusive power the French wielded without disregard. “ Our people were subjected to the double yoke of the French and the Japanese. Their sufferings and miseries increased. The result was that, from the end of last year to the beginning of this year, from Quang Tri Province to the North of Viet-Nam, more than two million of our fellow citizens died from starvation.”[5] This resulting those not even affiliated with war, just the social conditions trapped in the war’s battles as the French colonist refused to listen to Vietnam’s plea that lead to the devastation to themselves of their own desire.

French Assault at the Hung Hoa citadel in Vietnam, 1884.

 The severe impacts the French made during their period of Colonization while in Vietnam, as the members in the provisional Government claiming the French “built more prisons than schools. They have mercilessly slain our patriots; they have drowned our uprisings in rivers of blood.” [5] The amount of chaos explained in the quote, The French had made a severe impact to the Vietnamese people of their reign of terror, but the leader of Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh changed these tragic living conditions and was able to successfully drive the French out of Vietnam by studying and become leninist, which at the time was the best combat strategy for the liberation of Vietnam under French rule. As “The Vietnamese ultimately secured their independence from the French by rallying the masses, not by great military might.” [1] Yokely explains as the Vietnamese people entered into guerrilla warfare that grew larger into an army and eventually drove the French out thanks to their skills of” swift fortitude and steadfastness of their tactics. After the stages of war Vietnam had to go through liberation,  Enters the political wave to ensure the liberation of Vietnam away from rule under The French.    

Ho Chi Minh, The political “Father Figure” That lead Vietnam to their independence.

         In the Article of “Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam” written out in 1945 by “ Members of the Provisional Government, representing the whole Vietnamese people.” discusses the different variations of how men are are created equal with their free rights, but how French imperialism in Vietnam denies the people of Vietnam their rights. Since the Leader of Vietnam during the time, Ho Chi Minh has “Freely from the Declaration of Independence of the United States purports that perhaps by using language so closely akin to the Declaration, Ho Chi Minh attempted to garner support from the United States.” [2] with the U.S supporting him, Ho became an important figure that gave a new identity to the people of Vietnam, giving them the ability of a new revolution, one without the rule of the French.

In the Final process to the end of the French colonization in Vietnam, a “Terms and Agreements” were made between the French and Vietnamese and how the “French Government recognizes the Vietnamese Republic as a Free State having its own Government, its own Parliament, its own Army and its own Finances, forming part of the Indochinese Federation and of the French Union.” [5] Thus ending the French Rule in Vietnam, giving them their independence and rights as their own country, leaving behind the significant signing of the independence of Vietnam, seated down at the conference and signed by two of the top officials of Vietnam.





 [1] Richard Yokeley, French colonization in Indochina: A study of the decline of Vietnamese social and economic life, 1930–1954; 2006,


Geographic Focus: Vietnam

Search Terms: French Colonization* Vietnam*

[2] Christopher E. Goscha, “The Penguin history of modern Vietnam” Print Book (2016)



Ronald J. Cima, ed. Vietnam: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1987.


[4] Nguyen, Manh Hung,  “Indochine: La Colonization Ambigue” Pacific Affairs, 1996, Vol 69


[6] The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 1, Chapter 1 (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971),_6_March_1946.pdf   

GMO Foods: The Solution to a Greater Problem

Download PDF

For centuries, millions of people around the world have suffered from a scarcity of food leading to malnutrition and starvation. Feeding the infinite number of people on our planet is one of the most severe challenges we face on a day to day basis. This is due to certain factors including degradation, poor crop growing conditions, over population, and extreme poverty that has had a detrimental effect on crop yields with in under-developed countries during the 19th century. “Africa faces a unique combination of challenges, as the only continent which fails to grow enough food to meet its own needs, and the continent most under threat from climate change.” [1] For centuries, people have tried to come up with a solution to end this world tragedy. In order to improve the lives of thousands around the world, factors such as food security, poverty, and hunger are working to be improved with the help of the green revolution and the production of genetically modified organisms. Although they appear to be cheaper in cost and easier to produce, they present as a threat to human health containing less nutritional value or replaced with other ingredients that can ultimately have a negative effect on the body. A nutritional study in Minnesota compared the nutritional value of Non-GMO corn versus GMO corn. Scientists were shocked to discover non-GMO corn was 20 times richer in energy, protein, and nutrition. “GMO corn was found to contain about 19 times more glyphosate than is permitted in drinking water by the EPA, and 130 times more glyphosate than has been found in tests to cause organ damage in animals.” [2] Consuming too much of this added ingredient can interfere with the body’s digestive track and the biosynthesis of nutrients. The issue of famine and starvation is supposedly being solved by the production of GMO foods, but these foods lack important ingredients like potassium. When these foods are processed in the body, they become simple carbohydrates or what is known as “empty calories” containing very little nutritional value. Based on the information that is being provided, it is easy to say we are coming closer to solving this world crisis that has prolonged for centuries, but are we creating another complication linked to genetically modified foods causing fatal diseases?

In the 19th century, developing countries have struggled to provide food to the people of their land. This is because of the extreme poverty that is linked to over population, extreme climate change, degradation, and lack of food security. The green revolution was developed in the 1970s which is the significant increase in crop production in developing countries that is achieved using fertilizers, pesticides, and high-yield crop varieties. Geneticists have now developed techniques that further extend their work from the studies brought out by the green revolution to produce genetically modified foods which are an alteration in the genetic levels of crops. These factors are described to be the solution to end world hunger, but they are in fact creating greater harm to the overall health of humans.

