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History 105 – Matthew Unangst – Fall 2017 History 105

Final Assignment

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Mikayla Scott

The Effects of the Apartheid in South Africa

History 105 Final Project  

 

The South African apartheid was a tough time for the non whites. Even though the non-whites created about 80% of the population of south africa, segregation was one of the many aspects to the apartheid which made the non whites use designated racial areas. Apartheid can be defined as a former policy of segregation and political and economic discrimination against non-European groups in the Republic of South Africa. An example of apartheid in another country would be the modern state of Israel wanted to keep their country only for Jewish people and not allow any non-Jews to have human rights or citizenship.1

Penny Sparrow is a South African real estate agent who posted a Facebook rant comparing black people to monkeys. The post created a racial divide even though the apartheid system has ended more than two decades ago.2 Penny tried to apologize by saying her comments were not meant to be personal but then when she did a website interview, she compares blacks to monkeys again. A survey conducted for South Africans to see if they believe that racism is still a problem even though the apartheid system is no longer. 66% said they still face racism today. The democratic Alliance Party no longer accept Penny Sparrow due to her racist comments. They let go another member in the past for also being racist.

This article is fairly recent but it still brought back some familiarity of apartheid. Penny Sparrow, a real estate agent in South Africa,  posted a racist post on her facebook that helped create a racial divide. During the time when apartheid was active, there were designated areas for certain races. In the article, there was survey stating that 60% of black south africans still face racism on a daily basis.2 In some ways this article makes me some what believe that the apartheid could come back. There needs to be more than just one race trying to make thing more equal for all.

 

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1www.history.com/topics/apartheid.  

Dixon, Robyn. “THE WORLD; Racist Rant on Facebook Hits a Nerve; In South Africa, One Woman’s Hateful Post — 21 Years after the End of Apartheid — Is Just Part of a Wave.”

2ProQuest, Los Angeles Times, 5 Jan. 2016, search.proquest.com/usnews/docview/1753168699/90B0E375DAC742ECPQ/1?accountid=14902.

 

In 1948, Prime Minister, Daniel F. Malan announced what the new policy of apartheid would entail. Multiple laws were soon enforced after apartheid came into effect. For example, in 1950, The Population Registration Act was put into place.It Led to the creation of a national register in which every person’s race was recorded. A Race Classification Board took the final decision on what a person’s race was in disputed cases.3

The apartheid system divided the country along racial lines and created segregation throughout the country. Contact between the whites and non whites was extremely limited as they lived two different lives away from each other.4 The whites live of life of being in superior of other races. For example, the author of the article “What Life Was Like In South Africa During Apartheid” experienced racism as she watched her mom get denied a bathroom key at a gas station after they paid for gas because the restrooms were for whites only.5 The citizenship of nonwhites was stipped and all non white political representation was abolished.6

As you know, segregation was a main aspect to apartheid. The contact between whites and non-whites was very little. Black South Africans were removed from rural areas so it could be designated to whites.7 No matter how much the non-whites protested to have equality for all races, they would be shut down. Resistance to apartheid grew bigger and bigger until leaders and activist started to get arrested. They were trying to do everything they can to make things right. It was hard for the non whites to stand up for themselves as they were on the bottom of the social class due to their inability to speak proper english. They also had trouble getting employed since most had little to no education.

 

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3Thompsell, Angela. “The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act.” ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/prohibition-of-mixed-marriages-act-43464 (accessed December 7, 2017).

4http://www.history.com/topics/apartheid

History.com Staff. “Apartheid.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2010,

5Faul, Michelle. “What Life Was Like In South Africa During Apartheid.” Business Insider. December 09, 2013. Accessed December 07, 2017. http://www.businessinsider.com/what-life-was-like-in-south-africa-during-apartheid-2013-12

Picture Apartheid Signage, 1953

© Drum Social Histories / Baileys African History Archive / Africa Media Online

 

My primary source is a newspaper from 1967. Which pertained to all races of South Africa but it may have stood out more to the African South Americans. In this newspaper article, it brought attention to the fact that South African Airlines is racist but hides it by saying that all is welcomed even though that is not the case.8 For example, the author explained that the first thing that blacks would see once they arrived in johannesburg would be a racially designated sign. It’s unknown when this article was written but it was published in 1967. I would like to safely assume that the author is black because in the article he/she says  “We are black americans…”. Since the author is black, then he/she can relate to the racist actions that SAA is making. Some unspoken assumptions i can make from this article is that South African Airlines is either unaware of their racism or they intentionally choose not to address it.

In this display advertisement for South African Airlines, it exposes the truth of their racism. They tried to make it seem very welcoming to all races. Once the plane lands in johannesburg, there would be designated racial areas. There would be little to no contact between the whites and non-whites. SAA was just another organization that tried to blind the people. They would advertise to make everything seem welcoming but it reality it was all the same unequal things that non whites had to go through. Nothing has changed and the airline failed to show that.

Nelson Mandela played a major role in the end of the apartheid in south africa as he was a global advocate for human rights. Mandela was a member of the African National Congress party beginning in the 1940s, he was a leader of both peaceful protests and armed resistance against the white minority’s oppressive regime in a racially divided South Africa.9 Even though he was imprisoned for 27 years, Nelson Mandela still fought for democracy and a free society.10 In 1994, South Africa held its first democratic election where Nelson Mandela was elected the country’s first black president.11

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6Mark Byrnes @markbyrnes525 Feed Mark Byrnes is a senior associate editor at CityLab who writes about design and architecture. “Life in Apartheid-Era South Africa.” CityLab. April 17, 2014. Accessed December 07, 2017. https://www.citylab.com/equity/2013/12/life-apartheid-era-south-africa/7821/.

7Dubow, Saul. Racial segregation and the origin of apartheid in South Africa, 1919-36. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1989.

8Display ad. (1969, May 28). New York Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/118590994?accountid=14902

9History.com Staff. “Nelson Mandela.” History.com. 2009. Accessed December 07, 2017. http://www.history.com/topics/nelson-mandela.

 

The African National Congress was first named the South African Native National Congress as it’s main goal was the maintenance of voting rights for Colored and black Africans.12 In 1952, the defiance campaign was put into place. In 1960, the ANC was outlawed and had no political say in anything. With Nelson Mandela as their leader, the ANC turned to sabotage to fight against the apartheid. Once F.W. de Klerk became president in 1989, he lifted the executions and ban on the African National Congress.

The united nations denounced apartheid which led to new changes. Post apartheid there was a new constitution written by the public and representatives. It was created so it could eliminate the unequal troubles that were caused during when apartheid was in effect. Non-racialism, non-sexism, and expansion on language are just a few of the positive changes made to the constitution. It allowed for black south africans to take a step forward to a new life of equality. They no longer had to worry about being in their designated area or keeping little contact with the whites.

Even though President F.W. de Kle beat the conservative party, they still refused to negotiate with black african americans.  The problem soon became less about race and more about which political party can take control.  Codesa allowed for the country to be placed under majority rule. The U.S soon helped South Africa to develop democracy. The democracy allowed for the country to achieve political liberalization and economic growth.

It’s been about 24 years since the apartheid has ended but there are still some problems facing south africa. For example, South Africa’s black majority and Indian minority still earn far less than their white counterparts, even after 20 years of African National Congress rule.13 Even though Nelson Mandela tried his hardest to fix the corruption and poverty in South Africa, it still remained.

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10Epatko, Larisa. “How Nelson Mandela Survived His Years in Isolated South African Jail.” PBS. July 18, 2013. Accessed December 07, 2017. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/world/nelson-mandela-1.

11“Nelson Mandela.” Biography.com. September 06, 2017. Accessed December 07, 2017. https://www.biography.com/people/nelson-mandela-9397017.

12The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “African National Congress (ANC).” Encyclopædia Britannica. June 16, 2017. Accessed December 07, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/topic/African-National-Congress.

Picture © Museum Africa / Africa Media Online

 

Prejudice is still a major problem in South Africa. Even the legal barriers are lifted, their is still a racial line that exists. In 2012, a survey was conducted where they found out that 43 percent of south africans don’t interact with someone of another ethnicity.13 Most of the time when there is interaction between different ethnic groups, it’ll be on a professional level.

The apartheid left some trust issues between different racial groups. The apartheid was devastating to many of South Africa. Especially to Non white South Africans as they struggled to live a peaceful and equal life.The apartheid finally came to an end with the help of the the activist and other countries. Even though the apartheid is over, South Africa still have many issues to fix before they can become a country of equality.

 

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13Pinzow, Daniel. “The Effects After the End of Apartheid.” Synonym. Accessed December 07, 2017. http://classroom.synonym.com/bad-effects-after-end-apartheid-8462245.html.

North Korean change throughout history

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Is the Korean war over?

July 27, 1953 was a day history changed forever. Most people believe that the war ended between South Korea and North Korea; which is false. Till this day the war continues. Some people call this the “cold war” or a “pause”. A border was created to separate the communist country, North Korea, from the democratic country, South Korea. The border is known as the 38th parallel. The article Brennan,Christopher “North Korea fires missiles post ‘fire & fury’.”, discusses the chain of events that has occurred that has shaped the reputation North Korea has today [1]. They use fear as a tactic to gain and have control as a dominant communist country. North Korea fires missiles frequently towards the country of Japan, which eventually leads to more cost out of everyone’s pocket. They spend their funding to build their offensive weapons, meanwhile other countries build defensive weapons to prepare for the worst. It all started from the beginning when Democratic People’s Republic of Korea proclaimed, with Kim Il-sung installed as a leader 1948 [2]. From that point on a new leadership culture was implemented. From 1953 to present day a lot has changed.

North Korea is and has always been a country that did their own thing without considering the effects of the other countries. The way their government works, it doesn’t matter what the people want and how they feel; it only matters what the government, and especially what the leader wants. This is referred to as “Dictatorship.” This kind of leadership lead to the South declaring independence, sparking North Korean invasion and the Korean War in 1950. [3] The effects with that will lead to death of over 250,000 lives (U.S. & South Korea) [4]. After the war was put on pause with a peace agreement, the 38th parallel was created to divide the two feuding countries. Even till this day we have twenty four seven security around the border incase the war breaks out again.

Death of Kim Il-sung lead to a chaos in the future of their country. The next person in line for that position was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. Having a bloodline to carry on the legacy that was built. His role for this position was questionable no one was sure what his intentions were. In 1998 North Korea fired its first long-range missile. During the peace agreement over the years North Korea’s missile firing capability increased every year. With that, it caused a striking of more fear, anger and the questioning of the fate of their future. [5] Questioning his leadership, no one knew what kind of leader he would be. It turned out he was exactly the same as his father the founder of the dynasty.

As a result of missile firing so frequently countries nearby are forced to react. For example in the article “UN chief condemns North Korea missile test ahead of UN meeting”supports my claim that each time a missile is fired the South Korea and Japan go in complete defensive mode. They shut down schools, businesses and infrastructures. Living in complete fear knowing that you might not survive this. The effects of this leads to the United States and Allied countries figuring out how to stop them. There is only two things we can either prepare for the outcome of the missile by protecting ourselves like we have been doing or take the offensive action to North Korea and end the tyranny.[6] So for these reasons this is why it’s costing other countries more money for defense systems.

 North Korea Propaganda

In 2011 Kim Jong-il died, his throne was succeeded by his youngest son Kim Jong-Un. It can be seen in this present day that his youngest son has carried on the bureaucratic government system that was installed by Kim Il-sung the founder of this tyranny. The relationship between all of the Kim Jong leaders, they have one thing in common which is, the treatment of their people. [7] Ever since the first leader was installed in 1948, till this day their lifestyles and inhumane treatment of the people are similar. Koh, B.C. In the Journal “Ideology and Political Control in North Korea.” supports the claim on North Korea corrupt political policy and harsh treatment of their own people. The people of North Korea are unaware of the present day world. They lack the knowledge about their history, current events, basic human rights and just everything else outside of the world. The North Korean regime assured to conceal and distort knowledge from their people. If people were to rebel and question the regime they would be taken away and never to be seen. It is believed that they are taken away and forced to work in labor camps or to be killed. [8]

 

Since the first missile was fired in 1998 the missile capability has increased. For that reason, it created more tension throughout the world. In fear that the war might break out again. In July 2017, Pyongyang test fires a long-range missile into the Sea of Japan, with some experts stating the missile could potentially reach Alaska. [9]  Newly, elected President Honorable Donald J. Trump claimed that if they continue to fire missiles the U.S. would step in and take action. After that statement, North Korea has been stayed quiet fearing that the U.S. might actually strike first. If there were to be a World war III it would be all cyber and nuclear warfare. Why waste ground troops if you can just fire missiles?

