revision two:

Water Service Provision in Ethekwini, South Africa

       Helmecke Manuela book of south Africa’s water crisis ‘Water Service Provision in Ethekwini, South Africa‘ is basically about research of water service provision in South Africa and evaluates how the municipality of eThekwini, a small town in South Africa, which is often cited as a best practice example for water and sanitation provision, because of the poor quality of the water there, compared to currently discussed local-level IWRM(Integrated Water Resources Management ) approaches on sanitation provision. The basic outline or the experiment  is based on principles that are laid out in a discussion of “livelihood-centered approaches to water service establishment.” the experiment assesses how eThekwini goes about planning to help their current water crisis and how they can meet all the requirements of the establishment/ water service provider trying to help them. The amount of the service providers time they give to those in need solely depends on how much they cooperate and need their help. they test or run their experiment by finding how much water they need verses how much water they use verse how much water they actually have. even though communication has improved with both users and servicers their is restraints due to things neither side can control such as the Water Apartheid. South Africa is the only country in the world where people’s right to water is actually written into the Constitution.  which caused more than 10 million South African residents  to have their water cut off since the government implemented a World Bank-inspired “cost recovery” program. This program has since ended, according to the internet, but is still cause problems or the people there today.   

– The average weight of water women in Africa carry on their heads is 50 pounds, the same as the average airport checked luggage allowance. (HDR)

– Every year there are 4 billion cases of diarrhea as a direct result of drinking contaminated water – resulting in 2.2 million deaths each year. This is equivalent to 20 jumbo jets crashing every day. (WHO)

– 98 percent of water-related deaths occur in the developing world (WHO)

These three facts are something id like to point out or “focus on” because they’re all present and constantly affecting the lives of south African people. their water is unclean and sometimes has to be carried for miles just so it is present. These facts tie into the book talked about in my previous paragraph because the people of  eThekwini had to this everyday and it was predicted that in one womens life time shed have walked to the moon and back while carrying water!

*I changed my title from worlds water crisis to water crisis of south Africa*

original question:  Has Africa always been in a disadvantage for fresh and ready supplied water or is their current water crisis partly or fully self inflected?

New question: When was the Water Apartheid established in south Africa and why?

revision three:

The Apartheid of South Africa

Can you imagine being locked up in prison for something you felt so strongly about you didn’t even care how long you would be locked up. Well Nelson Mandela spent about twenty-seven years locked away for the South African Apartheid. Once he was originally locked up, anti-apartheid acts and protests began to free him and free their society of segregation. Well the protesting proceeded until Nelson was free, once free he began his efforts to end the apartheid again and succeeded, ending the apartheid in South Africa and starting the fight for human rights all over the world.

‘South Africa the rise and fall of Apartheid’ by Nancy L. Clark and William H. Worger discusses the complete history behind the Apartheid and highlights certain events in the segregation of races. The book describes Apartheid of South Africa as “the oppressive and brutal system of racial discrimination, was practiced throughout South Africa during the second half of the twentieth century.” (PG.4) There Wasn’t always a conflict between the different races of South Africa in fact Nancy and William state that there wasn’t a problems at all until 1948 when national power an all-white government took control and started enforcing already existing guidelines on race segregation which were under the Apartheid legislative system. Another objective the authors make sure to cover is who the people behind the Apartheid were and who fought against them. I did a little extra research on the internet and found the biggest anti-apartheid Nelson Mandela aka champion of freedom. After 27 years in prison he was freed in 1990 and ended the apartheid in South Africa bringing peace to a racially divided country and leading the fight for human rights around the world says the authors. Some rules of the South African Apartheid were those like no intercourse or marriage to those who were not of the same color, also designated areas for those of the same race. An example of this would be whites lived in this neighbor-hood and went to this coffee joint and blacks went over there or over here, and no one would go to the opposites places. The south African Apartheid set rules for everything human rights says we deserve and was a hard time for those who were involved.

*I would like to change my topic to the South African Apartheid*

Question: how does the South African Apartheid effect the water crisis in South Africa now, were there any laws against water usage and if so would they have done enough damage to last up to today?

Revision four:



       This article is on a book and basically just analyzes how the book set up its arguments and what the arguments were. The book is divided into four sections: Part 1: The minerals-energy complex and its woes: a problematic growth path; Part 2: The state as agent of change: conflicts over implementation; Part 3: Struggles over resources and land; and Part 4: Household interventions: gender issues. Although these issues do not fully cover all the problems, they do set up a base on how the asses the challenges and set back of the deployment in the ‘New South Africa’. [End Page 119] The three essays in Part 1 offer a continued analysis of the growth path that policy-makers have followed in the post-1994 period. The essays making up Part 2 challenge a deeply rooted assumption in liberal ideology, specifically, the belief that policy-makers and planners had rational discussions to come up with ‘best practices’. Despite their best [End Page 120] purposes, policy-makers and planners make mistakes, they are human like us, but sometimes these mistakes can lead to discussions on the best practice. Part 3’s essays focus specifically at the land question. The three essays that comprise Part 4 look at the human rights in post-apartheid South Africa being actual used under concrete circumstances. The article provided the pages of the book that they used to analyze into a PDF document so I was able to read what they read so I could understand their arguments.