Kofi A. Annan argues that “feeding Africa at a time of climate change is one of the major development challenges of our era.” [3] African food production has for decades been greatly influenced by the extreme climate conditions that surround the area. Drought and political instability contributed to the severity of the famine that caused malnutrition and even death in Ethiopia during 1984. The Ethiopian economy began to crumble when sea ports were taken by US-backed Eritrean independence fighters in efforts to prevent Soviet activity in the region. This made it extremely difficult for the government to help aid in the crisis to come. When the drought hit, it caused almost an entire failure of crops in the north which caused conflict around Eritrea which in turn hindered the passage of relief supplies. Close to 8 million people became famine victims during the drought of 1984 and it was estimated that over a million died. This is just one of the many conflicts in Africa that resulted in a loss of basic needs for survival.

Famine refugees in a camp in Korem, Tigray region. Ethiopia, November 1984


Another conflict was established in the eastern African community. The people of Kenya relied on “the short rains, in October and November, and the long rains, a great deluge lasting from March through May”[5] for their production of crops. In the year 1984, the skies remained lifeless and rainfall was very minimal. Thus, Kenya had now also joined the African countries affiliated with harsh climates unable to sustain crop production. The government then began hoarding every last bit of food that was located in the stores for the wealthy elite to get by resulting in malnutrition and famine for the impoverished. Farmers who calculated their wealth based on their cattle, were then forced to sell them to be slaughtered because there were no grasslands in good condition for pastures. Because of the shortage of rainfall in 1984, Kenya was in high demand for food while foreign exchange was at an all-time high. The people of Kenya were forced to use just about all the money they had to purchase crops that would have usually been grown on their own lands. Due to their low-technology agriculture that was unable to endure dramatic changes in the weather and the chained reaction of events that came along with this, the people of Kenya had very little or nothing left at all


Also, many developing countries are impoverished not only due to lack of food, but also food security. Agriculture is the single largest employer in the world that provides an income for more than 40 percent of the global population. It is the single largest source of revenue and jobs for poor rural households. When extreme climate conditions prevent these farmers from growing and consuming crops that they can sell or trade, this becomes a huge problem and these people become jobless and unable to support their families. Underdeveloped countries benefit from the production of genetically modified foods because researchers have created a variety of crops that can withstand severe drought or thrive on arid lands now considered unsuitable for farming. The world’s population is increasing at a faster rate than the production of food and if we plan to feed everyone in it, the production of genetically modified foods has to be taken into consideration in the parts of the world were crops can’t survive due to unsustainable climate conditions.


GMO corn production

In a journal article entitled “Famine: Some Additional Aspects”, it discusses the central causes of famine and human suffering occurring in Africa during the decade of the 1980s and viable solutions. Famine in African is the devastating result caused from drought, natural disasters such as flooding, crop diseases, pests, and war that disrupts the availability of food in a chronically undernourished society. To solve this problem, it is suggested that we increase the intensification of crop production in better areas. To achieve higher food yields, , Africa must increase their production of perennial crops which can thrive in fragile soils and harsher climate conditions. This article is intended for the government and people who are interested in taking action towards solving the ruinous global crisis of starvation. The purpose of this article is to inform people about the malnutrition and harsh living environments of Africa and the actions they will be attempting to solve this. The authors’ socioeconomic classes might interfere with their complete understanding of this detrimental situation occurring in Africa because they are not experiencing the intensity of this situation first hand. An unspoken assumption towards this subject might be that this is the cause of something more than just disasters such as crop production and distribution controlled by the government.


The issue of famine and malnutrition is a global issue that still pertains to this day. With the help of the green revolution, established by Norman Borlaug, crop yields increased. He established the simple technique known as cross-breeding, harvesting, and planting seeds in order to produce disease-resistant crops. Over the next few decades, scientists were able to establish what we know to be called genetically modified organisms or GMOs. These organism’s genetic material has been artificially manipulated in a laboratory. Modern technologies are being used to synthetically develop other traits in plants. One example of this is a resistance to browning in apples. Scientists believe that this technology is the end all to world hunger, but I believe it is causing much greater harm for our environment and the people consuming these genetically altered foods. GMO foods are found in 80 percent of all processed foods. In the book entitled “Food Politics” by Robert Paarlberg, he argues that these processed foods are the number one factor leading to health issues such as obesity and the food industry is left to blame. He goes on to explain that “the modern food industry does more than simply process, package, and deliver foods to consumers. It also designs the taste and consistency of those foods, manipulating the ingredients… more difficult for consumers to resists.”[8]

Norman Borlaug is an agricultural scientist who is known for his role in the production of the “Green Revolution”.

In the journal article called “Risks of Genetically Engineered Crops”, it discusses the possible health risks relating to genetically modified crops and how the Department of Agriculture and the Environmental Protection Agency have not adequately identified which transgenic foods should receive a limited or heightened review based on these risks. Breeding of these foods results in large benefits towards agricultural production, but it also creates hazardous, toxicological risks. The authors propose that the net result will amount to lower food qualities, and poorer health along with higher food prices. The audience for this article are people in societies where these foods are being sold in local grocery stores and markets. They need to be aware of these risks and the disadvantages of purchasing genetically engineered crops. The socioeconomic class of the author interferes in this article because the people of the lower class who might not understand the facts behind this article due to the fact that it’s all they can afford on a daily basis, so they just see benefits and no harm. On the other hand, the higher economic class might not see this as being relevant to them. An unspoken assumption could be that even though there are dangers to consuming these foods, it is ultimately solving the global crisis of hunger.