 

  Children in North Korea Starving

Many problems are occurring inside the country of North Korea. One of the biggest problem they have been facing in the past, which still today is famine. It is reported that roughly eighteen million people are not getting enough food. The main reason for that is because the current leader Kim Jong-Un is spending their fundings to build weapons to advance their military. [10] Another factor that plays into the role of famine is Kim Jong-Un “Pleasures.” His passion for building unnecessary things like ski resorts, amusement parks and hotels only to be used by himself and close government officials. All these reasons are why the people of North Korea are starving. All the money spent on building those could have been used to feed the people. The only solution to fix this problem is to implement a positive change by cutting back on buying things that won’t benefit the economy. In the article “NORTH KOREA’S KIM JONG UN IS STARVING HIS PEOPLE TO PAY FOR NUCLEAR WEAPONS” it is reported that 10.5 million people, or 41 percent of the total population, are undernourished.” Which is almost less than half of the population.

In comparison, the first two leaders Kim Jong-ll and Kim Jong-il had one thing in common which was someone to carry on the legacy. What is different from the past to present day is, that the current leader Kim Jong-Un doesn’t have any kids or blood relative to carry on the dynasty that was first built in 1948. Not having anything to lose might play into what the future would be like. Who knows he is thinking he might be make a careless decision before he dies. No one knows for sure what his plans are.

Servicepersons of the Ministry of People’s Security met on August 10, 2017 to express full support for the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) government statement, in this photo released on August 11, 2017 by North Korea’s Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) in Pyongyang.

 

The war between North and South Korea on July 27, 1953 may have ended the war formally, but informally, they are still going at it against each other. And now North Korea is going against other countries, still today. The countries are spending more and more money to defend their own country and to fix the damages that have been caused by the missiles that North Korea has shot at them or around their areas. Everything has technically been settled formally but there are a lot of things that North Korea has been doing informally to the other countries which don’t start wars, but always get so close to starting wars

Then again a question that is asked by many today is “Why don’t we stop them?” It is just one country but there are many factors that play into just starting a war. There will always be two different point of views. People in the U.S. might be up to supporting the war. Meanwhile, others may feel that it isn’t their problem for them to get involved. There is not a right or wrong in this debate, is it worth risking American lives to stop the Kim dynasty from continuing on? In the past, the U.S. and allied countries didn’t want to get involved because North Korea was not impacting other countries with what they did. As time goes on, they are starting to have an affect on other countries with what they do. It’s been 64 years since the country of Korea split into North and South. As well as, families being split up for 64 years. South Korea has been requesting for their people to be able to meet with their family who are in the communist side North Korea. But the North refuse to allow that from happening. In the article “Second Korean family reunion in North” it says that when they are allowed to meet “About 250 people have been allowed to travel from the south for three days of meetings at Mount Kumgang resort.” which people are selected through a lottery based on age. North Korea restricts gatherings often because they want full control and be able to supervise the whole thing. [11]

One of the most important tactic North Korea cherishes and rely on most is their propaganda. They allow visitors to see what North Korea is like but when they do. They show hospitals, schools and expensive things. The whole point of that is to show that they are a powerful country and the people in North Korea are living a good life and their economy is running great. In the article “Kim Jong Un’s bizarre North Korea propaganda” shows images in which supports the claim where North Korea wants everyone to believe that they are a perfect country. [12]

The history and the roots of North Korea is reflected in present day today. Not much has changed throughout time. North Korea’s bureaucratic government system that was installed by Kim Il-sung. His leadership styles and ambitions has made a big impact in the world today. His legacy continues till this day, by blood. It could even continue for centuries more in the future. The country most powerful weapon is “fear.” People fear that one day they could just break off the peace agreement. With a result of that who knows what the world will be like. If there were to be a war, everyone would be affected in some way.  While they continue with reckless acts such as firing missiles and bombs over their boarder’s. It will lead the negative impact in their own economy and have an affect the countries around it. With that, even worse, it could lead to World War III.

 

Endnotes

[1]  Brennan, Christopher. “North Korea fires missiles post ‘fire & fury’.” August 26, 2017, https://search.proquest.com/usnews/docview/336979024/B9B086AFA7DD4088PQ/3?accountid=14902 July 2003

[2] “NorthKorea Profile timeline.” August 17, 2017 http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-15278612

[3] “NorthKorea Profile timeline.” August 17, 2017 http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-15278612

[4] “Korean War casualties” October 14. 2017 https://www.historyguy.com/korean_war_casualties_and_statistics.htm

[5]Wayne Snow, “NORTH KOREA: Armed and dangerous: [Home Edition],” The Atlanta Journal https://search.proquest.com/usnews/docview/336979024/B9B086AFA7DD4088PQ/3?accountid=14902 July 2003 :

[6] “UN chief condemns NKorea missile test ahead of UN meeting,” St. Louis Post. https://search.proquest.com/usnews/docview/1867980255/A1F15FB916B446F6PQ/1?accountid=14902 Feb. 7, 2017

[7] Koh, B.C. “Ideology and Political Control in North Korea.” The Journal of Politics32 (August 1970): 655-74

[8] Kim, Suzy. Everyday life in the North Korean revolution: 1945-1950

[9]  “North Korea Profile timeline.” August 17, 2017  http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-15278612

[10]  Silva, Cristina “NORTH KOREA’S KIM JONG UN IS STARVING HIS PEOPLE TO PAY FOR NUCLEAR WEAPONS” March 23, 2017 http://www.newsweek.com/north-koreas-kim-jong-un-starving-his-people-pay-nuclear-weapons-573015 January 5, 2014

[11] Second Korean family reunion in North October 24 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34627189

[12] Kim Jong Un’s bizarre North Korea propaganda” December 6, 2017 http://www.foxnews.com/world/2017/12/06/kim-jong-uns-bizarre-north-korea-propaganda-photos.html

illustration

  1. Picture 1: http://www.nan.ng/news/north-koreas-military-weakness-exposed/

2. Picture 2: http://www.frontpagemag.com/fpm/96814/starved-submission-frank-crimi

3. Picture 3: https://www.brookings.edu/research/approaching-the-north-korea-challenge-realistically/

Foreign Involvement in the Cuban Economy

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Cuba’s foreign relations have always been a dubious predicament. With the political changes occurring throughout Latin America, many countries including Venezuela, Brazil, and Argentina, have been drawing economic and political support from Cuba. In 2014 the United States and Cuba began re-establishing diplomatic relations but Raul Castro’s government has been cynical about negotiations. Since then the number of Cuban protestors that have been beaten and jailed has doubled. Many Cubans have been fleeing their economically failing country to Latin America or to the United States seeking amnesty. Cuban hierarchy is still unwilling to normalize relations with the United States, their now most vital line of support and Cuba’s only hope for stabilizing their economy. [1]

The history of Cuba’s economy during the 20th century is a complex recipe with multiple countries hands in the mixing bowl. Fidel Castro’s’ flawed communist government has been the central blame for the decrease in Cuban economic growth, but there are other foreign economic factors that contributed even more so. By following the history of Cuban trade and economic policies it becomes clear that it was the United States and Soviet Union’s foreign involvement in the Cuban economy that caused Cuba’s economic crisis that continues now in the 21st century.

“Truly, sugar is king in Cuba; for, however sugar goes, so goes Cuba.” [2] To understand the collapse of the Cuban economy it is necessary to understand the history of Cuba’s economy before 1959 and the production its most profitable commodity export during the 20th century, sugar. Cuban production of sugar during the 20th century was greatly increased due to the industrialization of production and Cuba’s largest sugar customer to the north, the United States. Cuban sugar exports to the U.S. were regulated by the U.S. Congress under a quota system that guaranteed Cuban sugar a consistent major market for raw sugar. The profitability of sugar production became the focus of Cuba’s labor force and Cuban capital investment with 161 sugar mills in operation in 1946 and 10% of produced sugar being processed in Cuban refineries. [3] This, however, caused deterioration in Cuba’s ability to be self-sufficient making Cuba reliant on foreign imports. [4] Before the end of the Cuban Revolution in 1959, 50% of Cuban sugar and 59% of total Cuban goods were exported to the U.S. and 76% of Cuban imports came from the U.S. [5] This reliance on the United States for trade would be a detriment after the end of the Cuban revolution.

Figure 1. Sugar Cane Field (n.d.)

Cuba had support from the Soviet Union before President Fulgencio Batista was removed from power but it was very minimal. With Fidel Castro as the new leader of the Cuban government, the Soviet Union relations with Cuba greatly increased. Cuba began receiving discounted crude oil from the Soviet Union, they had no means to refine the oil in order to then resale it. In 1960 Castro began by asking U.S. companies to process the oil but no deals but the already wary United States government would not have U.S. companies processing Soviet oil. In response, the Cuban government nationalized the U.S. oil companies in Cuba for refinement of their Soviet crude oil and later took control of a majority of U.S. businesses and capital investments within Cuba [6]. In October of 1960, the United States set a partial trade embargo against Cuban imports. The embargo greatly decreased U.S. exports to Cuba. According to journalist E.W. Kenworthy of the New York Times “In 1958, these American exports amounted to $546,200,00. In 1959, the first year of the Castro Government, they dropped to $436,706,00. Before today’s embargo order, they were expected to be no more than $250,000,000, this year.” [7] This became the first of many actions by the U.S. against the Cuban economy and Castro’s regime.

Figure 2. Cuban Prime Minister, Fidel Castro, arriving at MATS Terminal, Washington D.C. (1959)

After the failed Bay of Pigs invasion and rising tension between the two countries, the U.S. Congress passed the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 prohibiting government aid to Cuba and allowing for a potential total embargo with Cuba. In 1962 a total economic embargo of Cuban goods was enacted with few exceptions but these exceptions were ruled void in the mid-1960. Following the Cuban missile crisis, in 1963 travel directly from the U.S. to Cuba was banned. Eventually, all economic benefits, political ties, immigration and even much of the tourism was dismantled between the United States and Cuba. The effects of the embargo and sanctions against Cuba were felt immediately due to the mass interconnectivity of both countries’ economies. Cuba lost their largest consumer of sugar and other Cuban goods. Much of the equipment used for sugar production was American made and Cuban’s could no longer purchase the necessary replacement parts. Castro’s relationship with the Soviet Union was the only possibility for sustaining the Cuban economy. Once again Cuba would have no other option but to put all trust into the Soviet Union into maintaining the Cuban economy. [8]

Before 1959 there was little to no trade occurring between the Soviet Union and Cuba but that drastically changed when Castro’s new Cuban government took power. With the United States imposing an embargo on Cuban imports, the Soviet Union became Cuba’s new primary sugar customer purchasing over 24 million tons between 1965 and 1970. [9] Castro shifted mass amounts of the labor force and production technology into Cuba’s sugar industry aiming to achieve higher harvest yields because once again Cuba had a guaranteed market for their sugar production. The issue was the mass production of a single cash crop for the entire country was not enough to sustain Cuba’s economy or its food supply and this was not addressed until the Soviet Union intervened and began advising government officials on the future of the Cuban economy. [10]

Besides exporting sugar, Cuba had an agreement with the Soviet Union to resell the provided discounted oil to other countries throughout Central and South America. Cuba became reliant on the Soviet Union to the sustain the country by providing subsidies and shipping over gifts of goods such as food, medicine, weapons, machinery and other Soviet Union produced goods. Through the 60s and 70s Cuba became more and more involved in the Soviet bloc and in 1972 Cuba became a member of COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance). The Cuban people benefited with Soviet funding for education initiatives for youth up through university. The Soviet Union also funded infrastructure and equipment to expand Cuba’s industrial operations and even provided technical training for Cubans. Every year more and more Soviet funding supported the Cuban economy reaching almost $6 billion dollars in subsidies by the end of the 1980s. [11] Cuba was able to still thrive with the support of the Soviet Union despite the U.S. trade embargo making some Americans argue that the trade embargo was no longer effective. Journalist Jon Nordheimer for the New York Times wrote in his January 3rd, 1979 article that, “Washington has thus far resisted pressure to drop its trade embargo on Cuba, an embargo that today has greater symbolic significance than the practical purpose for which it was intended when first imposed.” [12] Despite the embargo no longer having the same effect at the height of the Soviet subsidization of Cuba’s economy that it did in the early 60s, the Cuban economy would once again feel the effect of the embargo after the fall of the Soviet Union.