Three interesting facts Nancy Clark and William Worger confess in their book ‘South Africa the rise and fall of Apartheid’ that “In December 1966, the United Nations general assembly condemned ‘the policies of apartheid practiced by the government of South Africa as a crime against humanity’. But it was during the 1980s that the world’s attention finally focused on apartheid” (page5) this is after so many African Americans had died from either starvation or protesting. Bring it back to how it all started I did a little research on the internet and says that around the time or leading up to the second world war, was a hard and displeasure time among the black people in South Africa. The hostility that was took place, showed on the protest movements, strikes and labor union activities. At the conference of 1923 the African National Congress declared that it believed the intention of the government is to permanently enslave all black South Africans. When J.B.M. Hertzog became prime minister in 1824, his “Afrikaner” nationalism gained more power and things became even more miserable. Hertzog believed in total segregation such as, territorial, economic, political and educational. The bills that were put in place to reach this goal were known as the ‘Hertzog’ bills. “They caused a lot misery for the black people” Says the website. ‘An all-African Convention held in Bloemfontein in 1935, denounced the Hertzog bills and requested full and equal rights for all South Africans.” I would like to use these fact because they highlight when and what started it all, and because they also give us about when apartheid ended.


Although most researchers of the South Africa apartheid argue that separation or segregation was the worst part, but closer examination shows that the malnutrition and laws on water and food played a greater threat at that time.

Revision 6!


Author: John F. Burns

Source Creation Date: August 21, 1976

Intended Audience: People who want to know more about what, where, who and how the South African apartheid worked.

Main Argument: The chance for change on the government system. How African government is changing when/what/who.

Historical Context: The newspaper article is taking its point of view from an outside perspective. The African Apartheid has ended by this point in time but only just recently.

Authors Comparison to who they are writing about: John F. Burns, a white male born in the United Kingdom, and with a higher education is the exact opposite of the people he is writing about. John had lots of life experience and opportunities compared to the Africans at this point in time having no rights and loads of restrictions against them.

Unspoken Assumptions: We can assume through this article there was a lot of rioting and harsh living conditions for the bottom of the social structure. You can also assume the groups mostly affected had a lot of resentment toward the other groups involved.

Questions: 1) How accurate were the death count/ those affected numbers? Is there any hard fact books or records that document the actual numbers? 2) When the Dutch settlers settled what did the black natives do for the Dutch to think of them as lesser than them?

Revision 7: thesis revision

The acts; Group Areas Act, Act No 41 of 1950 and Bantu Authorities Act, Act No 68 of 1951 were discriminatory against blacks by forcing physical separation between races by creating different residential areas for different races. Leading to forced removals of people living in “wrong” areas and more readily available water to white areas and not black designated areas. Leading to About 15 million people without safe water supply and over 20 million without adequate sanitation services.

Revision 8:

Posel, Deborah. The Making of Aparthied 1948-1961. Oxford: Clarendon, 1991. Print.

Clark, Nacy L., and William H. Worger. South Africa THE RISE AND FALL OF APARTHEID. Two ed. Vol. One. N.p.: Pearson Education Limited, 2011. Print. Seminar Studies in History. Print.

Revision 9.


This picture isn’t just an example of the peoples harsh living environment during the apartheid but also how poor their water supply was. the garbage surrounding the one hose probably contaminating the water and a child  chugging his water while his mother is getting more. these people lived like this day to day and sometimes had to carry the pounds of water miles just for their families.




Access to clean drinking water in Africa, published December 12, 2009,

Web. 2 Dec. 2014. <’s-lives-in-Africa/Living_conditions_in_Africa_4.jpg>.

Work cited

Africa Water Crisis.” AfricaStories RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014.

“Water Apartheid.” The Nation. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.

Bill Freund and Harald Witt. “Development Dilemmas in Post-Apartheid South Africa.” Pietermaritzburg: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press. 199-121.

By JOHN F BURNS Special to The New,York Times. (1976, Aug 21). South african apartheid: Questions and answers on system and chances for change. New York Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from

“Apartheid Legislation in South Africa.” — The Most Important Apartheid Laws. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Nov. 2014. <>.

Posel, Deborah. The Making of Aparthied 1948-1961. Oxford: Clarendon, 1991. Print.

Clark, Nacy L., and William H. Worger. South Africa THE RISE AND FALL OF APARTHEID. Two ed. Vol. One. N.p.: Pearson Education Limited, 2011. Print. Seminar Studies in History. Print.