[1]Borlaug, Norman E. “The Green Revolution for Africa.” Wall Street Journal (New York, N.Y.), October
26, 2007.
[2] “Letter: GMO Foods Aren’t Good for You.” Valley News, May 28, 2013.
[3] Annan, Kofi. “Feeding Africa at a Time of Climate Change- a Major Development Challenge of Our Era.” U.S. Newswire (WA), November 4, 2010.
[4] McDougal, Dennis. “A Year of Giving and Giving.” The Times Mirror (Los Angeles, CA), October 17,
[5] Cowell, Alan. “Drought Spreads to Kenya, Stirring Fear of a Food Crisis.” New York Times (New York,
N.Y.), July 16, 1984.
[6] El-Ashry, Mohamed T., Herbert N. Woodward, George Gibson, John W. Mellor, and Sarah Gavian. “Famine:
Some Aditional Aspects.” Science 236 (July 19, 1987): 1503-04.
[7] Perkins, John H. Geopolitics and the Green Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
[8] Paarlberg, Robert. Food Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University
Press, 2013.
[9] Gurian-Sherman, Doug, and Steven H. Strauss. “Risks of Gentically Engineered Crops.” Science 301
(September 26, 2003): 1845-47.

Figure 1. Exclusive: How Bill Casey’s CIA Ripped Off the 1985 Live Aid Concert to Arm Right
Figure 2. The advent of genetically modified crops has promised heartier food and higher yields that could potentially reduce poverty and malnutrition rates the world over.
Figure 3. Norman Borlaug photographed in Mexico for LIFE Magazine in November 1970


Women Challenging Oppression in the Middle East

Download PDF

Women’s oppression and inequality has been a significant issue throughout the roots of history in the Middle East. Even though Palestinian women have often been involved in the preservation and conveyance of Palestinian culture, they are rarely given credit. With their significant start in the mid-1900s, Palestinian women have been fighting for feminism for decades, generating their own organizations and projects to influence the society around them. While a patriarchal society and social double standards have restricted them, the perseverance of these Palestinian women have allowed them to integrate into history. These women have endangered their lives and fought for risky political and professional positions in order to make their voices and opinions heard.

The Hadassah Medical Organization is a group that serves both Palestinian and Israeli people alike, as stated in their mission statement, “without regard to race, religion or nationality” [1]. This medical relief establishment was founded February 24, 1912 by a group of Arab Palestinian women who aspired to bring medical help to their country. These women strived toward their mission named, “the healing of the daughter of my people”[1]. Even though today Hadassah has “some 3,400 nurses throughout the country” [1] women have been and continue to be kept out of medical specialized professions.  In 2002 only 10.4 percent of the Palestinian work force consisted of women, with a overpowering 65.5 percent of male workers. Women were only allowed to work “caring occupations”[2] and were discouraged from aspirations of being doctors, lawyers or engineers. The oppression of women is a common patriarchal view in most of the world, this oppression is coupled with an aversion of women in STEM professions. In order to stay educated and to encourage other women to join the medical career path the women involved in the Hadassah Medical Organization gather regularly with colleagues to stay updated on medical advances. Today, women are kept from achieving in the medical profession, even though they have made great advances in the past. Why are women so restricted from the work force and how can they acquire more credibility in prestigious occupations? 

Even when women make it into professions of science, technology, engineering or math, they are still oppressed within their fields. In an article written by Annie Foner in 1928, she states that as of 1928 only 104 of Palestine’s registered doctors were women. Even though this may seem like women are receiving some choice in occupation equality, the majority of these women working in the medical field are midwifes. These “special positions for dealing with infant welfare” and birthing specifically go to women because of the social standards that portrays women as nurturing and motherly. These women are forced into specific occupations like midwifes or nurses instead of being able to explore other medical specializations. Meanwhile men occupy all other specializations in the medical field. These women are forced into the positions that fit the gender standards created by men, to oppress women and keep them in social boxes. [3]

The loss of Palestinian land from 1946-2000

In 1948, the most significant incident in the history of Palestinian people took place, Nakba. As WW2 was winding down in 1945, many Jewish people came looking for a safe haven after “subjection to the Nazi genocide”, and they decided to name Palestine as their homeland. The war of 1948 in combined with abandonment by the British, left Palestine open to be twisted into the state of Israel resulting in the “devastation of Palestinian society”. Palestinian people were pushed out of their homes, most of their land was confiscated by the government, villages were violently ransacked, men were killed, and women were raped if they attempted resistance for their country. Eventually the west bank and Gaza strip came under Israeli “military occupation”, leading to the creation of refugee camps; eighty percent of Palestinian people became refugees in their own country. Due to this catastrophe caused by the Israeli government “a country and its people disappeared from maps and dictionaries” that year. However, the Palestinian culture and history still exists with the people, Palestinian women “are the transmitters of kinds of narratives” they are the main conveyance for their history to live on in next generations. As the guardians of this past, Palestinian women hold a vital role in the survival of their culture. [4] Figure 1 illustrates the significant loss of Palestinian land as the people were further suppressed from 1946 to 2000. Under Israeli control the Palestinian people lost their land along with the freedom of their culture.

After Nakba, the mobilization of women became a main focus for Palestinian women’s organizations, specifically mobilizing women from all social classes. The main purpose of this mobilization of women toward feminism after Nakba was to “defend the exile community”[5], and encourage a national fight for liberation. This mobilization marked the period when women truly decided to “become active” [5] in fighting; fighting for their country, fighting for their rights as women, and fighting for their equality in a society monopolized by men. The Journal of Palestine Studies stated that, the Nakba crisis and “war in Lebanon appears to have acted as a catalyst”[6], an opportunity that women used to spark a feminist campaign, by intertwining their own battle against gender standards with the battle to save their culture from nonexistence. Around the 1960s and 70s the revolutionary tide that took place in Jordan was headed by “quite a few of the women leaders in Lebanon”[5] who hoped to transform the passion and fight women had for their country into a “national policy on women’s issues”[5]. This was one of the first instances seen where women started to believe that they could take control and claim their own power. Palestinian women needed to fight with even more grit because they were being oppressed in two aspects of their intersectionationalities, as women and as Palestinians.