The fall of the Berlin Wall symbolized the fall of the Soviet Union and for Cuba a fall of their economy. With the Soviet Union dismantled the Cuban economy lost all of its Soviet subsidies. Cuba’s economy was based on its discounted Soviet oil, Soviet business interests, and sugar production which was no longer profitable with their primary customer gone and the U.S. trade embargo still being sustained. The Cuban government found themselves in a similar situation to when the U.S. first enacted the trade embargoes but this time there was no other country to look towards for support. Similar to Cuba’s economic relations with the U.S. prior to the embargo, Cuba became so economically intertwined and dependent on imports with the Soviet Union that the Cuban economy did not have the resources to be self-sufficient. In the end, it was the people of Cuba that suffered the most and took the biggest hit from the Cuban economic crisis. [13]

Health and in Cuba drastically decreased after 1989. Food supply importation from the Soviet Union decreased and resulted in a 40% drop in the average calorie intake for Cuban citizens. The average life expectancy during the Cold War in Cuba actually increased by 12.2 years but by the end of the 90’s the Cuban mortality rate rose by 13%. The United States inflicted harsher sanctions on medicine and medical supplies being exported to Cuba. Cuba had well trained medical professionals as a result of Castro’s and the Soviet’s education initiative but there was a large shortage of medical supplies. The Cuban government was able to maintain their countries health by promoting disease prevention which was successful in avoiding outbreaks; however, prevention could not help the increase in malnutrition. The collapse of the Soviet Union that caused the collapse of Cuban economy has become a humanitarian crisis. [14]

Havana, Cuba (n.d.)

Cuba’s current economy can be visualized by the scene in Havana, a city tattered and falling apart filled with early Cold War era technology and automobiles. There is hope for Cuba’s economy as relations between the United States and Cuba are becoming positive and beneficial in the last decade. The Cuban government is still wary of future economic relations with the United States because it was, in fact, the U.S. economic interest and involvement that put Cuba into a position of trade dependency that when trade was eliminated Cuba was forced to become dependent on Soviet subsidization. The United States and Soviet Union’s involvement in Cuban economics resulted in Cuba’s continued lack of economic self-sufficiency.  In order to continue the reconstruction of a good neighbor foreign policy, the Cuban embargo must be removed by the United States entirely and Cuba must be willing to accept the terms of a new trade agreement for the sake of their citizens and their economy.

Endnote Citations:

[1] Guillermo Martinez,”Cuba needs economic help, but government is inflexible,” South Florida Sun-Sentinel,17 December 2015, ProQuest.

[2] Donald R. Dyer, “Sugar Regions of Cuba.” Economic Geography, Vol. 32, No. 2 (1956): 177-184. JSTOR.

[3] Dryer, Sugar Regions of Cuba, 178

[4] Julia Sweig, Cuba, What Everyone Needs To Know Third Edition (Oxford University Press 2016)

[5] Sweig, Cuba, 75-76

[6] Sweig, Cuba, 77

[7] W. Kenworthy, “U.S. Puts Embargo on Goods to Cuba; Curbs Ship Deals.” New York Times (New York, NY), Oct 20, 1960. ProQuest.

[8] Sweig, Cuba, 88-89

[9] Sweig, Cuba, 71

[10] Sweig, Cuba, 68

[11] Sweig, Cuba, 70

[12] Jon Nordheimer, “Cuba Arrives at Fork in the Road: To U.S. Or Africa,” New York Times (New York, NY), Jan 03, 1979. JSTOR.

[13] Richard Schechner, “Cuba: Lift the American Embargo Now.” TDR (1988-) 38, no. 2 (1994): 7-9. JSTOR.

[14] Paul K. Drain, and Michele Barry. “Fifty Years of U.S. Embargo: Cuba’s Health Outcomes and Lessons.” Science, New Series, 328, no. 5978 (2010): 572-73, JSTOR.

Illustrations:

Figure 1. Sugar Cane Field (n.d.)

https://pixabay.com/en/cane-sugar-field-2665662/

Figure 2. Cuban Prime Minister, Fidel Castro, arriving at MATS Terminal, Washington D.C. (1959)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fidel_Castro#/media/File:Fidel_Castro_-_MATS_Terminal_Washington_1959_(cropped).png

Figure 3. Havana, Cuba (n.d.)

https://pixabay.com/en/havana-cuba-panorama-car-auto-old-2702831/

The Cane Toad Invasion of Northern Australia

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Rhinella marina, more commonly known as the cane toad, is a highly invasive species of toad that is native to South America but has been introduced to many different islands to control various pests. While it was a success in some places, in Australia the toads quickly became a major problem that remains today. The invasion of the cane toad across Australia beginning in 1935 has had a drastic impact on Australia. The factors that caused this problem began even before the toads were released. This problem is largely due to a lack of research, ignoring complaints from the public, and several of the toad’s natural adaptations.

Figure 1: Grey Backed Beetle

The problem began in early 1900’s when the Grey Backed and Frenchi Beetles began attacking the sugar cane fields in Australia. These beetles are native to Australia, where they naturally feed on the weeping fig tree, but when settlers began cutting down the forests to grow sugar cane the beetles were forced to begin feeding on the sugar cane.1 Farmers did everything they could to control the beetles, from fumigation, to light traps, to picking the beetles off the cane by hand. Despite all of this work the beetles continued to get worse and worse. The Australian Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations was constantly looking for new solutions to the beetles. In 1932 the Bureau decided to send Arthur Bell to the Fourth Congress of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists in Puerto Rico. While he was there, Arthur Bell saw a presentation by Raquel Dexter about the use of cane toads to control pests in sugar cane. At this point the cane toad had already been introduced to several places around the world and was generally a success. After the presentation, many people from other countries began making immediate plans to import the toads, but Arthur Bell decided to go back to Australia and think about it for awhile before making a decision.2

 

Figure 2: Walter Froggatt

Three years later, cane toads were finally in Australia. In 1935, while Arthur was still thinking about the toads, another employee of the Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations, Reg Mungomery had imported 101 cane toads from Hawaii. These toads were kept in captivity and their offspring were later released into the cane fields. The first toads were released in the districts of Mulgrave and Hambledon.3 Since the toads had been so successful on islands in other parts of the world, no one thought it was necessary to do much research on their potential impact in Australia.4 Almost immediately after they began releasing the toads, the bureau began receiving a variety of complaints from the public. These complaints included dogs that had been poisoned by attempting to eat the toads, livestock that got sick after drinking toad infested water, and bees that were being eaten by cane toads.5,6

Reg Mungomery and the rest of the Bureau quickly dismissed all of these concerns as unimportant or imagined, but Walter Froggatt of the New South Wales Naturalist Society was not going to give up. He began writing articles for local newspapers and magazines denouncing the cane toad as a danger and calling for the release of cane toads to be banned. Reg attempted to fight back by publishing a paper about the benefits of cane toads and how progress is almost always met with resistance. Despite his efforts, the Federal Health Department still banned the release of the cane toads in new areas beginning in December of 1935.7, 8

Figure 3: Reg Mungomery

After the Federal Health Department passed the ban, Reg Mungomery began doing everything he could to get it repealed. He began writing papers to get everything Froggatt had said dismissed, and he began doing research to prove that cane toads were not dangerous. By October of 1936, his work had paid off and the ban was lifted. The Bureau began releasing toads again and Reg continued to expect great results, but as time went on they began to lose their optimism. While the cane toads were helping with some garden pests, they had a negligible effect on the cane beetles because the beetles spent relatively little time on the ground, and since the toads could not climb, they could not reach very many of the beetles. In 1940, the Bureau finally admitted that the cane toads had been a complete failure. The invasion of cane toads had begun.

Figure 4: The progress of the invasion from 1940 to 1980

Even after the Bureau had stopped releasing cane toads, they continued to multiply and spread across northern Australia. One of the main reasons cane toads were able to spread so quickly was their extremely high reproductive rate. A single female can lay up 60,000 eggs each year.9

In Australia, these toads also have virtually no predators due to the poison glands on their shoulders. These glands secrete bufotoxins, which can cause multiple symptoms such as nausea, rapid heartbeat, and even death. This poison causes a rapid decline in some of the larger predators whenever the cane toads invade a new territory due to the predators attempting to eat the toads and then being poisoned. Some of the affected predators are larger snakes, goannas, and quolls. After the toads have been in an area for a longer period of time, some of these populations begin to recover through different ways. The snakes often evolve to have smaller heads, because snakes with smaller heads survive due to their inability to swallow a toad large enough to kill them. Researchers have also found that by training captive quolls not to eat the cane toads, the quolls can then survive in the wild and even pass that knowledge on to their offspring.10,11

Another trait that has allowed the cane toads to spread so quickly and so far, is that they will eat almost anything they can swallow. This includes not only a wide variety of insects but also, small rodents, reptiles, and amphibians, including younger cane toads. Cane toads are even able to eat stinging insects such as honey bees without getting stung. Their willingness to eat almost anything has lead to people dropping items such as bottle caps and lit cigarette butts in front of the toads just to watch them eat them.12,13 

As the cane toads spread further and further across the country, the public began to dislike them more and more. Groups dedicated to eradicating the toads began springing up everywhere the toads had invaded. Killing toads became almost like a sport. This hatred is strongest in places that have just been, or are about to be, invaded. In places that have had cane toads for a while, people’s animosity towards the cane toad begins to lessen, they do not generally start to like the toads, but they do learn to put up with them.14 This dislike of cane toads has lead to a variety of attempts to control or eradicate them.

One of the biggest problems researchers have faced when trying to control the cane toads is their high reproductive rate. Even if they kill a large portion of the population, the toads will quickly be replaced.15 Since the government has not yet found an effective method of control, they largely rely on the public to prevent the toads from spreading. One method that has been used to control the spread of cane toads is educating the public in areas that have not been invaded so that they can identify and get rid of any cane toads they find. Another method was cane toad trapping contests in the Northern Territory. The government has also set up inspection stations along the border of the invaded areas, to make sure there are no toads being inadvertently transported. Unfortunately none of these methods have worked to stop the invasion; however, researchers are still working to find new ways of controlling them.

One of these potential methods is releasing sterile male cane toads, similar to how they control mosquitoes with sterile males. Another control method being researched is a cane toad specific virus, but it will likely be a long time before this is ready because researchers must be absolutely certain of all potential impacts the virus could have on native amphibians before they release it. It may also be possible to find a cane toad specific toxin that could be used with baits or trap or even in water where they breed. Researchers have also been testing if changes to roadside vegetation could slow down the spread of cane toads.These are just a few of the many potential control methods for cane toads.16, 17

There have been a variety of factors that allowed the cane toads to invade Australia and continue to spread. These factors include a lack of research, ignoring complaints from the public, the toad’s natural adaptations, and many failed attempts to control their spread. This is all very important because the cane toad was imported as a biological control agent but it went horribly wrong. Since we still import organisms for biological control, we must look at past failures in order to learn from our mistakes and ensure nothing like this ever happens again.