It is often hard for women to have any sort of powerful position whether it be in education or another field, due to the credence that “women’s opinions were of no great import” a belief dating back to much before the 1960s. In an article written by Soraya Antonius, she discusses the Palestinian women who endeavored to insert themselves into the political world. These women were often punished for their outspoken ways or just completely ignored. Antonius includes interviews with women who were part of the General Union of Palestinian Women (GUPW) which is the official representation of Palestinian women with in the Palestine Liberation Organization(PLO). One interview with Issam Abdel-Hadi a woman who was part of the former GUPW talked about the harassment and imprisonment she suffered at the hands of the Israeli government. After the GUPW and PLO were shut down by the Jordanian government, she and her fellow members continued to meet in secret; they continued to do work with the Palestinian families and women’s, liberation and help programs they had previously started. Even though, she and the women she worked with endured accusations of conspiracy and physical tortured by Israeli government police, these women remained strong in their resolve. Abdel-Hadi shares incredible stories of these women and their passion and drive for feminism and the freedom of the Palestinian women. [7]

Lamis al-Alami speaks about education in Palestine

A significant part of the oppression of women in Palestine has to do with the inability to attend school and gain a better education. In an interview with Lamis al-Alami, the Minister of Education and Higher Education in the Palestinian Authority, she takes the term women’s empowerment and replaces it with “women in power”. She explains that women’s empowerment sounds too much as though women are “waiting for someone to give it” to them. She discusses the education system she works in and the increase of women in the education however, very few of these women are in leading power ship roles. Al-Alami states that are only about 15% of women in higher educational roles in the Palestinian educational system. However, one of her main priorities is still to “promote women’s education and girls’ education”. The lack of women in powerful positions in education is difficult for the promotion of feminism and the gain of equal right for women. [8] Figure 2 shows Lamis al-Alami giving a speech about education in Palestine, and addressing concerns and requirements about the system in Palestinian communities.

Muslim-Palestinian womens activist Linda Sarsour speaks at women’s march

The most important way to promote feminism, and free women and girls from this gender based oppression is to keep bringing up the issue and educate people about this problem. Simona Sharoni discusses the “growing interest in the study of women and gender issues in the middle east” in recent decades, in her 1997 article about middle eastern women. She emphasizes the importance of keeping up the rise of educational papers on women and gender issues since the “dramatic increase in papers” in 1984. There is a noticeable difference in the fact that feminism seems to be a white women’s issue and the fact that women’s studies is a western centralized topic, whereas ‘the study of women in the middle east’ is more common phrase than, ‘middle eastern women and feminism’. Sharoni mentions the call to raise “provocative questions concerning such issues as the representation of non-Western women” to include women of all cultures in this struggle. The term “Feminism” needs to be stated in the papers about middle eastern women, these women have been committing acts of feminism for decades and it is time that they are recognized as part of the women’s movement against gender based oppression. [9] Figure 3 shows Palestinian women’s activist Linda Sarsour speaking at womens march 2017. Women’s oppression is still a considerable issue today and had dug its roots into society, which is why strong leaders like Sarsour are needed to push women out from under those roots.

Women’s oppression is a world wide issue, especially in Palestine since women have had to contend with gender based oppression as well as ethnic and religious oppression. Dealing with these different types of oppression has only made the women here stronger over time. The best way for women to gain gender equality is to take social justice into their own hands. There are countless examples of women being shut down and pushed out because of their gender, and yet these courageous, self-empowered women keep fighting for the right to be heard.


[1] Farber, V. E. (2015, May 29). Hadassah: The power of women who DO. Jewish Advocate.

[2] Hess, H. (2015, Feb 04). Pawns in a gambit – Harvard political review. University Wire.

[3]Foner, Annie. “Medical Practice For Women In Palestine.” The British Medical Journal 2, no. 3544 (1928): 1068.

[4] Sa’di, Ahmad H., and Abu-Lughod, Lila. Nakba: Palestine, 1948, and the Claims of Memory. Cultures of History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007. 3-137.

[5] Peteet, Julie Marie. Gender in Crisis: Women and the Palestinian Resistance Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991. 100-141.

[6] Ron, Osnat, and Merav Dvir. “Women against Occupation.” Journal of Palestine Studies 13, no. 3 (1984): 184-188.

[7] Antonius, Soraya. “Prisoners for Palestine: A List of Women Political Prisoners.” Journal of Palestine Studies 9, no. 3 (1980): 29-80.

[8] Schenker, Hillel, and Ziad AbuZayyad. “The Role of Women in the Struggle for Palestine.” Palestine – Israel Journal of Politics, Economics, and Culture 17, no. 3/4 (2011): 137-47.

[9] Sharoni, Simona. “Women and Gender in Middle East Studies: Trends, Prospects and

Challenges.” Middle East Report, no. 205 (1997): 27-29.


Figure 1: Cole, Juan. “The Map: The Story of Palestinian Nationhood Thwarted After the League of Nations Recognized It.” Informed Comment. March 16, 2010. Accessed November 12, 2017.

Figure 2: ArabBrains. “(English Translation) HE Dr Lamis Al-Alami, Minister of Ed & Higher Education, Palestine, AES 2013.” YouTube. May 22, 2013. Accessed November 12, 2017.

Figure 3: “Muslim-Palestinian Linda Sarsour Makes History at Women’s March.” News | teleSUR English. January 22, 2017. Accessed November 12, 2017.

Contemporary Social Injustice in Palestine

Download PDF

Daud Ibrahim


Israeli/Palestine Conflict

September 24, 2017

In the 19th century, Palestine had its own land: about 86 percent of the population were Muslim, 10 percent were Christian, and 4 percent were Jewish; everything was peaceful. “The First World War , which gave impetus to the trend towards national self-determination, stimulated the growth of Arab nationalism, and the influx of Jewish settlers to Palestine greatly affected the Arabs… until “1946, an 11-nation United Nations Special Committee on Palestine into a Jewish state, an Arab state, and an internationalized Jerusalem”[1]. Their goal was to take over Palestine and make it an Israel state. “On November 29, 1947 this motion was adopted by the United Nations, with the United States, the Soviet Union, and France approving“[1]. During this war, about 700,000 Palestinians fled from their home. This was a very hard time for the Palestinian people as they had very little access to food and water, Palestinian men had to leave their jobs and many of them were dying. In addition, due to the pressure of the Zionist, the “United Nations recommended the Israel’s take 55 percent of Palestine land, even though this group only had 7 percent”. However, the Zionist did not stop there. This resulted in 16 massacres, including a vicious massacre of over 100 men, women, and children. Palestine was extremely outnumbered and had to give up even more of their land to the Jews. After the war, “Israel had conquered 78 percent of Palestine; three-quarters of a million Palestinians had been made refugees; over 500 towns and villages had been obliterated”[2].  Figure 1 describes how Palestine had started in 1947 a land that is majority owned by Palestinian and then over time it illustrates the loss of Palestine land to Israelis. Then it shows how it looks today, as a prominently Israel country with very small Palestine land compared to what it used to have in 1947.

Figure 1; Palestinian territory loss since 1947

This war helped the Jews out economically because of all the money and support by the United States of America. Israelis were getting provided tools, weapons, and money which led to the performing of its criminal agendas to the Arab people; US involvement is still going on today. Israel gets an average of $8 million per day. The United States gives more money to Israel than to any other nation. This conflict continues as many men and women are being harassed, killed, and thrown in jail with no trial at times. Israelis make it hard for Gaza to get food because “virtual water terms the inequality and instability of trade relations between Israel and Palestine“[3] due to bad political situation. In addition, many of the boarders in Palestine are controlled by Israel. Since the mid 1960’s, Israel’s advanced military industries  have been helped by the US [4] The US is one of the most powerful countries in the world, with Israel’s getting help from US involvement, only makes Israel stronger in controlling Palestine. What way did the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza created economic, political, and social injustice since its inception in 1967? What important role did US play in Israels agenda? How were the people effected by this takeover, of both sides, Israels and Arabs?

“A Century of Excavation in Palestine”, is a book that was published in 1925. This book tells the story about how Palestine was taken over by the Jews and how Palestine was affected politically and economically. R.A.S. Macalister is a professor of Celtic Arch/Ecology, University College, he was the former directer of the Palestine Exploration Fund excavation. One of his main focus in writing this book was to show university students how Palestine was mistreated, and it examines different discrimination’s that Palestinians had to face. He analyzed how America was involved with giving money to Israel, and Israel used the money on weapons to make a strong military force to continue its excavation of Arabs from Palestine land[5]. In addition, the author talks about how Palestinian men had to work very tough labor jobs with really low wages. However, due to Macalister’s relationship with Palestine culture, he may have had a bias that favored the Palestinian people. Over exaggeration could be very apparent due to his affiliation with Palestine. Additionally, he may assume that the readers also have a strong relationship with Palestine. He also is writing this book to someone, so that could affect on what exact words he wants to use and it could be perceived that he is writing to possibly impress his old friend, Ernest W. Gurney Masterman, M.D.

Reflections on the Arab-Israeli Peace Process and its Future Prospects is a Article by Bassiouni, Cherif. Bassiouni explains how Israel made it extremely difficult to let Palestinian have a place to live after the 1947-1949 period of conflict. He goes into great depth of how many Palestinians were angered by the israelis for not giving them the Gaza or West bank. Because Israeli government rejected any negotiation  by the Palestinian Liberation Organization regarding this issue. Bassiouni breaks down his article in different phases,he starts off explaining the phases of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict through the labels employed to describe it. Then goes Into 1947, and explains the concerns that Palestine still have and the problems that they are facing. After that, he closely examines 1948-1967 by looking closely into the actions from the PLO. Finally, he then looks into after 1967, the “Palestinian refugee problem.” and The Camp David “Framework for Peace in the Middle East”[6]. However, due to to the Author being Arab, it could be seen as him showing biasness to the Israels because its the authors race who is being heavily affected. In addition, the Author gives the perspective of the aftermath of Israel-Palestine conflict from a Arabs men perspective. He does not explain how this conflict is effecting women or even children.