Endnotes

  1. Stephanie Lewis, Cane Toads, An Unnatural History(New York: Double Day, 1989), 4-5.
  2. Lewis, Cane Toads, 7-9.
  3. Lewis, Cane Toads, 13-20.
  4. C.S. “An Ally to Beat the Beetle: Giant Toads Imported for the Cane Fields.” The Queenslander, June 27, 1935, accessed November 11, 2017, Trove.
  5. “Will Giant Cane Toads Menace Beekeeping?” Maryborough Chronicle, April 23, 1947, accessed November 29, 2017, Trove.
  6. Lewis, Cane Toads, 21.
  7. Lewis, Cane Toads, 21-23
  8. “Australia’s Imported Toad Becoming a Pest?” Tweed Daily, January 4, 1936, accessed December 12, 2017, Trove.
  9. Lewis, Cane Toads, 38.
  10. Richard Shine, “The Ecological Impact of Invasive Cane Toads in Australia,” The Quarterly Review of Biology 85 (2010): 263-264, JSTOR.
  11. Reuben Keller, Marc Cadotte, Glenn Sandiford, Invasive Species in a Globalized World (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2015), 27-31.
  12. Lewis, Cane Toads, 34-37.
  13. “Toads Menace Beekeeping”
  14. Keller, Cadotte, and Sandiford, Invasive Species, 31-33.
  15. “Taming the Toad,” Targeted News Service, May 30, 2013, accessed December 12, 2017, Proquest.
  16. “A Review of The Impact and Control of Cane Toads in Australia with Recommendations for Future Research and Management Approaches,” Vertebrate Pests Committee, last modified June 1, 2005, https://www.pestsmart.org.au/impact-and-control-of-cane-toads-in-australia/.
  17. Gregory P. Brown et al, “Toad on the road: Use of roads as dispersal corridors by cane
    toads (Bufo marinus) at an invasion front in tropical Australia,” Biological Conservation, 133(206): 88-94, Science Direct.

Illustrations

Figure 1: Grey Backed Cane beetle, https://alchetron.com/Dermolepida-albohirtum#demo

Figure 2: Walter Froggatt, https://www.anbg.gov.au/biography/froggatt-walter-wilson.html

Figure 3: Reg Mungomery, http://theconversation.com/everyone-agreed-cane-toads-would-be-a-winner-for-australia-19881

Figure 4: The progress of the cane toad invasion, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bufoinvasion.gif

Moral Nuclear Disarmament in a World of Military Power

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As 2017 ends we can look back at many tragedy and achievements which were mourned and celebrated over the course of the year. One achievement which seems to be overlooked is North Korea’s astounding 16 missile tests. [1] These missiles are to most likely carry nuclear warheads in the scenario of war. Nuclear weapons present a danger to every person in the world, not just the wealthy, the poor, or any specific grouping. Nuclear war would affect everyone. With the rate of nuclear tests by North Korea exponentially rising this year, it seems mutually assured destruction is one fatal incident away from becoming reality. Getting rid of nuclear weapons isn’t as easy as a simple agreement though. Through the origin of the atomic bomb and the attitudes in between, one can see why this issue is so deeply rooted in the global political and moral climate today.

Despite nuclear disarmament being enforced by students, teachers, and citizens not only in Japan, but around the world by the immoral sense in the aftermath of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the political power of nuclear weaponry and insecurity caused by threats of war have prevented nuclear disarmament from becoming widespread reality between nations.

After the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 politicians and citizens of Japan alike began national support of

Fig. 1: Robert Frank’s Hiroshima: Moral or Morality reflects on Western student’s reaction to the bombings when educated on them

worldwide nuclear disarmament along with a movement of support in western countries from moral reasoning applied to nuclear bombs. Western scholars shortly after the bombings called on the question of morality in the use of nuclear weapons, many saying they may have been unnecessary and that the necessity of use and creation of nuclear weapons should be investigated.

Robert Frank, a British teacher at the time following the bombings discussed his lesson with high school students on the morality of the bombings. His lesson taught moral understanding of the bombings and signify some western scholars attempted to impress upon the youth immorality in the bombings. It may be inferred this transfer of information may have affected political opinions on the bombs’ morality, as the article was aimed to be read by those who could care to form an opinion on the case. [2]

Others argued political motive came before moral issues of the bombs. Rudolf A. Winnacker, a historian for the US Office of the Secretary of Defense reflected on the growing debate on the use of nuclear weapons on Japan. Rudolf identifies the western argument of immoral use, summing it in a US teacher’s thesis: “The American use the bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki hit a new low in moral standards for the conduct of war, that the employment of this weapon was unnecessary as Japan was ready to surrender, and that the US started an atomic armament rave by not being satisfied with a theoretical demonstration of the bomb before United Nations representatives”. [3] Winnacker continues to say that this view is a bit basic, later saying “The government entered the atomic armament race with the knowledge that victory in this war might well depend on the success in the enterprise ahead of the enemy”. [4]

Winnacker suggests political motives were the reason the US used the bombs. [5] There was an argument of morality against nuclear bombs as seen by Frank’s teachings but also a reasoning of political power gain from using the bombs. [6] Argument over morality seemed to just boil down to the importance of morality versus political gain from the bombs.

The odd mix of these ideas are reflected in the period between the end off WWII and today’s modern issues of nuclear weaponry. This period stretches widely over the nuclear power conflict between world super powers Russia and the US known as the cold war. Both sides were afraid of the nuclear power which the other side possessed. Despite the power struggle and arms race which defined the relationship, both countries participated in SALTs (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) aimed at decreasing the amount of nuclear weaponry each side possessed. Although the reasoning behind this push for disarmament may have not been related to morality, it did keep the idea of disarmament relevant throughout this time-period. The cold war which encompassed most of the time from WWII to the early 90’s kept the idea of disarmament in discussion, but conflict between nations still remained a higher priority.

The attitude of Japan towards the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki evolved from hatred to moral argument towards disarmament due to the large effects of the bombs on the citizens and environment of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan initially had views of hatred towards the US for using atomic bombs.

Fig. 2: The Genbaku (Atomic) Dome in Hiroshima in 2017

Seen in post-war Japanese media. Japan also tried to cover it up from being a national tragedy and not that huge of a hit to Japan. As time passed, Japan identified the bombs as a national tragedy and shifted to a moral understanding. Due to the mass effects of the bombs on citizens and the environment, many citizens and politicians alike in Japan made it a national goal to strive for disarmament worldwide. [7]

 

The transition between the initial propaganda fueled reaction to the bombings and the present day nationwide moral understanding isn’t very clear. Perhaps as the war ended, there was less reason to keep blame as the primary supplement to the extreme sadness which came with the bombings. Moreover, the approach of understanding and mourning instead of shrugging it off like a minor blow allowed for citizens to move on while at the same time not forget the tragedy. What we do know for sure though is that Japan’s national ideals shifted from a country attempting to obtain nuclear power, to becoming a country which set rules (Hikaku San Gensoku) for itself to never have, create, or allow into Japan, nuclear weapons. Eisaku Sato mentioned these rules in his 1974 Nobel Peace Prize winning speech, saying “I established three non-nuclear principles as a policy of the Japanese Government after deep reflection on the course Japan should take as a country which will not possess nuclear arms. This policy states that we shall not manufacture nuclear weapons, that we shall not possess them and that we shall not bring them into our country.” [8] In 2005, Japanese prime minister Junichiro Koizumi spoke for the nation, saying “As the only nation in human history to be bombed with atomic weapons, Japan will continue to comply with its Peace Constitution and firmly maintain the Three Non-Nuclear Principles, with its strong commitment not to repeat the tragedy of Hiroshima and Nagasaki”. [9]

When the bombs hit Hiroshima, and later Nagasaki the land was made unusable for years and moreover, thousands of citizens lost their lives, many in incredibly painful ways. No children were spared and massive burns in addition to radiation slowly killed any survivors. A total of 78,000 out of 320,000 died in or after the Hiroshima bombing and 35,000 in Nagasaki. Paul Ham’s detailed account of many aspects of the bombings captures some of the moral reasoning behind the argument towards disarmament and provides insight to why western and Japanese peoples adopted it. [10]

Despite national movement from Japan and support from many Westerners since the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, worldwide nuclear disarmament has been kept from becoming a reality due to political fear in a climate built on nuclear power. The fight for disarmament around the world still wages today, with many calling upon Hiroshima and Nagasaki as a moral reminder of nuclear destruction. Barrack Obama visited Hiroshima in 2006 to meet with Shinzo Abe to signify he is committed to the issue of nuclear disarmament. Political figures such as the US president still identify nuclear disarmament as an issue which must be discussed. Even with important political figures, including arguably the most powerful political figure in the world arguing towards disarmament, it largely remains incomplete. [11] Hiroshima still plays a part in the reasoning applied to nuclear proliferation’s immorality. A calling for a shift from power politics and the strive to make one’s nation the most powerful to using nonviolence and “co-responsibility” has been described to be a solution for changing the mentality of war and potentially creating disarmament plans in the modern age. [12]

Fig. 3: The Peace Clock in the Hiroshima Peace Memorial keeping track of days since the bombings and days since the last nuclear test

Even with support from scholars and officials of today, the fact military and political dominance stems from nuclear capabilities and fear of other countries obtaining nuclear power outweighs moral reasoning to disarm and in turn has been able to keep disarmament from being enacted. Beyond the complexity of the bombings, political reasoning has yet again squared up with moral reasoning when arguing for and against nuclear disarmament. A question on the bomb’s effect on the end of the war brings forth unknowing of how important atomic bombs really are in political power. The same question of morality vs political power comes forth but in tandem to the question of how powerful this political power is. It seems the political strength of the bombs and fear of other countries with nuclear power is still greater than morality issues expressed by pro-disarmament opinion, therefore resulting in the continued non-use of disarmament. [13]

WWII was arguably ended by atomic bombs, buffing up its image as an all-powerful entity to put countries above others. There are many predicted motives for the dropping of the bombs, including “The influence of General Leslie R. Groves, director of the Manhattan Project, who wished the bombs to be dropped to justify the expense and prove the importance of the project; the aim of bringing the war to a speedy end to forestall Russian advances deep into China; and the desire, in the incipient Cold War that was developing, to impress upon the USSR the military strength of the USA”. [14] This can be applied to modern issues and the cold war. Going back to the cold war, the US and Russia could not afford to completely disarm their nuclear weapons as they were held as power and threats against each other. North Korea as of now expresses nuclear threat to the world and has pressured other countries into keeping their nuclear weapons on call instead of disarming them, an issue rooted to nuclear weapons display of power in WWII.

Even with support of western and Japanese (after a shift) citizens, scholars, and politicians for the disarmament of nuclear weapons on account of morality due to the effects of the bombs on citizens and the environment, the political power based climate of nation’s relationship with one another has kept nations from disarming nuclear weapons.

 

Sources:

[1] Joshua Berlinger, “North Korea’s Missile Tests By the Numbers”. CNN, November 29, 2017.

[2] Robert Frank, “Hiroshima: Moral or Military”, The English Journal No. 4 (Apr, 1947): 183-188.

[3] Rudolph A. Winnacker, “The Debate About Hiroshima”, Military Affairs Vol.11, No. 1 (1947): 25-30.

[4] Winnacker, “The Debate About Hiroshima”, 25-30

[5] Winnacker, “The Debate About Hiroshima”, 25-30

[6] Frank, “Hiroshima: Moral or Military”, 183-188

[7] Hiro Saito, “Reiterated Commemoration: Hiroshima as National Trauma”, Sociology Theory (2006): 353-376.

[8] Eisaku Sato, Sean MacBride, “The Pursuit of Peace and Japan in the Nuclear Age”, Lecture, December 11, 1974.

[9] Junichiro Koizumi, Address to Hiroshima. Speech, Hiroshima, August 6, 2005.

[10] Ham, Hiroshima, Nagasaki: The Real Story of the Atomic Bombings and Their Aftermath, 408.

[11] “Pushing disarmament”, The Daily Record, June 1 2016, https://search.proquest.com/docview/1901416310?accountid=14902 (9/11/17).

[12] Edward Demenchonok, “Introduction: Philosophy after Hiroshima: From Power Politics to the Ethics of Nonviolence and Co-Responsibility”, The American Journal of Economics and Sociology Vol. 68, No. 1 (2009): 9-50.

[13] Rudolph A. Winnacker, “The Debate About Hiroshima”, Military Affairs Vol.11, No. 1 (1947): 25-30.

[14] William A. W. Purdue, The Second World War, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 169-178.

 

Media:

  1. Eric Furukawa, 2017
  2. Robert Frank, “Hiroshima: Moral or Military”, The English Journal No. 4 (Apr, 1947): 183-188.
  3. Eric Furukawa, 2017

Unjust Labor in Qatar

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As the nation we live in has established laws to protect our workforce. Many are shocked to learn there are countries do little or nothing to protect their workers.  One in particular does not. Qatar has be one of the worst countries in regard to the conditions their workers must face. Flying under the radar for many many years, Qatar is now in the spotlight. Winning a bid in 2010 to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup brought the media, but not in a good way. Each day Qatar is under fire from various organizations of human rights, the media, and the FIFA committee themselves.