Thesis: During the process of the Jews pushing Palestine out of their own land unfairly, many Palestinian people were living in distress and violence; and were forced to relinquish their culture, beliefs,religion and inherit Israeli culture. Constant mass massacre would take plays in Arab areas. Due to the displacement of Palestine in Nabka in 1948, Palestinians were relocated from the West Bank and Gaza.  Jewish people unfairly took the land of the Palestinian, and in doing this  creating economic, political, and social injustices for the Arab people and contributed to the distress and violence they were living in

Figure 2, explains the strength of the Israeli army by illustrating a picture of the army holding Palestine men against their will at the Westbank in 1967

Figure 2; Israeli soldier occupation in the westbank 1967

Internally displaced Palestinians were socially isolated. Many Arabs were denied the right by Jewish people, on where they could specifically stay at after also being displaced. Jewish people made  “closed zones” during this period, so that Arab people were not allowed to relocate in specific areas, in addition, meaning the residents had to acquire “movement permits”. After being displaced in 1948, displaced Palestinians were not allowed to relocate their households until 1966.  For example, as part of their efforts to colonize and erase Palestinian culture, and essentially really  “Judaize” villages. Israeli government would enforce military to transfer Palestinians from villages to villages, while still being in the Israeli borders

Figure 3, shows Palestinian refuges being forced out of their homes and being relocated from the Allenby Bridge to the Jordan river in the occupied Israeli Westbank in 1967.

Figure 3; Palestinian refugees relocation June 22, 1967

In addition, due to US involvement it is seen as an “honest broker” led to the social isolation . Because that the US shows more favor in Israel between the two conflicting sides, Israel is much more prone to get what they need from US.In effect, Israel has the power isolate Palestine socially. In his book, Khalidi (2013, p. xivxviii)he explains “that rather than being an “honest broker” the US has added to growing conflict between the two countries, this is mainly because US is heavily influenced by Israel, and puts Palestine in a position to do what Israel wants. In addition, the US is seen as a “honest broker” by the Arabs, is because even though they are not fair when it comes to negotiating and its seen from Palestine people that they want Israel to succeed. Due to US involvement, Arabs are living in harsh condition areas with limited access to food and water.

In an article by James Feron A Debate in Israel: Sapir Brings Into Open the Dissent To Dayan’s View on Occupied Area, he explains the mindset of Political leaders on why they believe that its best for their country, if Arabs are politically isolated. In his interview with  Mr.Sapir, he said that  “Israel as a binational state would be dominated by Arabs and would have overwhelming economic, and political and security problems“.Even with an annual immigration of 20,000 to 30,000 Jews, Israelis still believe that helping out the Arabs would mess up their economy. Israeli’s were ultimately insecure with the potential rise of Arabs and so by suppressing them, and making them economically disadvantage by not providing them with good paying jobs and making there only option working extremely low wages. In addition, in  Ferons second interview with Mr.Dayan, he  states “That there will be no peace through diplomacy, at least in the near future, and that Israel must chart their own course“[7]. James Feron article explains how Israels political leaders genuinely believed that there will be no hope in providing equal rights for Palestinians. In addition, there are a 0 percent chances in reconciling that they will have a peaceful talk, where they can hear out the Arabs and possibly negotiate on a better economy for the Arabs.

As  early as 2002, the second intifada occurred. The cause of this second inifada caused Palestine to be in more of a Political Isolation. Due to This outbreak, Palestinian West Bank and Gaza towns and villages, in this battle, had about dozens deaths of civilians on both sides[8] it caused US to have a different view on Palestine, and caused a major shift on US policy towards Palestine and its leader Arafat. As a result, Arafat was banned to come to Washington, and was looked at as a terrorist by the Bush Administration. Political favor from the US had shifted towards Israel. As a result, of US being one of the strongest countries in terms of military support, US support was so powerful that it made Palestine comply to Israel demands. In addition, when Palestine leader Arafat disagreed with US decisions, On June 24, 2002 President Bush demanded Palestine “to elect new leaders, leaders not compromised by terror“[9]. US involvement in favor of Israel makes Palestine politically disadvantaged because, due to US force, Palestine leaders are to do what US asks and if they don’t their leader like Arafat will be released of their duties. This shows that Palestinians are politically isolated because they can’t make their own decisions without mandatory demand.

Another reason why Palestine is in the state they are in is mainly due to US involvement, this caused Palestine to be economically isolated because the US government provided Israel with $10 billion in loan, then Israel pays that money back in 5 years by giving the US 2 billion each year[10] . The US claim, that they support both countries and they want to find peace for both parties,  it is surprisingly a one-way street. American policy is not consistent with helping out the Arab people and providing Palestine with the same support as Israel. In addition, in January 1992, the  money that US lends from its tax payers, Israel’s strengthens their military and their defensive technologies by purchasing heavy duty bombs and aircraft. Because of the support Israel receives from the US,  they are able to expand on Arab countries as it occurred in 1967 War between the two countries. Thus forcing displaced Arabs to live and work in areas that have a low economy and are limited to resources. By being economically isolated, many Arabs did not have the money or technology to make money, so as a result they were forced to work low wage jobs.

Lastly, Because of the displacement in Nabka in 1948, led to counter effects of each isolation react to one another. For example, the cause of political violence made Palestinian people psychological and post-traumatic stress, because  Arabs are being ignored by politicians and are not being incorporated in Israeli economy. In effect, of being politically isolated led to Palestinians people being economically isolated and many Arab men were forced to work very hard labor jobs for very small wages. Then this causes, Palestinian people to be caste out of Israel’s society. As a  result of social isolation, many Palestinians after the displacement in 1948 where forced to give up their religion, culture, identity and inherit Israeli beliefs. Being politically,economically,socially isolated caused Palestinian to be heavily policed, which resulted in harsh sentences for small crimes. In addition, these isolation’s caused Palestinians to fit in to Israel culture because they would be getting punished if they practiced their own. In fact, 940,000 of people that  lived in the area that later became Israeli. Within this group, about 75%–80% fled their homes and as a result they became refuges. However, “The Palestinians who remained in the part of historical Palestine now called Israel became a minority in the Jewish state. It was recently estimated that about 25–30% (about 370,000–420,000) of the current Palestinian citizens of Israel are IDPs or descendants of IDPs“[11]. This long lasting conflict is still occurring today in 2017, many Palestinians are not getting the same rights as the Jewish people. Their lives are being swept under the rug and are going unnoticed, Palestine Arabs have to live in fear because of the amount of Israeli Policing enforcement that is occurring to these Arab people. These isolation’s that Arabs have to go through is something that is truly sad.













End Notes

[1]Ellis, Harry B. THE DILEMMA OF ISRAEL. (Washington, D.C, District of Columbia: American Enterprise Institutue For Public Policy Research, 1970 pg 106)


[3]Beltrán, María J., and Giorgos Kallis. “How Does Virtual Water Flow in Palestine? A Political Ecology Analysis.” (Ecological Economics 143 (2018): 17-26. . Pg 44)

 [4]Inbar, Efraim. Israel’s Strategic Agenda. (New York, NY: Routeledge 2 park square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxforshire OX14 4RN, 2007 pg 56)

[5] Gottschalk, Max. American Jewish Committee Jewish Post-War Problem (The American Jewish Committee Research Insititute and Post-War, 1943).

[6] Bassiouni, Cherif M. Reflection on The Arab-Israeli Peace Process and Its Future Prospects (American-Arab Affairs, July 1987)

[7] James Feron  “A Debate in Israel: Sapir Brings Into Open the Disent to Dayan’s View on Occupied Areas“( New York Times Nov 1968 Pages 2)

[8] NewsHour, PBS. “U.S. Role in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.” (PBS. May 11, 2006)


[10]Camillla Klungland,Ousdal. “The American Paradox In The Israeli Palestine conflict; Roles as the “honest broker” and the “best friend of Israel”. A discourse Analysis of US official Statement from 2002-2013“(Norwegian University of Life Sciences, As 2014)

[11] Nihaya Daoud, “Internal Displacement and Health Among the Palestinian Minority in Israel” (Social Science & Medicine Vol 74 No.8 2012 Pages 1163-117)





Figure 1:  Palestinian territory loss since 1947

Figure 2: Israeli soldier occupation in the westbank 1967

Figure 3: Palestinian refugees forced to move from the Allenby Bridge to the Jordan River June 22, 1967







Search Terms: *Palestine *Israels *Conflict *US Involvment *1947 Palestine-Israel War *Second Intifada *Bush Administration *Honest Broker

Geographic Focus: Palestine

The effects of the evolution of communication on people’s ability to unite and stand for a purpose.

Download PDF

A study was done days after the Tunisian Revolution to see what Tunisian’s thought about the importance of Facebook in the revolution. There were 333 people that took the online questionnaire and eighty percent rated Facebook as important or very important to the revolution.  Although this is a very small sample size, not a single survey showed that any Tunisian thought that Facebook was unimportant at all to the revolution.  Furthermore the study left some examples of the replies.  In one of the examples a Tunisian goes as far as to say, “It was almost the only source of information and means of communication” [1] (study).  The Arab Spring, a new beginning for millions of people that had to fight, and die for freedom.  This spring began in Tunisia, and was the revolution that started five other prominent revolts across the Middle East.  When people saw the riots, demonstrations, and heard the political views of others through social media, an inferno began to tear across international borders. In Tunisia, riots were planned using twitter and Facebook, thousands of people instantly knowing the time and place to unite and express their views.  Once Tunisia caught fire, social media played it’s next part.  People in Yemen, Syria, Bahrain, and Egypt saw that people were fighting for justice in their own country, consequently, most followed suit and took to social media to set up their own demonstrations.  The effects of communication through technology on the Arab Spring are enormous, it gave the people a way to unite and stand for what they believed in [2].  Technology has always been instrumental in the masses ability to communicate, the roots of this span back centuries, from steamships carrying articles from places like New Delhi and the Congo, where atrocities were taking place.  In all of these situations, the technological communication gave the people the ability to speak on what was taking place and make changes.

Although the Arab Spring is not considered to have started until late 2010, Egypt had already been in unrest for quite some time.  In 2008, an online activists group called April 6, put together a demonstration using Facebook and Twitter. This youth movement brought thousands of people together, all to call for the presidents resignation due to corruption and unfair treatment [3].  Although there was already unrest in the Middle East, the Tunisian Revolution is considered the true beginning of the Arab Spring, therefore it would be good to have the heart of my information designated to it.  The spark that spread to the rest of Tunisia and finally the rest of the Middle East, was a protest performed by a 26 year old man in Central Tunisia.  Mohammed Bouzazi, an unemployed Tunisian, protested government corruption by lighting himself on fire in front of a municipal office in central Tunisia.  Videos of this protest spread across Tunisia through social media, with street protests following almost immediately.  The Tunisian government and military forces handled these protests poorly, garnering national attention for the killing of unarmed protesters within weeks.  Within a month of Bouzazi’s protest, a state of emergency was declared by the current standing government, and a new election was to take place in six months to remove Ben Ali from power.  This announcement was not enough for the people, protests continued along with unwarranted killing of protestors.  Ben Ali was finally uprooted from his position of power and forced to leave the country [4].  With Tunisia leading the way, the protests had spread all over Egypt.  Protesters were yet again calling for the President to step down, although this time it was much more of a shock to some people.  The president of Egypt, Hosni Mubaraak, had been the leader of Egypt for going on 30 years, and was also one of the most influential leaders of his time.An Egyptian man holding a sign depicting the countries dislike of the president.