Figure 1. Qatar on a map of the Middle East

Worldwide unfair labor takes place each and every day. Everyone knows it’s going on, but not everyone does something about it. In 2010 a spot light came upon one of those countries. Qatar, a small country in the Persian Gulf [1] is the country that for good and bad found the spot light upon themselves. Winning a bid was a first for a country in the middle east, unfortunately Qatar was not ready to handle this type of exposure. With spending $200 billion on the facilities and development around them this left Qatar in the mist of what some say is inhumane labor. This country that is unknown to many, is all the buzz in the world of soccer.  FIFA has taken notice of the unwanted attention Qatar is bringing in and will begun to monitor them more closely. Human-rights groups have exposed Qatar for the conditions they force their workers in, and dozen of unexpected deaths have occurred in the past two years.[2] With human rights stepping up FIFA has no other option but to keep an eye on Qatar. With all the different types of media looking over Qatar, one small mis-step could foil their plans for hosting the FIFA World Cup in 2022.

Similar to the United States, Qatar has passed a law regarding the Modernization of Labor and Labor Law in the Arab Gulf States in 1978. Although these laws have been implemented, that does not mean these laws are being followed to this date. The abuse to workers was so bad that laws were passed to protect them.[3] Many people around the world are not familiar with what is truly happening in the country of Qatar. Although human rights groups are making their presence known, Qatar refuses to to acknowledge them. However, with the lack of workers and machinery, something will need to change and soon.  With not enough help to build these stadiums, they will need to reach out to surrounding countries to look for help. Qatar is its own worst enemy is the past few years. They have created such a damaged image upon themselves that the hole is too big for them to climb out of. To fix it they would need to increase the wages and get better equipment. But, with the amount of money that has been spent already that is unrealistic to change.

Figure 2. Each Body represents a death in Qatar while working.

Help will be harder to find now recent stories have published. While working in the excruciating heat (100 F), workers become hydrated due to the minimal water breaks and sometimes even get heat stroke. While being up on heights as tall as Safeco Field, fainting and falling down is a serious hazard. “A man who was putting lights up in the stadium fell from the catwalk where he was working”.[4] Dying on immediate impact, this death was only the start. 1,239 death, which is an insane amount of workers to die on the job. But, what is even more shocking is that that number is the amount of workers that died from 2010 when the construction started to 2013. In just over 3 years Qatar’s death toll have quadrupled Rio’s, London’s, Beijing, Sochi, Vancouver, and South Africa’s total, which resulted in 80 deaths. These current numbers only raise suspicion the among people watching this situation. Faulty safety equipment, not strong enough hope to hold a human man, or maybe no equipment at all since the cost to build these structures are for more that was Qatar expected.

However, the cruelty doesn’t stop there. Deaths and low wage protests are nothing new to Qatar. Even though Qatar has come out publicly and addressed the people that they would work to get better regarding working conditions they have failed to do so. On average workers are being paid 6.75 (which is $1.83 in U.S) dollars each day but are sometimes not given the money as a type of punishment.[5] Not only does Qatar give out unfair payment, not allow workers to find new jobs, but they make the workers pay a working fee. As a way to protect themselves from workers injuries Qatar does not have an official book regarding the work-related injuries.[6] Living conditions can sometimes be worse than the work itself. Some houses have no windows and when temperatures reach upwards of 100 degrees F things can begin to smell like mold. Trying to send money back to families is impossible as Qatar chargers workers for living, and food expenses. Employers are allowed to hold onto passports until the job is done, with this being said workers from 2010 are still stuck in Qatar because their job is not yet completed. As letters come in to Human Rights Organizations it is said that as working conditions worsen the workers can feel their bodies worsen too. New recruits come in each and everyday having now idea that there life is about to be changes in a snap of a finger.

These workers who are risking their lives each and every day will never have a say in anything. As Qatar begins to ponder the question of moving the World Cup to the winter because the summer heat would be too unbearable for the fans and most importantly the players.[7] Thus, creating a smaller time slot for workers to complete the project of building 9 new stadiums and renovating 3 more. In the book, Migrant labor in the Persian Gulf, it is stated that, Unsurprisingly, all of the concerned states spend inordinate amounts of their political energies managing the armies of migrant labourers employed in their countries, and there are equally fundamental social, cultural, and economic consequences involved as well.[8] Managing armies of migrant laborers, Qatar knows what they are doing is wrong and they wont stop. They know that if if this strategy of their fails their economic system is bound to fail because they can get away with paying such low wages to migrant workers and have no consequences. With the state that Qatar is in right now mean one slips up could be the end of the run for them.

In 2013, FIFA finally addressed the situation in Qatar. Further statements have left Human Rights Organizations all over the world in a rage. Chief Hassan Al-Thawadi is refusing to set a time in which Qatar should end the cruel labor.[9] This coming a year after FIFA’s for initial look into the Qatar labor. Reasoning for the statement is said be that Qatar has been doing this before they got the bid to host the tournament.

Figure 3. Chief Hassan Al-Thawadi

Requiring them change their ways is seen as unjust to the FIFA council. Therefore, Qatar will not be stripped of their bid to hold the tournament come 2022. Another deciding factor to this is the fact that pushing the title off to another country in this short amount of time will only can stress and have a chance of having no stadiums completed. Due to the fact that in just 4 years the World Cup begins, which is not enough time for another country to get ready or it.[10] With each day passing there are more and more complaints being sent to the FIFA committee about the act of violence against Qatar. No matter the case FIFA will hold strong in their argument in keeping the games in Qatar. With history being written on the bad side, there is good news in this situation. Qatar will become the first country in the Middle East to hold such prestigious games. This is what the Middle Eastern countries have been waiting for. Unlike Saudi Arabia and Dubai, Qatar is not as marketed as their neighbors to the West. Having such a big sporting event in their country will pull in tourism in which in turn the country will gain money. Hoping to boost the Qatar economy, this is seen as a chance to change the worlds view of the Middle East.

As working increases to prepare for the summer games to arrive, FIFA has came out a stated a curve ball that will impact more than just the labors. During a meeting the UEFA football committee has stated that the Summer World Cup will now be moved to the Winter. This causing a problem for all that invested money in these games. US broadcaster Fox Sports says a winter World Cup will clash with live American football games. Sources told US news agency Bloomberg that Fox Sports, which paid $425m for the television rights for the 2018 and 2022 tournaments, said that a scheduling clash with live American football games made any proposed switch a major problem.[11] Thus creating a problem that many soccer players from the US will not be playing in the tournament since the winter games would be during regular season in America. These problems are starting to happen all over as countries also have regular seasons during the winter time in Qatar. Compositions fees are on there way to UEFA because some countries are thinking about backing out of the games. If that is true not only will UEFA lose millions of dollars,  so will Qatar. Building all the stadiums which might not even be used; the economy, which is depending on the boom of tourism, won’t see any money come in. In fact UEFA might move games between countries because the winter time is so inconvenient to all other countries. And finally the workers, spending years and years of back breaking labor, death, injuries, and very little pay only to see that their work might be blown up if the games are held somewhere else. However, if the games are switched back to summer the production of the stadiums will come at a frantic pace.

Although Qatar is not following these rules based on the facts of the working conditions these migrant workings are going through since Qatar won the bid in 2010 to host the prestigious UEFA World Cup games. We do know there is a base law regarding these conditions, but Qatar refuses to be pushed back to within the boundaries. FIFA is only adding gas to the fire by not making Qatar change their ways. No matter how you look at the situation Qatar will be under fire before, during, and after the games. However, media is attacking Qatar due to the hundreds of reports involving death, sickness, and injuries to their works. Even if the games go smoothly, the devastation to the workers will never go away. And we, as concerned people, must not let it ever go.

 

Endnotes

[1] Meigs, P. (1966). Geography of coastal deserts. (Arid zone research ; 28). Paris: UNESCO.

[2] Stevis, Matina. 2014. “FIFA to Monitor Qatar’s Treatment of World Cup Workers; FIFA Won’t Strip Qatar of 2022 World Cup Over Reported Violations.” Wall Street Journal (Online), Feb 13.

[3] Hill, Enid. The Modernization of Labor and Labor Law in the Arab Gulf States. Cairo], Cairo : American University in Cairo, 1979.

[4] “MORE DEATHS IN DOHA.” GulfInsider, 2017, GulfInsider, Feb 15, 2017.

[5] Watch (Organization), Human Rights. Building a Better World Cup: Protecting Migrant Workers in Qatar Ahead of FIFA 2022. New York, New York: Human Rights Watch, 2012.

[6] Watch (Organization), Human Rights. Building a Better World Cup: Protecting Migrant Workers in Qatar Ahead of FIFA 2022. New York, New York: Human Rights Watch, 2012.

[7] Devi, Sharmila. “Concerns over Mistreatment of Migrant Workers in Qatar.” The Lancet 383, no. 9930 (2014): 1709.

[8] Kamrava, M., Babar, Zahra, & Georgetown University. Center for International Regional Studies. (2012). Migrant labor in the Persian Gulf. London: Hurst &

[9] In Qatar, Ben Rumsby. “Qatar 2022 World Cup Chief Hassan Al-Thawadi Refuses to Set Deadline on Improvements in Workers’ Human Rights; Qatar 2022 General Secretary Hassan Al-Thawadi Claims It Would Be Wrong to Judge Qatar’s Progress by Any Specific Timescale.(SPORT).” The Telegraph Online, 2013.

[10] Stevis, Matina. 2014. “FIFA to Monitor Qatar’s Treatment of World Cup Workers; FIFA Won’t Strip Qatar of 2022 World Cup Over Reported Violations.” Wall Street Journal (Online), Feb 13.

[11] Baxter, Kevin. (2013). Uefa footballing body backs winter move for Qatar World Cup. MEED Middle East Economic Digest, 57(38), 21.

 

Illustrations

[1] Mckirdy,Euan. “Middle East split: The allies isolating Qatar”. CNN, June 7th, 2017. Accessed Dec 7. http://www.myhighplains.com/news/world-news/middle-east-split-the-allies-isolating-qatar/731906404

[2] Conn, D.”Thousands of Qatar World Cup workers ‘subjected to like-threatening heat”. The Gaurdian. Guardian News and Media, Sept 26. Accessed Dec 7, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/football/2017/sep/27/thousands-qatar-world-cup-workers-life-threatening-heat

[3] Ali, W. “Will the Qatari crisis last until 2022?”.Egypt Today, Dec 4, 2017. Accessed Dec 7.https://www.egypttoday.com/Article/2/35284/Will-the-Qatari-crisis-last-until-2022

The effect of the industrial revolution on climate change

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Climate change is an issue that has been blown out of proportion yet “based on facts”. Thats not to say that climate change doesn’t exist, as a matter of fact it is something very real. In 2017 this issue has been becoming bigger as more and more people are becoming aware of it. Its nothing to be alarmed at yet, key word “yet” as at the current rate we are headed it can and will get worse. There is plenty of evidence backed by science that shows all of the fossil fuels, especially coal, being used to further industry and technology has had a huge effect on our climate in a very negative way. In just one of those scientific reports made by the IPCC “the fifth assessment report”(AR5) as national geographic kindly broke down for us “evidence that humans are causing it is stronger”.[1] This AR5 speaks about mankind own involvement in climate change primarily by the burning of fossil fuels over the past several decades. [1]

This involvement all began with the the industrial revolution when man began burning coal ushering us forward into a new age of technology. The worlds climate has been rapidly heating only to be accelerated by what’s the UK started over 100 years ago by releasing way to much co2 into the atmosphere a greenhouse effect has been created something that traps heat into the world raising the temperature gradually. Starting in the the 18th century the industrial revolution started to kick off and with that came much coal being burned pollution our atmosphere. The pollution or smog as it was sometimes called as it is a smokey fog , continued to effect people all the way until the through the end of the revolution as in 1952 the great smog of London was a point where the entire city and even country was covered in a thick smog that killed many people and injured many others. This smog caused not only people to suffer but business as well. In an article written by the London times I went on to talk about how transportation shut down completely and many sporting events were cancelled as well as it took cattle farmers way longer to get to the show where they sold their cattle but also cause problems for the cattle as well from breathing in all the smoke.[2] The great smog of London lasted for 4 days and caused great havoc on London. The mark that that event left and the rest of the revolution left is still with us today. Not only is it still here but humans are still adding to it everyday.