Roots of this effect can be seen throughout history, this project will delve into two main instances, the Congo, and Great Britain’s colony, India.  With the Congo showing more what one man can do, The Indian rebellion is a culmination of many people’s efforts.  The Congo became a colony in the rush for African colonies, while India was one of the largest and older colonies the Great Britain had.  Both of these examples show just how important communication is for the freedom of people.  Because some people hold more power, word has to be spread evenly, giving everyone from the lowest person on the totem pole, to the highest, the ability to form an opinion on current world issues.  In both cases the people were successful in creating change, through laws and proclamations the people’s voices were heard.

The Indian Rebellion shows another root of communication playing an instrumental role in the masses having their say.  In 1857 some Indian soldiers that were forced into the British Army started a revolution.  They started by shooting their officers and marching on Delhi, the Capital, like many Revolutions this spread to other armies that followed suit and marched on Delhi [5].  India was the largest and one of the best economical colonies, along with Great Britain being one of the current world powers.  This shell shocked the people of GB, not because they were scared for their safety, but back home nobody thought that there was any reason for a revolution.  The British government had been covering up many of the problems in India.  At this point in communication, whatever you heard, is whatever the crown wanted you to hear.  But this was one of the first times people in a main world power heard what they were actually doing, slaughtering families in retaliation [6].  Once the people of Great Britain read the news that was brought back on steamships from India, the crown was forced to completely overhaul the legal system and regulations in India [7].  With the power of steamships and the press, people were able to get the word out to a make changes, not without due time though.  It took more than 17 months for Queen Victoria to make a proclamation.  Although this was just the beginning of people having the ability to hear what was happening around the world, this evolution lead all the way to the Arab Spring, with millions of people instantly seeing what was happening countries away from them, uniting for their own purposes, and bringing change. This picture demonstrates the diversity of Indian troops during the rebellion.


Furthermore, the roots of this effect can be seen in Belgium, during the time when the Congo was the sole property of the king.  The Congo Free Sate started out as so meaningless to the Belgium Government that they allowed the king to turn it into his own private colony, essentially allowing the people to enslave the Congolese without regulations [8].  This created a horrendous system of goods being demanded by the King, regardless of how many people were available to work for the goods.  At this point there was newspaper to communicate news across the world, and many missionaries in the Congo Free State were willing to write articles for the Press back in Belgium.  These missionaries were the only “boots on the ground” that weren’t completely influenced by the King.   At this point it could take days or weeks for press back in Belgium to ask for an article, have the article written, and then have the article sent back to Belgium.  Although this was a sufficient method, the seconds it takes full videos to be transferred across the modern world is not only quicker, but carries an authentic message.  E.D. Morel, part of the press, started depicting the State as  “Blood… smeared all over the Congo Free State” [9].  Morel noticed that all that was being shipped to the Congo was guns, ammunition, and chains.  At this point, Morel created the Congo Reform Association to combat King Leopold. Through newspaper and flyers, Morel spread the word of the atrocities, garnering attention from politicians, celebrities, and other notable people.  In 1908 the Free Congo State was changed to Belgian Congo and the government enforced regulations on the treatment of the Congolese [10].  This shows how necessary communication is, without technology to carry information across the world, the Belgians could never have known about the atrocities of their own king.

A picture of E.D. Morel by Bassano, whole-plate glass negative, 12 December 1923.
A picture of King Leopold II, owner of the Congo Free State.

All over the world, since the beginning of time, governments across the world have committed atrocious crimes to their own people.   Thankfully, due to new technology, as time passes the people have been given a chance to spread the awareness of these atrocities.  Dating back to when newspaper that traveled across continents in days was considered new, Belgian journalists used newspaper to communicate the atrocities that their king was committing against the people of the Congo.  Later, in the 19th century, the Indian Revolution sparked an uproar in Great Britain with articles portraying slaughters of people on both sides, this caused for a complete overhaul in the laws in India.  Coming all the way to the near present, the Arab spring spread through the use of smartphones and social media, and possibly more importantly was heard around the world because of the same technology. Instances such as these show why the evolution of technology has been instrumental in giving the people an ability to unite and stand for their purpose.

1.Yousri Marzouki, Inès Skandrani-Marzouki, Moez Béjaoui, Haythem Hammoudi, and Tarek Bellaj. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, PubMed Central, May 2012.

2.Editors of the Encyclopedia Brittanica, Arab Spring, Encyclopedia Brittanica.

3.Ahmed Alhindi, Waheed & Talha, Muhammad & Sulong, Ghazali. The Role of Modern Technology in Arab Spring, Archives des sciences, Saudi Arabia, 2012.

4.Tufekci, Zeynep, Freelon, Deen, Bruns, Axel, Highfield, Tim, and Burgess, Jean. “The Arab Spring and Social Media Audiences.” American Behavioral Scientist, 2013.

5.Marshall, Peter. “British History in depth: British India and the ‘Great Rebellion’.” BBC. February 17, 2011. Accessed September 25, 2017

6.Editors of the Encyclopedia Brittanica, Indian Mutiny, Encyclopedia Brittanica.

7.Robert Clive, Baron. Lord Clive’s speech in the House of Commons, on the motion made for an inquiry into the nature, state, and condition, of the East India Company, and of the British affairs in the East Indies, in the fifth session of the present Parliament, British Parliament, 1772.

8.Morel, Edmund Dene. “The Crisis in the Campaign against Congo Misrule. The Congo ‘System.’ What It is. What It Necessitates” Liverpool, The Making Of The Modern World, 1907.

9.Belgian House, Bill Providing for the Government of the Belgian Congo, Belgian Government, 1909.

10.Editors of the Encyclopedia Brittanica, Congo Free State, Encyclopedia Brittanica.