Before coal we had man and horse power for anything that needed to get done. It was very inefficient in comparison and it limited us to very basic things and kept us to smaller cities and lower economics capabilities. The entrance of the steam engine into the game powered by the the energy released by the combustion of coal. But long before that coal was used as a cheap way to heat was a benefit to energy intensive industries.[3] People have used coal for an inexpensive way to heat themselves through the harsh winters in Britain but once the steam engine, and steam power arrived it changed everything. Now great Britain started to use more and more coal each year. By the year 1800, 15 million tons of coal came into Britain.[4] It was put to a good use however as it was burned to fuel the revolution and power the new machines in the factories producing new better good and more efficiently. This commodity was huge for great Britain and the industry only grew from there as the amount of coal doubled by the end of the 19th century as compared to the beginning of it. Though all of that burning did come with some serious consequences both good and bad. Of the good came faster production and easier production, a cheaper way to heat homes and it made a huge leap forward in transportation with the introduction of trains into the world allowing people to travel large distances in no time. The bad however was more environmental as the use of coal created smog which killed livestock and polluted the river it also caused the earth to began to heat off schedule which is bad very very bad.

During the industrial revolution the economy was allowed to expand further than with the simple man power by a newfound energy. The coal based export economy allowed them to explore in detail the the subordination of the land and society to the demands of a distant market.[5] These new coal driven markets allowed for textiles and more modern production to start taking shape propelling us towards a new era. The coal intake and use grew more rapidly than all others nearly doubling every half century from the year 1700 to the the late 19th century being used as a great energy source to power the revolution.[6] That power was put to good use as there was now so much of this newfound energy, the only problem came later on down the line when we found out just how destructive it was to the environment.

At the end of the revolution coal was used less and less putting less pollution into the the atmosphere. At one point in London the smog was so bad it clouded the air and left a haze over everything it even created an evolutionary path for a species of moth turning them brown to blend in. It cleared us and the people were joyed at the sight of clearer skies. When the coal used slowed the smog began to recede and pollute less of our environment.[7] this one reporter was so used to the smog that covered the the skies over London that one day when it had been a somewhat clear day he was amazed and surprised to see it so clear. Now if the smog was so bad from all the coal use that the one day that it began recede people where shocked one can only imagine all the damaged that had been done not to mention the stuff that wasn’t visible at the time and still may not be able to.

Moving forward into the future climate science began to evolve and show us of all the destruction we have done to our environment. Over the last 600 million years we have found out that our earth has gone through periods of global warming and cooling through movement in tectonic plates.[8] Earth naturally changes its own climate every couple 100,000 years or so.[9] Now we are just now exiting a period of cooling transferring into a warming of our globe That isn’t to say however that we as as mankind have not accelerated this. As the world, starting with Britain, began to industrialize, also began the pollution and warming of our planet.

Warming of the globe causes many problems such as changes in precipitation and sea-level. The co2 pollution changes precipitation levels only making the dry places drier.[10] This makes much of it less hospitable for not only humans but other life that roams that area as well. The sea level will rise due to the heating and melting of the of the ice caps. This could cause flooding in locations closer to sea level such as New York, L.A., Seattle, etc. Another crisis forming is how the ecosystem will be affected. Animals such as polar bears and penguins are loosing much of their homes due the melting of the ice caps.[11] Also as bill nye explains one phenomenon that comes as a repercussion of climate change is ocean acidification which is a rise in the the oceans chemistry as a direct effect of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reacting to the salt water.[12] What this has been doing is killing the coral in the reefs, calcification of clams and oysters and other animals. With all of this combined it will kill much of the species in the ocean as many of them rely on the reefs to survive which in turn will effect plenty of people who also rely on the oceans.

What the British started with the industrial revolution and the rest of the world continued has created a great tragedy for our climate and the world as a whole. By burning all the coal and using that to usher us into the new age we have polluted our environments badly that we have began effecting the the whole ecosystem killing many species. We have failed to notice the repercussions of the industrial revolution and are just now noticing with the advancements in climate science. With all that coal from the industrial revolution still in the atmosphere and plenty more on its way these problems will only grow far worse if left ignored . We must bring about change, to do that we need willing policy makers.

citations
1. 5 Key Takeaways From the Latest Climate Change Report." National Geographic. November 02, 2014. Accessed December 06, 2017. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/11/141102-ipcc-synthesis-report-climate-change-science-environment/.

2. "Transport Dislocated By Three Days Of Fog." Times [London, England] 8 Dec. 1952: 8. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 7 Dec. 2017.

3 Wrigley, E. A. Energy and the English Industrial Revolution. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

4 Harris, John. Technology and Culture 26, no. 4 (1985): 844-46. doi:10.2307/3105632. Reviewed work: The History of the British Coal Industry. Vol. 2: 1700-1830: T

5 Secondary: Matthew Osborn. ""The Weirdest of All Undertakings": The Land and the Early Industrial Revolution in Oldham, England." Environmental History 8, no. 2 (2003): 246-69. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3985711.

6 Wrigley, Energy and the English Industrial Revolution figure 4.1

7"London Air." Times [London, England] 23 Aug. 1921: 9+. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 8 Nov. 2017.

8Frakes, Lawrence A., Francis, Jane E, and Syktus, Jozef I. Climate Modes of the Phanerozoic : The History of the Earth's Climate over the past 600 Million Years. Cambridge ; New York, N.Y., USA: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

9 Frakes, Francis, Syktus, Climate Modes of the Phanerozoic : The History of the Earth's Climate over the past 600 Million Years.

10 Solomon, Susan, Gian-Kasper Plattner, Reto Knutti, and Pierre Friedlingstein. "Irreversible Climate Change Due to Carbon Dioxide Emissions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, no. 6 (2009): 1704-709. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40421660.

11 Solomon, Gian-Kasper, Reto, and Friedlingstein. "Irreversible Climate Change Due to Carbon Dioxide Emissions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, no. 6

12 "Global Warming Effects." Global Warming and Climate Change Effects: Information and Facts. July 14, 2017. Accessed December 07, 2017. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/global-warming-effects/.

images
[1]anonymous, steam winding gear ,1820 accessed December 7,2017

[2] World Energy Consumption by Source, Based on Vaclav Smil estimates from Energy Transitions: History, Requirements and Prospects together with BP Statistical Data for 1965 and subsequent

[3] Nicholson, Francis; lithograph of a coal mining district, 1828 accessed December 7,2017

Apartheid in South Africa

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Imagine going to the bathroom and seeing a sign that reads ‘whites only’. This was the case for Karen when she was visiting her grandparents in South Africa. During the apartheid, there was racial segregation supported by the government. The Dutch Afrikaners wanted to maintain power and used the apartheid to do so. With the unequal laws and segregation, there was a huge discrepancy in how whites lived and how people of color lived. The Dutch were able to use the Apartheid in order to stay in control and hold onto power. They were able to do this using many different laws and policies, which were directed at keeping the people of color in line and submissive. Current racial inequality in South Africa has greatly improved from 1990 but there is still inequality traced back to apartheid. To understand the current racial inequality in South Africa, it is essential to understand how the Afrikaners used the apartheid and how the world reacted to apartheid. 

Figure 1: Anti-apartheid poster.

         The Dutch colonizers were afraid of losing their power to the majority of blacks, which they knew would be able to maintain the government and its institutions to stay in power. The Afrikaners used The International Security Act of 1976 and the 1977 Criminal Procedures Act as major pieces in their plan to oppress blacks. The International Security Act of 1976 allows an individual to be detained for as long as a year without a trial or help with a lawyer, and the 1977 Criminal Procedures Act allowed trials to happen in complete secrecy, including convincing, sentencing, charging, and trying [1]. These acts were used after protests and allowed hundreds of blacks to be imprisoned without a fair trial. The government wanted to be in control of the black population, so they used these acts to suppress any type of resistance. This lead to an increase in black incarceration rates. With the number of black men in prisons, families have split apart and justice was practically unattainable. Many people were left homeless and doomed to a cycle of poverty. The government was then able to create stereotypes based on the black population in prison furthering the idea that whites are superior to blacks.

        The government’s desire for complete control over blacks perpetrated incredible inequality within South Africa’s institutions, which also translates into society. Populations were displaced and banned from areas, which adversely affects their ability to find jobs and provide for families. In 1951, The Native Laws Amendment Bill section 10 says that “a native cannot stay in an ‘urban’ area for longer than 72 hours unless he was born there, lived there for 15 years, or worked for an employer for at least 10 years [2]. This caused an enormous amount of black people to be displaced in new areas. When the government is able to control where different races live, they are overtly creating an unequal society. Specifically, the black people that were forced to move had to either pay a fine or serve a jail sentence if they were unable to relocate[3]. Afrikaners maintained their control through this bill as they forcibly depleted the quality of life for black South Africans. The government harnessed nearly every effort to segregate the society and reserve the highest quality aspects of life for whites only. Not only is this unequal and counterproductive to society, but the isolation of people of color as a whole will create a massive rift in society that can perpetuate and complicate race relations in the future.

Figure 2: Boycott DelMonte poster.

Sexual interactions between races were also something that the South African government sought to eliminate. In 1950, the South African government passed the Immorality Act, which prohibited sexual interactions between the races [4]. This piece of legislation prohibited sexual relations between races to keep races “pure”. The Afrikaners believed that if they were able to keep the races as separate as possible, they would have better control over the blacks. The Afrikaners maintained control over black populations by instituting strict laws, limiting resources and opportunities for public mobility, and by putting a lot of police officers in black communities. Laws banning the mixing of races reinforces ideas of racial superiority, and this is toxic for developing nations. This relates to present day relations because as these ideas were developed in the middle of the 20th century. Presently, many people still hold the same beliefs that they did during the apartheid, making race relations tense today. People of color are still disproportionately impoverished and discriminated against in society.  Limiting sexual interactions between races creates divisive norms in societies, which tells future generations that isolation and marginalization of other races are acceptable. This is an issue that affects race relations currently because these sentiments will still be held by certain members of society, which reinforces the inequality among races created by the South African government.

Not only did South Africa’s government suppress people of color but they also empowered white people to further divide the races. White farmers were demanding more land and the only land available belonged to the Africans. The government supported these white farmers by forcibly removing the African farmers from their land. Most people of color had very little education and so they were not able to hold high skill level jobs, which forced them to stay as farmers. They would have to stay and work on white farms in order to survive. In the agricultural business, the colored people were earning meager wages and being mistreated by the landowner. This treatment was deliberate with the intent to harm the people of color. In Lindsay Eades’ article, The End of Apartheid in South Africa, Paul Maylam states, “The result was to leave thousands of Africans in a state of semi-proletarianism, either as labor tenants on white farms or as migrant laborers”[5]. The government wanted the Africans to be reliant on the whites and they were able to accomplish this by only allowing white farmers. The racial inequality was only furthered by this because it allowed the whites to become even more wealthy while further instilling the stereotype that Africans are inferior to whites. Africans were also portrayed as criminals because they had to do what was right for them in order to make ends meet. Their low wages were not enough to feed their family and so they would have resorted to crime to provide for them. The acceptance of these laws by society created a cultural and social isolation for the Africans, which are still being combated today. Unfair laws and treatment did not bode well with the Africans and as a result, they protested for equal rights.

 

 

 

Figure 3: Mbuyisa Makhubo carrying 12-year-old Hector Pieterson who was shot during the uprising.

The government’s efforts to silence voices against the apartheid extended as far as to use its force to shut down protests. The town of Soweto is known for leading protests against the apartheid and Afrikaners. At one point, 15,000 students marched to Orlando stadium where they met a fully armed police force opening fire on them [6]. After this incident, there were 284 people pronounced dead and about 2,000 people were injured. The unrest spread, and more protests were organized throughout the country. In the town of Thokoza and Daveyton, similar responses occurred. Protestors were met with heavily armed police who opened fire with no regard for human life. These protests were also met with schools being burned down because the government wanted to keep the Africans in the dark about civil rights and equal treatment of the races. They figured scholars had the most information and had the greatest chance of changing the government and so by targeting them the government was able to subdue protests. The extreme opposition to protests by the government fueled more unrest and dissent between races in South Africa, but these protests played a key role in the disintegration of the apartheid. The tactics used to segregate South Africa drove races even farther apart than they already were. Excessive force, legal segregation, and outright discrimination within the law created long-term problems regarding racial inequalities that still exist in South Africa today. Additionally, this led to mass incarceration of blacks, specifically those with low income or who are unemployed.

The international community reacted to the injustices of the apartheid through action taken by the United Nations. The start of the apartheid was neglected and not viewed as a pressing humanitarian crisis. As the severity was realized, the United Nations attempted to intervene but was not very successful. The United Nations tried many different tactics to stop the apartheid over the years, but they received little response, let alone cooperation, from the South African government. When the apartheid problem was introduced to the general assembly in 1946, the United Nations tried to advise the South African government to cease their harsh racial discrimination. The South African government disregarded their advice and moved forward with their discriminatory agenda [7]. The United Nations attempted to negotiate, but the South African government did just the opposite and increased harsh treatment. The South African government neglected much of their population, and instead of treating them as upstanding citizens, they were oppressed, marginalized, and treated unfairly. Apartheid became increasingly inhumane, which prompted the United Nations to create a “Special Committee to keep the racial policies of the South African Government under constant review” [8]. The General Assembly and the Security Council worked closely with the Special Committee, and they listened and acted on their recommendations. The Special Committee first called on all states that were helping South Africa and demanded that they not sell them weapons or military vehicles. 66 states adhere to this request, but many nations did not stop their exports to South Africa. These states included the United States, Argentina, France, Portugal, and the United Kingdom [9]. The states who continued to support South Africa sent a message to citizens that they were not cared for by the outside world, as they were perpetrating the apartheid that was oppressing so many individuals.

The South African government showed little respect or regard for their citizens suffering in the apartheid. This neglect directly contributed to the isolation and oppression of people of color, inhibiting the productivity of South Africa. Had the Afrikaners stepped down or had South Africa received beneficial foreign aid, the race relations would have been different because facilities and government services would have been more equal, and thus providing all races with an equal opportunity to excel. The apartheid created and sustained racial inequality for nearly 50 years, and because it only recently ended, there are still prominent racial tensions and inequalities. Understanding what created and reinforced the apartheid is imperative to understanding race relations today. Racial inequality directly inhibits the productivity of society, as it weakens the ability for individuals of diverse backgrounds to reside together peacefully and cohesively.

 

Endnotes:

[1] Kenneth L. Adelman, “Apartheid: Is There Any Hope Left in South Africa?”, Journal of Black Studies 13 (1982), 48.

[2] Carol E. Kaufman, “Reproductive Control in Apartheid South Africa.”, Population Studies 54 (2000), 107.

[3] Kaufman, “Apartheid South Africa,” 108.

[4] Lindsay M. Eades, The End of Apartheid in South Africa (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1999), 13.

[5] Eades, End of Apartheid, 46.

[6] Archie Mafeje, “Soweto and Its Aftermath”,  Review of African Political Economy, 11 (1978), 18.

[7] General Assembly, “POLICIES OF APARTHEID OF THE GOVERNMENT OF SOUTH AFRICA. IMPLEMENTATION BY STATES OF UNITED NATIONS RESOLUTIONS ON APARTHEID. REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON APARTHEID” (1973), 1.

[8] General Assembly, “Policies of Apartheid,” 3.

[9] General Assembly, “Policies of Apartheid,” 7.

 

Illustrations:

Figure 1: Romero, Rachael, Designer, and Wilfred Owen Brigade. Apartheid, No. , 1975. [San Francisco: Wilfred Owen Brigade] Photograph. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/2015647336/. (Accessed December 07, 2017.)

Figure 2: Romero, Rachael, Designer, and San Francisco Poster Brigade. Del Monte profits from apartheid. , 1977. [San Francisco: San Francisco Poster Brigade] Photograph. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/2015647487/. (Accessed December 07, 2017.)

Figure 3: Photo by Sam Nzima of a dying Hector Pieterson, 1976, https://www.flickr.com/photos/panr/2590874830

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Persecution of Christians in England, From the Past to Now

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When people find something to believe in, nothing can stop them from that. All around everyone in history has suffered harassment, persecution, and at many times were beaten for worshiping their own religion. Even today in Nigeria, many Christians are killed just for having faith in their God, totaling to over 4000 deaths in 2015. Throughout these hardships people have gone through, religion still continues. tying in past events with religion in England brings understanding to the conflicts we have now, and solutions we as a world can gain to provide freedom of religion without the consequences. Now, in the year 2017, is there still persecution of Christians in England?
First, a good way to understand a conflict we have right now is to look in to the past to grasp a better understanding of the topic. In the early 1500’s in England, many protestants (christians) were in conflict with their country being strongly catholic, which led to many fleeing to America for freedom, or standing up to fight.[1] With the strong catholic country being intolerable to the protestants, around 1536, many closed protestant monasteries and forced them to reform to Catholicism or face violence.[2] This caused many rebellions to be created, which caused even more conflict in England when it came to religion for the Christians. To understand this part of the past in Christian faith, we can solve problems we have now without violence and find a way where everyone can believe in what they believe in without fear of being hurt.[3]
Figure 1: Picture depicting the evils that religious persecution has brought upon a family of Christian faith

Even though back in the 1500’s violence was an answer when Catholics would not tolerate the Christians, today in many parts of England, this has still become a problem.[4] Conflict with religions, especially Muslims to Christians, has reached a breaking point. Numerous reports of Stabbings of Christians, Rock throwing at cars and people, and even fires being set in protest the Christian faith.[5] This was a common problem even in the earlier times of England, as shown in the picture below where a family is being taken because of there faith. As Gandhi once said, “an eye for an eye makes the whole world blind”. Fighting eachother cannot solve the problem and will not fix the religious inequalities England and the world face today.
Now coming to another topic that leads to conflict, people in this era are turning to having no religion, with many believing there is no God and it is foolish to believe there is one. This has become a problem especially in England. With high numbers of people becoming atheist in Britain, many have started to skip church on Sunday.[6] While this may not seem like a strong persecution to Christians, the fact that many are starting to move away from the church pressures Christians to act in the same way. It becomes stressful with so many people becoming atheist, many choose to avoid in show of there faith to not be persecuted for their religion. In a book by Dr. Peter Brierly, he brings up a key statistic in 2005 based on population of people who go to church and not in England.[7] Studies show about one tenth of the entire population attends church while the rest do not. This has become a serious problem because church is where people of all race, gender, etc. come to worship the same religion. A place where people are united and without that, England is becoming less of a religious lead government and country, which is how they have always been.
Figure 2: symbol shown as the symbol atheist use to represent their faith

When it comes to any type of religion, there is always an item or object that represents that religion, a most popular one being the cross to represent Catholicism and Christianity. In the past few years, tension has become extreme with people not wanting to see these symbols, At many times even showing your religion through objects or symbols can create conflict with the people around you. Shirley Chaplin and Colin Atkinson, a nurse and an electrician, were threatened of losing there jobs because of wearing a cross and having a cross in the dashboard of a car.[8,9] While they only do this for themselves and not others just to have a cross to look to, the people around them take offense to it.
Leading to the last and most important conflict of our time dealing with Christianity, the way marriage is seen through their religion is a male and female, and with our times today with many being married as the same gender, this leads to a struggle forcing many Christians having to deal with this which is against their religion. Specifically, in 2009, a counselor by the name of Gary McFarlane would not support a gay couple, saying that “encouraging gay sex went against his devout religious beliefs”. [10]While homosexuality is legal and should not be seen as anything else, it is unfair for someone who believes in a religion to have to display themselves in a way against their faith, Just like Gary McFarlane

Figure 3: Adam and Eve, symbolizing the start of the human race Christian’s believe as a male and a female, showing support to many against homosexuality
Very contrary to the perspective seeing England as a strong united country through religion, with these sources shown, a key argument is that England right now with persecution of Christians is not unlike the persecution of Protestants in Early England, both showing violence and intolerance as the answer, Causing these continuing problems of religious conflict in The US, Britain, and around the World. We must look to people who have solutions already, such as a sermon said by a priest in 1805 showing signs of good health and wholeness coming from the gospel through equality from everyone, and apply those to our lives.[11]

PS: i tried numerous times to get the pictures on the post but they would not appear, but on my pdf you will see the pictures there

 

Endote:

[1,2]Simpson, J. (2007). “Burning to read : English fundamentalism and its Reformation opponents.” Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://searchit.libraries.wsu.edu/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=CP71178847650001451&context=L&vid=WSU&search_scope=WSU_everything&tab=default_tab&lang=en_US

[3,4]Moore, I.R. “The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power and Deviance in Western Europe”. New York: Blackwell, 1987. https://searchit.libraries.wsu.edu/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=TN_crossref10.2307/1906628&context=PC&vid=WSU&search_scope=WSU_everything&tab=default_tab&lang=en_US

[5]Holehouse, Matthew. “Religion in Modern Britain: Ten Recent Conflicts.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 10 Feb. 2012, www.telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/9074643/Religion-in- modern-Britain-ten-recent-conflicts.html.

[6]Schroeder, Jerold Aust John Ross. “Current Events & Trends: Persecution of Christians in Britain.” United Church of God, United Church of God , 18 May 2012, www.ucg.org/the-good-news/current-events-trends-persecution-of-christians-in-britain.

[7] Brierley, Peter, “Implicit Religion: 72% Christian, 8% Attendance”, 2005-2015 (Tonbridge: ADBC Publishers, 2011, 136pp., ISBN 978-0-9566577-2-5). https://searchit.libraries.wsu.edu/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=TN_proquest60016018&context=PC&vid=WSU&search_scope=WSU_everything&tab=default_tab&lang=en_US

[8] Robertson, John. “Electrician Faces Sack for Displaying Christian Cross in His Van.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 17 Apr. 2011, www.teleg raph.co.uk/news/religion/8456637/Electrician-faces-sack-for-displaying-Christian-cross-in-his-van.html.

[9] Savill, Richard. “Christian Nurse Loses Discrimination Case over Crucifix Necklace.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 7 Apr. 2010, www.telegraph.co.uk/news/7560342/Christian-nurse-loses-discrimination-case-over-crucifix-necklace.html.

[10]Reporter, Gordon Rayner Chief. “Christian Sex Therapist ‘Refused to Counsel Gay Couples’.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 8 Jan. 2009, www.telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/4177427/Christian-sex-therapist-refused-to-counsel-gay-couples.html.

[11] Pelham, George. A sermon preached in the cathedral church of St. Paul, London: on Thursday, May 30, 1805. Being the time of the yearly meeting of the children educated in the charity-schools, in and about the cities of London and Westminster. Published at the request of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and the trustees of the several schools. To which is annexed, An account of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. London, 1805. The Making Of The Modern World. Web. 7 Dec. 2017.

 

Illustrations:
Figure 1: Eon Images. “Persecution of Albigensians.” Eon Images, Eon Images, May 2008, http://www.eonimages.com/?utf8=%E2%9C%93&search=persecution+of+Albigensians&commit=Go

Figure 2: http://www.patheos.com/blogs/panmankey/2013/06/interview-with-an-atheist-pagan/ used off an article by Jason Mankey, Interview With an Atheist Pagan

Figure 3: website where picture was linked to: http://culturevie.info/tag-adam-and-eve.html where picture can be instantly found: http://media.ldscdn.org/images/media-library/gospel-art/old-testament/adam-eve-altar-39689-print.jpg

Industrial Automation and Its Impact on Employment

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Introduction

Since the start of Industrial Revolution in Europe, the manufacturing sector has witnessed plenty of changes in its production lines. The first industries used human labor to produce goods, but as production increased, the industrialists had problems with workers unions who pushed for better pay. Strikes were often organized to push for improved treatment for the workers. [1] The industrialists realized they could not keep the high cost of labor and still operate profitably. They turned to the automation of the services which led to the loss of jobs for some of the workers. Ever since the invention of the first industrial machinery, the new and better ones have been produced. In the current times, some industries now use robots for their production purposes. This essay discusses the atomization in industries and their effect on the world.

What led to industrial automation?

The growth of industries in Europe led to the need for automated processes. Britain was a leader in the field owing to its numerous sectors that were booming with production. Other countries in the continent followed suit and eventually, the technology reached the USA in the late 18th century. A lot of the production was done using human labor and was therefore very slow and expensive[2] The industrialists had to look for ways to speed up production and do it at a lower cost. In the textile industry, the main raw material was wool which was spun using hands. The introduction of machines led to the production of cotton material at a faster rate and a more affordable cost. As the use of devices increased, many of the people who used to work in the industries were replaced by the machines.

   

Figure 1: James Watt’s “Sun and Planet” steam engine

Another reason why the industrialists turned to the use of machines was the rising demand for goods that exceeded supply. The high demanded forced the manufacturers to increase production and thus started to use machines, such as James Watt’s ‘Sun and Planet” steam engine for this purpose[3]

Since humans provided the labor, it was hard to make them work for long hours. Where shifts would be applied in providing the employment, the cost of production would go up. The demands by the factory owners were exploitive, and the law had to step in and protect the people. The Factory Act was passed in 1833, setting working hour limits for the employees. Therefore, the manufacturers turned to machines which could work without the need for rest.

The passing of the Act meant that the industrialists had to make changes to improve the working conditions for the workers[4] Some of the measures that they need to implement concerned hygiene and safety of the employees. The early machines were dangerous to work with, and they caused the lives of many people or injured others. Due to the poor working conditions in the factories, the workers formed unions that would push for their welfare. The unions would call strikes whenever their demands were not met. The strikes caused disruptions to the production processes leading to losses. When the industrialists started using machines, they did not have to deal with disruptive strikes as long as their devices were running.

The workers’ unions often pushed the manufacturers to increase salaries for their members and reduce the working hours[5] This combination of demands was not right for the manufacturers who were out to make profits. The increased cost of labor meant that they had to sell their goods at uncompetitive rates amidst very high competition. The machines provided the manufacturers with an economical way of increasing production while maintaining low labor cost.

The discovery of other parts of the world that could be used to produce raw materials for the industries also contributed to the spread of automation. Machines were required not only in the factories but in growing and harvesting the raw materials. [6] Using computers was comfortable, faster and met the needs of the factory owners. Manufacturers in different parts of the developed world were scrambling for the raw materials, and they needed ways to exploit them ahead of the others.

Economic effects of automation

The main reason why British industrialists considered automation was to increase their profits. The industries consumed a lot of energy and labor which kept rising. When they started using machines, it resulted in reduced labor costs. However, the reduction was not significant at the beginning as because some of the devices were not very efficient. However, the performance of the machines improved and in turn helped reduce production costs.

Job losses The loss of jobs was another effect that resulted from the use of machines. The devices replaced labor and many people had to lose their jobs as the computers took their places. The image of a car assembly in Sunderland shows robot arms working on vehicles with on human in sight[7]

Figure 2: Robotic arms assemble and weld the body shell of a Nissan car in Sunderland

The tools just a few people to operate them as needed. Due to the extended working hours of the factories, people started working throughout the night to run the machines. Thus, nightshifts were introduced which created opportunities for some of the employees[8] The government aimed to create employment for the people, but the industrialists made this problematic by laying off the workers.

Increased supply The people who worked in the factories created a market for the goods they produced[9] The demand for the goods was very high that the plants could not meet it hence the need to find methods of increasing productivity. The availability of more products to sell made the manufacturers seek new markets in Europe, America and other parts of the world. As more factories adopted the use of machines, the market had more goods for the consumers to choose from. The availability of more products in the market led to increased competition as producers tried to outdo one another.

Exploration and colonization As the factories increased their production, the demand for raw materials increased. The manufacturers needed raw materials and energy sources to feed and power their production lines to meet the demand in the market[10] Since competition for locally available materials was high and which pushed the price up, the manufacturers had to look for alternative sources. Therefore, they set out to look for lands that could provide them with what they needed. In their search for the materials, they discovered new places in Africa, Asia, and the Americas which provided them with not just raw materials and energy but also cheap labor and a market.

Decreased market The high loss of jobs meant that many people could not purchase some of their goods produced because they lacked the money with to buy. Reduction of markets in Europe may be one of the reasons that contributed to the search for other markets. With a shrunken market in Europe, it meant the gains made by the introduction of machines were lost as the manufacturers could not find sufficient markets to buy their goods.

Growth support industries The manufacturers needed the raw materials in a refined form for them in their production. [11] Therefore, this need prompted the creation of service industries that processed the raw materials in readiness for their final use in the production process. The creation of support industries hastened the production process and created more jobs for some of the people. The purpose of the support industries was to refine the raw materials and deliver to the manufacturers for use. Through the processing of the raw materials, the production process was faster as the refined materials went directly into final production. The service firms were developed by the manufacturers who wanted to improve the efficiency of their services so that they could increase their competitiveness.

The future of automation

Technological invention is on a rapid move forward. Technology companies invent new machines every who have improved capacity than those before them. Despite a large number of designs done to date, we are yet to see the last of technological innovations[12] Governments seem to be obsessed with technology perhaps to remain competitive in the wake of globalization. Many countries that have been for a long time admired for their steady economies now have to be wary of the technology-based economies that have made new introductions into the market. Countries such as America now have to deal with the loss of investments to countries where production is more manageable due to technological advances.

   

Figure 3: A robot waiter serves fruit to customers at a restaurant in Xuchang, central China’s Henan Province, China

While many manufacturers consider automating most of their operations, others plan to have all their activities conducted wholly using machines[13] For a long time, people thought that only manual jobs in the factories would be affected by automation as machines took over their careers. However, office workers have their positions at risk too as advanced computers take over their jobs. Some hotels in China have started using waiter robots to attend to customers [14] and help them check-in and out.

Some economists believe that the world has taken a prolonged recovery from the Great Recession and blame it on the automation. The middle class in any economy is responsible for its growth, but this critical role is eliminated by the use of machines and computers. When the middle class loses its income, it means that the amount of money circulating in the economy reduces.

    The technology market is full of different products. Technology offers manufacturers the advantage of being able to design or develop systems that suit their needs. Technology-based equipment is very costly and highly obsolete. A machine can be introduced today and be declared obsolete with the introduction of a better one. [15] Manufacturers can avoid buying new equipment with every presentation of the apparatus by ensuring they design machines that can upgrade to superior versions instead of replacing them entirely. Upgrading ensures the manufacturers avoid a new investment with little or no disruptions to their production activities.

    Governments have recognized the value of technology in their economies. Therefore we can expect governments to play an essential role in the development of technology by including it in its plans and policies. It is expected that the support from governments will spur growth in the technology sector. The American government has promised to do all it can to support technology investors to ensure manufacturers find affordable ways of doing their business and therefore retain their operations in the country.

    People seeking jobs do not have a very rosy future as there will be fewer jobs and more people vying for them. More factories will attempt to use automation for them to remain competitive which means new job opportunities will continue few while many in employment may lose their positions to automation. [16] Already, even professionals such as lawyers have started to use computers in place of clerks with very positive results. While the news of job losses paints a bleak picture, it is good to know that robots and other automated equipment still need people to monitor them. Therefore, job seekers can improve their chances of getting employed by learning to work using computer.

    While one may quickly condemn the use of robots and computers for causing job losses, it is not entirely so. It is true that automation leads to the loss of jobs, but it creates opportunities in others[17] Mechanization during the Industrial Revolution led to an increase in employment because of the service factories that supported the leading manufacturing firms. In modern times, the use of computers to search legal documents by lawyers means that their services become cheaper which attracts more clients. In the banking sector, the introduction of ATMs made banking services more affordable. As such, the banks had more profits to open new branches in areas they could not have ventured due to limitations of funds.

Conclusion

Industrial automation has been going on in many factories as manufacturers find a way to improve their production methods. The need for efficiency in the production is the primary motivator of technological innovations in industries. While automation has had various effects on industrial production, the main is probably the loss of jobs low-skill ones. Although some people have lost jobs to automation, it has also helped created others since robots need human monitoring to ensure they run as expected. New inventions get introduced in the market, and this trend is likely to continue into the future when new and better machines will be invented.

Endnotes

[1] Frank Adler, Automation and Industrial Workers : a Fifteen Nation Study 1,1 1,1 (Oxford [u.a.]: Pergamon Press, 1988)

[2]  J. Bessen, “The Automation Paradox,” The Atlantic, January 19, 2016, xx, https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2016/01/automation-paradox/424437/.

[3] C. S. Brown, “Khan Academy,” Khan Academy, accessed December 7, 2017, https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/big-history-project/acceleration/bhp-acceleration/a/the-industrial-revolution.

[4] “AI, Robotics, and the Future of Jobs,” Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech, last modified August 6, 2014, http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/08/06/future-of-jobs/.

[5] L. Columbus, “Ten Reasons to Automate Manufacturing Compliance,” IndustryWeek, last modified May 27, 2008, http://www.industryweek.com/companies-amp-executives/ten-reasons-automate-manufacturing-compliance.

[6] “Conversations: The Future of Industry – Is Automation an Opportunity or Threat for Developing Countries?,” | Independent Evaluation Group, accessed December 3, 2017, https://ieg.worldbankgroup.org/news/conversations-future-industry-automation-opportunity-or-threat-developing-countries.

[7] S. P. Chan, “This is what will happen when robots take over the world, “The Telegraph, November 15, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/economics/11994694/Heres-what-will-happen-when-robots-take-over-the-world.html.

[8]  D. Oberhaus, “Automation is Set to Hit Workers in Developing Countries Hard,” The Outline, last modified March 29, 2017, https://theoutline.com/post/1316/fourth-industrial-revolution-developing-economies.

[9]  S. Gold, “The Future of Work,” Industry Week, last modified May 12, 2015, http://www.industryweek.com/automation/future-work.

[10]  A. Mahdawi, “What jobs will still be around in 20 years? Read this to prepare your future,” The Guardian, June 26, 2017, xx, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jun/26/jobs-future-automation-robots-skills-creative-health. 

[11]  E. Kolbert, “Our Automated Future: How long will it be before you lose your job to a robot?,” The NewYorker, December 19, 2016, xx, accessed December 2, 2017, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/12/19/our-automated-future. 

[12]  A. Mahdawi, “What jobs will still be around in 20 years? Read this to prepare your future,” The Guardian, June 26, 2017, xx, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jun/26/jobs-future-automation-robots-skills-creative-health.

[13]  C. C. Miller, “The Long-Term Jobs Killer Is Not China. It’s Automation,” The New York Times, December 21, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/21/upshot/the-long-term-jobs-killer-is-not-china-its-automation.html. 

[14]  S. P. Chan, “This is what will happen when robots take over the world,” The Telegraph, November 15, 2015, xx, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/economics/11994694/Heres-what-will-happen-when-robots-take-over-the-world.html.

[15] B.R. Mehta and Y.J. Reddy, “Industrial automation,” Industrial Process Automation Systems, 2015, xx, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-800939-0.00001-2. 

[16]  “The Path to the Future of IIoT in Industrial Automation,” Robotics Online, accessed December 3, 2017, https://www.robotics.org/blog-article.cfm/The-Path-to-the-Future-of-IIoT-in-Industrial-Automation/32.

[17] Ray Zinn, “The Future Of AI And Automation In The Workforce,” Forbes, last modified September 21, 2017, https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2017/05/05/the-future-of-ai-and-automation-in-the-workforce/#1bf63a1a4e36.

Illustrations

Figure 1. Brown, C. S. “Khan Academy.” Khan Academy. Accessed December 7, 2017. http://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/big-history-project/acceleration/bhp-acceleration/a/the-industrial-revolution.

Figure 2. Chan, S. P. “This is what will happen when robots take over the world.” The Telegraph, November 15, 2015. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/economics/11994694/Heres-what-will-happen-when-robots-take-over-the-world.html.

Figure 3. Oberhaus, D. “Automation is Set to Hit Workers in Developing Countries Hard.” The Outline. Last modified March 29, 2017. http://theoutline.com/post/1316/fourth-industrial-revolution-developing-economies.